Which Was Not A Major Accomplishment Of Byzantine Culture


Which was NOT a ma…

History OpenStudy (anonymous): Which of the following was NOT a significant achievement of Byzantine culture? 1. manuscripts with illuminations 2. The Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) 3. The invention of the dome 4. the alphabet of the Cyrillic script Still in need of assistance? Join the QuestionCove group and learn while studying with your classmates! RegistrationOpenStudy (anonymous):@TheSmartOne @domebotnos @lexie 3 @domebotnos @lexie 3 @domebotnos @lexie 3 OpenStudy (anonymous): @Reptile Girl777 @ashhhrodriguez @adajiamcneal @emilybbydoll @adajiamcneal @adajiamcneal @adajiamcneal @adajiamcneal OpenStudy (king.void.

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the construction of the Moscow metro system 2.

  1. The Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) 4.The Code of Justinian @MH150654 is the identifier for the OpenStudy (anonymous).
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What is the greatest achievement of the Byzantine Empire? – JanetPanic.com

Byzantine historians believe that the preservation of Greek and Roman cultures was the most significant achievement of the empire. After the fall of the Roman empire and the tiny Greek kingdoms, historians believe that the empire maintained their cultures, therefore uniting the two civilizations.

What are some of the successes in the Byzantine Empire?

Some of the accomplishments of the Byzantine empire include protecting Europe from eastern invasions, preserving the Greek language, preserving Roman traditions, producing fine art with a distinct style, protecting the Christian Orthodox Church, and installing plumbing systems in their cities that are still in use today, among many other accomplishments.

What were the major accomplishments of the Byzantine emperor Justinian?

Empire’s first emperor, Justinian I, was an accomplished lawmaker. The sale of provincial governorships, known as suffragia, was forbidden throughout his reign, and he reformed the administration of the imperial government. The Codex Justinianus (commonly known as the Code of Justinian) was also supported by him, and the construction of numerous new cathedrals, notably the Hagia Sophia, was overseen by him.

What are 3 major accomplishments of Justinian?

Justinian, the last Roman emperor to rule in Latin, reigned from 527 to 565 and left a remarkable legacy that included the codify of ancient Roman law, the construction of the Hagia Sophia, and a tenacious campaign to recapture imperial territory in the west.

What was Justinian’s greatest accomplishment?

He governed until 565 and left an outstanding legacy that included the compilation of ancient Roman law, the construction of the Hagia Sophia, and a spirited drive to recapture imperial territory in the west. Justinian was the last emperor to rule exclusively in Latin.

  • Emperor Justinian the Great was responsible for the substantial expansion of the Byzantine Empire, as well as the conquest of Africa, Spain, Rome, and much of Italy
  • He was also in charge of the construction of the Hagia Sophia, which is considered the spiritual heart of Constantinople
  • And he was in charge of the conquest of most of Italy.

What is the best answer to describe Justinian’s most important and successful achievement?

Among Justinian’s most significant accomplishments was his decision to conduct a revision of Roman law. His assessment resulted in the publishing of the Corpus Juris Civilis (“Body of Civil Law”), which would go on to become the most definitive codification of Roman law in the following centuries.

What were some of Justinian’s failures?

Similarly to his military campaign against the barbarians, the ecclesiastical campaign he waged against his subjects’ Monophysitism in the Oriental provinces was a complete failure, as it completely failed to achieve the intended result of restoring the Catholic Church to oecumenical status, both in fact and in name.

What were Justinian’s major goals?

Justinian’s military objectives were to restore the empire’s glory and retake the lost western half of the ancient Roman Empire, which had been lost to the barbarians. He had some success in regaining control of Italy, sections of North Africa, and parts of Spain.

What was the significance of Justinian’s code?

For over nine hundred years, the Justinian Code served as the cornerstone of the Byzantine legal system, which was founded on it. The mission was accomplished, and the Byzantines were once again under rule and order. Despite the fact that the Byzantine Empire will be destroyed by the Ottoman Empire, the Justinian Codes’ influence had extended over much of Europe by this time.

What are three things that make the Hagia Sophia special?

The Hagia Sophia Has 13 Interesting Facts About It

  • The Hagia Sophia: 13 Interesting Facts

Who was responsible for enforcing the laws stated in the 12 tables?

The Laws of the Twelve Tables, which were written by the Romans in the first century AD, were the first attempt to build a system of law. A committee of 10 men (the Decemviri) was appointed (about 455 B.C.) to draft a code of law that would be binding on both patrician and plebeian citizens and that consuls would be responsible for enforcing.

