Which Of The Following Was Not An Important Part Of Both Olmec And Maya Culture

Which of the following was not an important part of both Olmec and Maya culture?

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8 Responses Questions 1 through 10: Fill in the blanks with an antonym for the word in question.

He’s been accused of stealing, but we don’t believe it.

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on January 9, 2022|

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One of the most compelling motivations to write is .

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Maya

It was about the sixth century A.D. that the Maya Empire, which was concentrated in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala, reached its zenith in terms of strength and influence. A remarkable quantity of spectacular architectural and symbolic artwork has been left behind by the Maya, who were masters of agriculture, ceramics, hieroglyph writing, calendar-making, and mathematics, among other things.

By A.D. 900, however, most of the Maya’s vast stone towns had been abandoned, and researchers have been debating what caused this precipitous collapse since the nineteenth century.

Locating the Maya

The Maya civilisation was one of the most powerful indigenous communities in Mesoamerica, and it flourished for thousands of years (a term used to describeMexicoand Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). In contrast to other Mesoamerican indigenous groups that were dispersed throughout the region, the Maya were concentrated in a single geographical block that included the entire Yucatan Peninsula and modern-day Guatemala; Belize; and parts of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas; as well as the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador.

Within that expanse, the Maya lived in three distinct sub-areas with distinct environmental and cultural differences: the northern Maya lowlands on the Yucatan Peninsula; the southern lowlands in the Peten district of northern Guatemala and adjacent portions of Mexico, Belize, and western Honduras; and the southern Maya highlands, which were located in the mountainous region of southern Guatemala.

The northern Maya lowlands were located on the Yucatan Peninsula; the southern lowlands were located in the Peten district of northern Guatemala and One of the most well-known Maya civilizations was that of the southern lowland region, which reached its zenith during the Classic Period of Maya civilization (A.D.

During this period, the Maya built the great stone cities and monuments that have fascinated explorers and scholars of the region for centuries.

Early Maya, 1800 B.C. to A.D. 250

The oldest Maya settlements date back to around 1800 B.C., which marks the beginning of what is known as the Preclassic or Formative Period of Maya history. The Maya were agriculturalists in the beginning, cultivating crops such as corn (maize), beans, squash, and cassava (manioc). Middle Preclassic Period, which spanned around 300 B.C. to approximately 300 A.D, Maya farmers began to increase their presence in both the highland and lowland sections of the country. The development of the Olmec civilisation, the first important Mesoamerican civilization, occurred during the Middle Preclassic Period.

Beyond agriculture, the Preclassic Maya exhibited further sophisticated cultural qualities like as pyramid-building, city-building and the engraving of stone monuments, which were examples of their advanced cultural traits.

Its scale surpassed that of the Classic Maya metropolis of Tikal, and the fact that it still exists demonstrates that the Maya were thriving millennia before the Classic Period began.

Cities of Stone: The Classic Maya, A.D. 250-900

The Classic Period, which began around the year 250 A.D. and ended around the year 500 A.D., was the heyday of the Maya Empire. It is estimated that the classic Maya civilisation expanded to 40 towns in all, including Tikal, Uaxactnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn It is possible that the Maya population reached 2,000,000 or perhaps 10,000,000,000 people at its height. Excavations at Maya sites have uncovered plazas, palaces, temples, and pyramids, as well as courts for playing the famed Maya ball gameulama, all of which were ritually and politically vital to the Maya society at the time of their discovery.

A basic sort of “slash and burn” agriculture was used by the Maya, but they also demonstrated signs of more complex farming technologies such as irrigation and terracing.

The kings, also known as “kuhul ajaw” (holy lords), were at the pinnacle of Maya civilization, claiming to be descended from gods and ruling through a system of hereditary succession.

Maya Arts and Culture

Many of the Classic Maya’s temples and palaces were built in the style of a stepped pyramid, and they were lavishly decorated with intricate reliefs and inscriptions. The Maya have gained their status as the great painters of Mesoamerica as a result of their buildings. Because of their religious ritual, the Maya made significant advances in mathematics and astronomy as well. These advancements were aided in part by the development of complex calendar systems such as the Calendar Round, which was built on a 365-day calendar system, and later the Long Count Calendar, which was built to last for more than 5,000 years.

A tiny section of their hieroglyphic writing system had been deciphered by the early to mid-20th century, and more information about their history and society had begun to emerge at that time.

Additionally, the Maya manufactured paper from tree bark and wrote in books made of this paper, known as codices; four of these codices have been discovered and are known to exist today.

Life in the Rainforest

When it comes to the Maya, one of the most remarkable aspects was their ability to establish a vast civilisation in the middle of a tropical rainforest climate. In the past, ancient peoples had thrived in drier climes, where the centralized control of water supplies (via irrigation and other techniques) served as the foundation of their societies. In the instance of the Teotihuacan of highland Mexico, who were contemporaries of the Classic Maya, this was the situation. Although there were few navigable rivers for trade and transit in the southern Maya lowlands, there was no evident need for an irrigation system in the region’s lowlands.

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Despite the fact that foreign invaders were disappointed by the region’s relative scarcity of silver and gold, the Maya took advantage of the region’s abundant natural resources, which included limestone (for construction), the volcanic rock obsidian (for tools and weapons), and salt (for preservation).

Other Maya valuables were found in the environment, such as jade, quetzal feathers (which were used to embellish the ornate robes of Maya royalty), and sea shells, which were used as trumpets in rituals and battle, among others.

