- 1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
- 2 What Is Race?
- 3 What Is Ethnicity?
- 4 What Are Minority Groups?
- 5 Further Research
- 6 References
- 7 Defining intercultural communication
- 8 Our purpose is to transform access to education.
- 9 Culture definition
Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
You will be able to do the following by the conclusion of this section:
- Realize the distinction between race and ethnicity
- And Define a majority group (also known as the dominating group)
- Distinguish between a minority group (also known as a subordinate group)
The phrases “race,” “ethnicity,” and “minority group” are sometimes used interchangeably by students when they first attend a sociology course; nevertheless, to a sociology professional, these three terms have unique connotations. Although superficial physical distinctions are considered important by certain societies, the concept of race is used to allude to common cultural differences that are not considered relevant by others. Furthermore, the phrase “minority groups” refers to groups that are subservient or lack authority in society, regardless of their skin color or place of origin.
10% of nursing home employees admitting to physically assaulting an old person in the previous year, and 40% admitted to perpetrating psychological abuse against an elderly person in the same time period (World Health Organization 2011).
What Is Race?
Historical developments have shifted the notion of race across time, across cultures, and has grown increasingly disconnected from ancestral and family ties while becoming increasingly preoccupied with superficial physical qualities. In the past, race theorists have proposed classifications of race based on factors such as geographic location, ethnicity, skin color, and other characteristics. Their designations for racial categories have connoted geographic places (such as Mongolia and the Caucus Mountains) or skin tones (such as tan and brown) (black, white, yellow, and red, for example).
- Because of the neglect of the typology of race that formed during the early days of racial research, social construction of race has emerged as a more sociological approach of interpreting racial categories.
- Race is not physiologically distinguishable (Omi and Winant 1994; Graves 2003).
- The fact that contemporary perceptions of race are mostly founded on socioeconomic assumptions demonstrates just how far current understanding of race has strayed from its biological origins and characteristics.
- In spite of the fact that she is the daughter of a black man (Quincy Jones), her best-known performances are Ann Perkins on Parks and Recreation, Karen Filippelli on The Office, and Zooey Rice in I Love You Man, none of whom are black characters.
- Those who have high amounts of melanin yet live a middle-class lifestyle may perceive themselves to be “white.” In contrast, someone with low melanin levels may be ascribed the label of “black” if he or she has a lack of education or financial means to support themselves.
- It’s important to note that race, in this sense, is also a system of labeling that serves as a source of identity, with various labels being popular and then out of favor depending on the social epoch in which they are used.
For example, actress Charlize Theron is described as a “African American” with blonde hair and blue eyes. She was born in South Africa and subsequently became a citizen of the United States. Is she identifying as a “African American,” in the sense that the majority of us interpret the term?
What Is Ethnicity?
Ethnicity is a word that refers to a group’s common culture, which includes its customs, values, and beliefs. Among other things, this culture may have a common language, a common religion, and a common set of traditions. When it comes to ethnicity, much like race, it is difficult to define, and its definition has evolved through time. Individuals can be recognized or self-identify with ethnicities in a variety of ways, some of which are complicated and even contradictory, just as they can be identified or self-identify with races.
In contrast, the ethnic group British comprises citizens from a diverse range of racial origins, including black, white, Asian, and other races, as well as a number of race combinations, as seen in the chart below.
The designation of ethnicity, like race, continues to be used by individuals and organizations today—whether through the census, affirmative action efforts, anti-discrimination legislation, or just in personal day-to-day interactions between people.
What Are Minority Groups?
“Any group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who, as a result, perceive themselves as objects of collective discrimination,” according to sociologist Louis Wirth (1945). When used in sociological contexts, the term minority connotes discrimination, and the term subordinate group can be used interchangeably with the term minority, while the term dominant group is frequently used for the group that constitutes the majority.
- It is important to note that being a numerical minority is not a prerequisite for belonging to a minority group; bigger organizations can occasionally be deemed minority groups owing to their lack of political influence.
- Take, for example, apartheid in South Africa, when a numerical majority (the country’s black residents) was exploited and oppressed by a white minority that dominated the country.
- LBGTQ persons, religious practitioners whose faith is not commonly practiced where they reside, and people with disabilities are all instances of minority groups that should be considered.
- Many cases of scapegoating a subordinate group have been documented throughout history.
- Recent immigrants in the United States have frequently been used as scapegoats for the nation’s — or an individual’s — ills, particularly during times of economic hardship.
The disenfranchisement of immigrants has been implemented in many states, and these laws are popular because they allow the dominant group to demonize a subordinate group of people.
In its most basic form, race is a social construct. Ethnicity is a word that refers to the common culture and national origin of a group of people. Minority groups are defined by the fact that they lack political authority.