Which group could be elected to the Senate for life?

It is the Consuls who are in charge of the affairs of the country.

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What were the consuls responsibilities?

The consuls were responsible for putting the decrees of the Senate and the legislation of the assembly into action as part of their executive responsibilities. When faced with a life-threatening situation, they may even act on their own authority and responsibility. The consuls were also the state’s top diplomats, representing the state’s interests across the world.

Which two purposes did consuls serve?

They were in charge of the forces. They were in charge of overseeing the operations of the government. They chose senators to represent them. They enacted legislation.

What was the most important power of the consuls?

Under the Republic, the position of head of government was held by two (2) elected consuls. Diplomatic Consuls were members of the Senate who were chosen to serve in the post of Consul for a one-year term, which was the highest position in the government under the Republic of the Philippines. The ability to govern the army was the most significant authority the consuls had.

What was the main purpose of having two consuls who only served one year?

The two men were chosen by the Comitia centuriata, a populace assembly in which the wealthiest members of the Roman society constituted the majority.

The consuls were only in office for a year (in order to prevent corruption), and they could only govern when they were all in agreement, because each consul had the power to veto the decision of the other.

Byzantine Empire

Frequently Asked Questions

When did the Byzantine Empire exist?

Some of the most common inquiries

The empire to 867

Some of the most frequently asked questions

Justinian Accomplishments – eNotes.com

Describe some of Justinian’s most significant achievements. Behind every great man there was a wonderful woman, according to an old proverb that has become well-known in the American vocabulary. Historians are practically unanimous in their belief that Justinian, the Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 527 to 565, was a magnificent man. His legislative changes enabled the Eastern Roman Empire to survive for over a thousand years after his death. Behind every great man there was a wonderful woman, according to an old proverb that has become well-known in the American vocabulary.

  1. His legal changes enabled the Eastern Roman Empire to survive for over a thousand years after his death, proving that he was a visionary.
  2. One of Justinian’s greatest achievements was his ability to find and keep a good wife.
  3. Justinian regarded her as though she were his intellectual equal, and the two of them, for all intents and purposes, shared authority over the empire.
  4. When Theodora’s impassioned plea to fight was heard, Justinian and his court were about to abandon the city in exile when she made her plea.
  5. While ruling as emperor, Justinian instituted significant changes in the domains of law, urban growth, and conquest.
  6. Theodora was a collaborator in these changes, and she was instrumental in persuading Justinian to change the status and obligations of women in the empire.
  7. Theodora would be credited by Justinian himself for her direction and leadership in these areas of the law.
  8. His willingness to recognize and develop Theodora’s abilities, as well as to give her a voice on his court, should be regarded as one of his most significant achievements.
  9. Between 527 through 565, Justinian was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from Constantinople.

It remained the eastern capital, and Constantinople developed into a major center for Byzantine trade and culture. Because of his numerous accomplishments, Justinian is unquestionably the most well-known of the Byzantine emperors.

  1. Assisted by his rich and powerful wife, Theodora, Justinian tried to recapture territories in the western Roman provinces of Asia and Africa. He was ultimately unsuccessful in his attempts to recover the whole Roman Empire, although he did make significant victories in the western hemisphere. His conquests extended as far west as the modern-day border of Macedonia in Europe and as far north as the midpoint of modern-day Libya in Northern Africa, according to historical records. His commander, Belisarius, played a critical role in the reconquest and development of the empire. Before Justinian, Constantinople had been destroyed by riots as a result of exorbitant taxes, which prompted the Code of Justinian to be implemented. Justinian codified Roman Law in order to put an end to the riots, rebuild the city, and restore order in the city. In order to organize the empire, he united the rule of law. The Hagia Sophia, a massive new church dedicated to Christianity in Constantinople, not only contributed to the rebuilding of the city, but it also contributed to the preservation of Roman culture in the eastern portion the Empire
  2. Not only did this aid in the reconstruction of Constantinople, but it also contributed to the preservation of Roman culture in the eastern portion of the Empire
  3. (at first, before the Seljuk Turks took Constantinople, changed the name to Istanbul, and made the Hagia Sophia a beautiful mosque, which it still it today). Its distinctive dome was an engineering wonder of its day
  4. While on his expansion efforts, the temporary capital of Ravenna became an important artistic center, and the city was decked with the distinctive Byzantine mosaics that were so popular at the period. The city of Ravenna has retained a large number of Byzantine cultural and artistic items

Images have been reviewed and approved by the eNotes Editorial Team. From 527 until 565, Justinian was the ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. In his lifetime, the Eastern Roman Empire underwent a transformation into the Byzantine Empire. Among Justinian’s most significant achievements were:

  • He made significant contributions to the expansion of the Byzantine Empire. When Justinian returned to power, he re-established the empire in territories that had previously been part of the Western Roman Empire. He conquered Italy and a large portion of the coast of North Africa, reaching as far as Spain
  • He codified the laws of the Romans. Numerous laws enacted by Roman legislators and edicts issued by emperors, as well as legal commentary written by legal academics and other types of legal writings, had been written down over the centuries. In order to establish Byzantine law, Justinian gathered all of these documents in one location and utilized them as the foundation. This codification would subsequently be utilized as the basis for legislation throughout Europe
  • He also had a significant amount of construction work done in Constantinople. The Hagia Sophia was the most significant of these structures, and it is still standing today. It is an exceptionally beautiful cathedral with a rich history.

The eNotes Editorial Team has given their approval.

Justinian and Theodora

  • Talk about Emperor Justinian the Great’s triumphs and failures in this lesson.

Key Points

  • Emperor Justinian the Great was responsible for a significant expansion of the Byzantine Empire, as well as the conquest of Africa, Spain, Rome, and much of Italy. He was also responsible for the construction of the Hagia Sophia, which is considered the spiritual heart of Constantinople and the center of Christianity. Even today, the Hagia Sophia is regarded as one of the world’s most magnificent structures
  • Justinian also codified the Roman legal code, which served as the foundation for the legal system in the Byzantine Empire
  • And he instituted a judicial system in the Byzantine Empire. Byzantines suffered major setbacks as a plague decimated their population. They lost both Rome and Italy to the Ostrogoths, and a number of significant cities to the Persians.
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A church constructed by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian; it served as the hub of Christianity in Constantinople and is now considered to be one of the greatest structures on the planet. It is presently used as a mosque in Istanbul, which is mostly Muslim.

Nika riots

The Emperor Justinian was arrested for detaining two prominent charioteers in 532 CE, and outraged racing fans, already enraged about growing taxes, grew enraged and attempted to topple him. Theodosius I (379-395), one of Constantine’s successors, was the last emperor to govern over both the Eastern and Western half of the empire at the same time. In the years 391 and 392, he issued a series of edicts that practically prohibited the practice of pagan worship. Access to all pagan temples and sites of worship, as well as participation in paganism’s festivals and sacrifices, was prohibited.

  1. In that year, the emperor Theodosius I died and left the imperial position to both of his sons, Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, demonstrating that the dynastic principle had been established with such a degree of certainty.
  2. This was due in part to a more firmly established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
  3. Theodosius II reinforced the city’s walls even further, making it impenetrable to most attacks.
  4. In order to keep the Huns at bay, Theodosius was required to give a massive yearly tribute to Attila.
  5. Following his death in 453, the Hunnic Empire was brought to its knees, and many of the remaining Huns were recruited as mercenaries by the Ottoman Empire.
  6. Through his support for the rising of the Isaurians, a semi-barbarian tribe who lived in southern Anatolia, Leo I was able to break away from the sway of the non-Orthodox chief.
  7. As a result of Leo’s death in 474, Zeno and Ariadne’s younger son Leo II ascended to the throne, with Zeno serving as regent.

Early in Zeno’s tenure, the Germanic Roman commander Odoacer removed the nominal Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, but refused to replace him with another puppet.

Justinian I, the Emperor of Constantinople, ascended to the throne in 527 CE.

He died in Constantinople in 1453.

Ravenna’s Basilica of San Vitale has a renowned mosaic depicting the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which is one of the city’s most visited attractions.

The Vandals had been in charge since 429 and had their capital at Carthage.

After that, in 535 CE, Justinian dispatched him to retake Italy from the Ostrogoths.

By 540 CE, Justinian had seized control of the majority of Italy. He dispatched another army to capture the country of Spain. During the reign of Justinian the Great, the Byzantine Empire reached its maximum size in 555 CE.