- If the term “minority” has endured despite the fact that the term “subordinate” is more descriptive, explain why. What would you use to characterize your ethnicity? Do you include the country of origin of your ancestors? Do you consider yourself to be a multi-ethnic person? Which ethnicity do you identify with more closely compared to the individuals you spend the majority of your time with
Group that has sway in a community, a group of people who wield greater authority than any of the subordinate groups culture shared by people of a particular race that may include heritage, language, religion, and other aspects a group of people who are different discrimination against a group of persons who are picked out from the others for separate and unequal treatment scapegoat theory is a view that a person or thing is being blamed for something.
It is hypothesized under this hypothesis that the dominating group will direct its misdirected animosity on a subordinate group.
school of thinking that holds that race is not physiologically distinguishable subordinate group (plural: subordinate group) People who are less powerful than the dominating group are referred to as the underdogs.
“What Is Race?” is a PBS website that provides information on many elements of race and ethnicity.
Caver, Helen Bush, and Mary T. Williams are among others who have contributed to this work. “Creoles” was released in 2011. Multicultural America: Countries and Their Cultures, which will be released on December 7th. On February 13, 2012, I was able to get a hold of some information (). The CNN Library has a variety of resources (February 22, 2014). “Trayvon Martin Shooting Fast Facts.” Trayvon Martin Shooting Facts. N.p., retrieved on October 9, 2014, from CNN US. Dollard, J., and colleagues (1939).
- Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
- Routledge Publishing Group, New York, NY.
- Columbia University Press is based in New York.
Linton’s The Science of Man in the World Crisis has a page count of 347.
Women are considered a minority group.
The World Health Organization published an article in 2011 titled “Elder Abuse.” N-357, Fact Sheet on the Environment.
Defining intercultural communication
In order to better comprehend the subject of this course, we will first define the word intercultural communication and then describe its significance. 7 It’s possible that you’ve heard the phrase “intercultural communication” a number of times before. The following are some frequently recognized academic definitions that we would like to share with you. It is the exchange of information between persons from two distinct cultural backgrounds that is known as intercultural communication. Intercultural communication is a symbolic, interpretative, transactional, and contextual process in which individuals from different cultures work together to generate common meanings and understandings.
Cultural variations can have an impact on the way a communication interaction is conducted in certain situations.
When academics and practitioners define what they mean by specific terminology, it is beneficial to all parties involved.
The phrase “intercultural communication” refers to a vast range of concepts that are difficult to convey in a single language. As a result, we give various workable definitions as a starting point for further investigation into this topic:
- It is the exchange of information between persons from two distinct cultural backgrounds that is known as intercultural communication. ChenStarosta (ChenStarosta, 1998:28)
- Intercultural communication is a symbolic, interpretative, transactional, and contextual process in which individuals from different cultures work together to generate common meanings and understandings. (2007) (LustigKoester, 2007:46) (LustigKoester, 2007:46)
- When people from various cultures communicate with one another, the term “intercultural communication” refers to the consequences on their communication behavior. In this approach, intercultural communication may be viewed as a process of communication that takes place in symbolic multicultural environments. (2013)
- (Arasaratnam, 2013:48)
Think about which of these descriptions best defines this concept and procedure for you, and then choose that definition. Is there any term or statement you’ve come across that you think we, and your fellow participants, would benefit from seeing? If so, please share your comments or other quotations with us (along with the author and source, if possible). Thanks! References
- L. A. Arasaratnam, et al (2013). Competence in intercultural communication is essential. Intercultural communication: Representation and production of culture, edited by A. Kurylo, is available online (Chap 3, pp. 47-68). SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, California
- Chen, G. M., and Starosta, W. J. (1998).
- M. W. Lustig and J. Koester (eds. ), Foundations of Intercultural Communication, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon (2007). Intercultural competency is the ability to communicate with people from other cultures (5th ed.). Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press is based in Shanghai, China.
This content is taken from a free web resource.
Intercultural Communication: Dynamics of cultural identities in global interaction
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- Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
- Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
- That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
- And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
- The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
- As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
- Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
- The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
- Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
- In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
- A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global
- s The distinctions are noted, but it is considered that accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be done readily. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.
- Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
- Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
- Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
- Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
- Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.
The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with. At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:
- The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
- On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.
MOUNTING CULTURAL DIFFERENCESA variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or multivariate methodologies, depending on the situation. After the domain of a concept has been empirically sampled, a single-measure technique is used to measure its domain; a composite-measure technique is used to construct an index for the concept after several indicators have been used to measure its domain after the concept has been empirically sampled. According to Hofstede (1997), a composite-measure approach has been developed to quantify cultural differences across various societies:
- A variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or composite-measure procedures, depending on the context. While a single-measure strategy makes use of a single indication to assess a concept’s realm of operation, a composite-measure technique makes use of numerous indicators to produce an index for a concept once its area of operation has been empirically sampled. Cultural differences across various civilizations can be measured using a composite-measure approach developed by Hofstede (1997).
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:
- Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.
Cultures grouped together:
- Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.
Determine the amount of global participation by asking the following questions:
- It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.
Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.
However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
[New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.
[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]