Accomplishments in Byzantium

In addition, Justinian was involved in a number of significant undertakings at home. During Justinian’s reign, a series of riots known as the Nika riots broke out in 532 CE, during which angry racing fans became enraged at Justinian for arresting two popular charioteers (though this was really just the last straw for a populace increasingly enraged over rising taxes) and attempted to depose him. Much of Constantinople was destroyed as a result. As soon as the disturbances were put down, Justinian started about re-building the city on a more expansive scale.

  1. The Hagia Sophia was a breathtaking piece of Byzantine architecture, designed to amaze anybody who entered the building.
  2. The Hagia Sophia is a church in Istanbul, Turkey.
  3. Today, it is widely regarded as one of the world’s finest structures, and this is the case even today.
  4. Prior to his rule, Roman laws varied from area to region, and many of them were in direct conflict with one another.
  5. Justinian appointed a panel of attorneys to compile a single code of laws, categorizing each law by subject so that it could be conveniently referred to in the future.
  6. Justinian’s law code has had a significant impact on public international law for centuries and continues to do so now.
  7. Byzantine merchants traded not just throughout the Mediterranean region, but also throughout the eastern Mediterranean region and beyond.


Theodora was the Empress of the Byzantine Empire and the wife of Emperor Justinian I. She reigned for a total of ten years. She was one of the most powerful and influential of the Byzantine empresses, and she was also one of the most popular. Some sources refer to her as the empress regnant, with Justinian I as her co-regent, while others refer to her as the empress regnant. She and her husband are both considered saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and their feast day is November 14. Theodora was a key participant in Justinian’s legislative and spiritual reforms, and she played a significant role in the expansion of women’s rights throughout her lifetime.

In Asia, she founded a convent called the Metanoia (Repentance), where ex-prostitutes could earn a living and be supported by the local community.

The death penalty for rape was imposed, as was the exposing of unwanted kids. Mothers were granted certain guardianship rights over their children, and the murdering of a woman who committed adultery was prohibited.

Justinian’s Difficulties

empress of the Byzantine Empire and the wife of Emperor Justinian I, Theodora reigned for a total of ten years from 410 to 480. Byzantine empresses were known for being strong and influential, and she was no exception. She is described as empress regnant, with Justinian I serving as her co-regent, according to certain accounts. On November 14, the Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates her and her husband as saints, who were both martyred in battle. In addition to participating in Justinian’s legislative and spiritual reforms, Theodora made significant contributions to the advancement of women’s rights.

In Asia, she founded a monastery called the Metanoia (Repentance), where ex-prostitutes may earn a living and be supported by their fellow nuns.

10 Things You May Not Know About the Byzantine Empire

The word “Byzantine Empire” became widely used in the 18th and 19th centuries, yet it would have been entirely foreign to the Empire’s original people at the time of its formation. The Byzantine Empire, in their eyes, was nothing more than an extension of the Roman Empire, which had simply relocated its seat of authority from Rome to a new eastern city in Constantinople. Despite the fact that they were mostly Greek-speaking and Christian, the Byzantines referred to themselves as “Romaioi,” or Romans, and they continued to adhere to Roman law while also enjoying Roman culture and sports.

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When the Turkish commander Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, he assumed the title “Caesar of Rome,” which he later abandoned.

2. Constantinople was purpose-built to serve as an imperial capital.

It was in 324 when the Emperor Constantine abandoned the deteriorating city of Rome and relocated his court to Byzantium, an old port city strategically placed on the Bosporus strait dividing Europe and Asia, marking the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. Constantine transformed the peaceful Greek colony into a bustling metropolis, complete with forums, public buildings, universities, and defensive walls, all within the space of only six years of his reign. He even had old Roman structures and statues transported to the city in order to solidify its position as the international capital.

3. Its most influential emperor came from humble origins.

The growth of Byzantium coincided with the improbable reign of Justinian the Great. A peasant’s kid, he spent his early years in the Balkans until being adopted by his uncle Justin I, a former swineherd and soldier who rose through the ranks to become the Byzantine Empire’s ruler. The Roman emperor Justinian succeeded his father in 527, and despite having a terrible accent that was indicative of his provincial background, he proved to be an exceptional ruler. As a result of his nearly 40-year reign as ruler of the Roman Empire, Constantine reclaimed vast swaths of lost Roman territory and embarked on ambitious construction projects, such as the reconstruction of Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia, a domed church that is now considered one of history’s great architectural achievements.

Perhaps most significantly, Justinian was in charge of collecting Roman law into the Corpus Juris Civilis, a compilation of jurisprudence that serves as the foundation of many current legal systems.

4. A riot by chariot racing hooligans nearly brought the Empire to its knees.

A fanatical—and sometimes violent—supporters’ group known as the Blues and the Greens existed in Byzantine chariot racing, much like modern sports franchises have diehard fans. The Blues and the Greens were named after the colors worn by their favorite teams and were a pair of fanatical (and often violent) supporters’ groups. However, in 532, unhappiness with taxes and the attempted execution of two of its leaders prompted them to come together in a brutal uprising known as the Nika Riots, which left a trail of destruction in their wake.

The Emperor Justinian was on the verge of fleeing the capital when his wife, Theodora, intervened and persuaded him that it was more honourable to fight for his throne.

As a result, there was a frenzied massacre.

5. Byzantine rulers were known to blind and mutilate their rivals.

Byzantine politicians tended to forgo murdering their opponents in favor of committing heinous acts of bodily mutilation on their opponents. Many would-be usurpers and ousted emperors were blinded or castrated in order to prevent them from leading soldiers or fathering offspring, while others had their tongues, noses, and lips cut off in order to prevent them from commanding forces or fathering children. Originally intended to prevent victims from vying for power (disfigured persons were historically excluded from imperial control), maiming failed to accomplish this goal on a number of occasions.

6. Its military used an early version of napalm.

Greece’s military victory against Byzantium was attributed in large part to the use of Greek Fire, a mysterious incendiary liquid that was used to set enemy men and ships on fire. This early napalm’s exact composition is lost to history; it might have contained everything from petroleum and pine resin to sulfur and saltpeter, but tales describe it as a viscous, sticky liquid that could be sprayed from siphons or flung from clay pots like grenades. The fire could not be doused with water once it had been started and might even burn on the surface of the sea.

7. The Empire gave rise to the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Greek Fire, a mystery incendiary liquid that was used to set enemy troops and ships ablaze, was credited with most of Byzantium’s military triumphs. Even though the exact recipe for this ancient napalm has been lost to history (it might have contained everything from petroleum and pine resin to sulfur and saltpeter), descriptions of it depict it as a viscous, sticky liquid that could be sprayed from siphons or flung from clay pots like grenades. The fire could not be doused with water once it had been started and could even burn on the ocean’s surface.

Greek Fire is most notably connected with the Byzantine fleet, which employed it to terrible effect against Arab and Russian invaders during sieges of Constantinople in the seventh, ninth, and tenth centuries, among other periods.

8. Its capital was sacked during the Crusades.

When Christian knights gathered in Venice for the Fourth Crusade in the early thirteenth century, it marked the beginning of one of the bloodiest episodes in Byzantine history. In order to retake Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks, the Crusaders were meant to sail towards the Middle East. However, due to monetary difficulties and tensions with the Orthodox Byzantines, they were persuaded to take a detour to Constantinople in order to restore an ousted Emperor to the throne. Having failed to secure funding for their voyage to the Holy Lands, the Crusaders carried out a brutal sack of Constantinople in 1204, in which they burned the city and carted away much of the city’s gold, art, and holy artifacts.

Despite the fact that the Byzantines eventually retook Constantinople in 1261, the Empire would never regain its previous splendor.

9. The invention of the cannon helped bring about the Empire’s fall.

Despite the fact that Constantinople’s high city walls had successfully held off invading Goths, Persians, Russians and Arabs for ages, they proved to be no match for rapidly evolving military equipment. Following their conquest of much of the Byzantine border in the spring of 1453, the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mehmed II laid siege to the capital with a collection of cannons that had been particularly built by a Hungarian engineer. The centerpiece of the arsenal was a 27-foot cannon that was so huge that it needed a team of 60 oxen to bring it across the battlefield.

It is said that the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI, threw off his imperial trappings and yelled out “the city is fallen, but I live!” before storming into combat was one among the thousands who perished.

10. The Byzantines preserved many of the writings of Ancient Greece.

If it hadn’t been for the Byzantine Empire, the writings of Greek intellectuals such as Plato, Ptolemy, and Galen may have been lost to history altogether. Despite their hostility toward so-called “pagan” beliefs, Byzantine scribes made careful copies of the ancients’ rotting manuscripts, and Constantinople’s libraries preserved Greek and Roman works that were rapidly becoming extinct in the West. In fact, it has been estimated that more than two-thirds of all ancient Greek manuscripts that have survived to the present day were handed down by the Byzantines.

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