Mysterious Decline of the Maya

Something strange happened between the late eighth and the end of the ninth centuries that shook the Maya civilisation to its very core. By A.D. 900, all of the Classic towns in the southern lowlands had been abandoned, and the Maya civilisation in that part of the world had come to an end. The cause of this strange fall is still a mystery, however researchers have produced a number of conflicting hypotheses to explain it. Some historians think that by the ninth century, the Maya had depleted the resources of the environment surrounding them to the point that it could no longer support a significant number of people.

  1. As the reverence for the holy lords waned, their intricate systems of rites and ceremonies were thrown into disarray, resulting in anarchy.
  2. When it comes to towns like Tikal, where rainwater is required for both drinking water and agriculture irrigation, a drought would have been particularly devastating.
  3. In the Yucatan’s highlands, a few Maya cities, such as Chichen Itza, Uxmal, and Mayapán, were able to maintain their prosperity during the Post-Classic Period (A.D.
  4. But by the time the Spanish conquerors arrived, the majority of Maya were living in agricultural villages, with their vast cities covered behind a thick blanket of green from the tropical rain forest.

Do The Maya Still Exist?

Descendants of the Maya continue to live in modern-day Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and parts of Mexico, where they are known as the Maya. The vast majority of them reside in Guatemala, which is home to Tikal National Park, which contains the ruins of the ancient city of Tikal, as well as other attractions. Guatemalans of Mayan descent account for approximately 40% of the population.

Source

The civilization of the Mayas. Stanford.edu.

Origins, unknown: where did the Maya empire really come from?

Photograph by Takeshi Inomata, courtesy of the University of Arizona The Maya’s astronomy, calendar, and apocalyptic prophesies have all been thoroughly recorded, but there is one aspect of Maya history on which experts are still divided: how the ancient society came to be. For many years, Maya scholars were divided between two competing ideas. The pre-Columbian culture, according to some, developed virtually on its own and without outside influence; others, on the other hand, believe it was a direct offshoot of the older Olmec civilization, which first appeared approximately 3,600 years ago in what is now the southern Gulf region of Mexico.

  • According to a study published today in the journal Science, the Maya most likely formed under the influence of not only the Olmec, but a variety of other cultures as well, according to the researchers.
  • Inomata and Triadan came to this result after seven years of research.
  • Previous excavations revealed that Ceibal’s structures were constructed a long time after those at La Venta, providing weight to those who claim that the Olmec were the genuine “mother culture” of the Maya civilization.
  • With the use of radiocarbon dating, he and his colleagues discovered that Ceibal’s oldest constructions predate La Venta by up to 200 years, indicating that the Olmec colony was not the dominant impact on the city.
  • In fact, the ceremonial buildings he discovered at Ceibal show a striking resemblance to those discovered at La Venta, which is no coincidence.
  • Inomata also discovered jade and other costly stones at Ceibal, indicating that both cultures committed ceremonial sacrifices in a similar manner to one another.
  • As Inomata said in an interview with The Verge, there is no such thing as a “Maya” or a “Olmec” as an one cohesive cultural block.

Early civilizations along Mexico’s Pacific coast, as well as those who settled in present-day Chiapas, a Mexican state that borders Guatemala, according to the study, were likely among people who lived in these groupings. “There was more than one genesis” for the Mayans, according to him.

  • Photo by Takeshi Inomata, University of Arizona
  • Photo by Takeshi Inomata, University of Arizona
  • Photo by Takeshi Inomata,

The exact source of this societal transformation is still up in the air. Inomata speculates that it may have something to do with the growth of maize-based agriculture, which is likely to have resulted in the creation of new social structures, or that it may have something to do with some form of political upheaval inside the Olmec civilisation, according to the author. Prior to La Venta, the city of San Lorenzo served as the Olmec cultural center, and it is possible that this transfer — and the resulting power vacuum — prompted a series of bigger transformations throughout the region.

It’s also uncertain whether Inomata’s research will have larger repercussions for what scientists presently know about Mayan culture and belief system than just this one study.

It is not known whether or if these rites were based on a calendar system in order to be effective.

As Inomata explained to reporters, “this is not only a study of one single civilisation.” “We also want to consider how human society has evolved through time, as well as how human civilization has progressed.” “Through the interaction of many groups, we have seen that considerable renovation and change may take place, as seen here.

Hidden Maya complexes hint that the famous calendar was already in use 3,400 years ago

These lidar photos depict San Lorenzo (on the left), an Olmec site that reached its height between 1400 and 1150 B.C., and Aguada Fénix (on the right), a Maya site that was largely inhabited between 1000 and 800 B.C., respectively. Both depict a layout of 20 rectangular platforms lining the plaza, which is comparable to the other. It is possible that this timekeeping system was already in existence before 1000 B.C. based on the fact that the fundamental unit for calculating days in later Maya calendars was 20.

There are 478 different complexes discovered by a recent research of ancient population centers in western Guatemala and southern Mexico, many of which appear to be modelled on a prototype city erected around 1400 BC.

Many of these complexes have never been identified, studied, or excavated until this point in time.

Inomata, an archeologist at the University of Arizona who was the study’s principal researcher, explained that they did not have a written calendar at the time of publication.

“Related: See photographs of the Maya complexes that have been concealed s

Maya calendars and Mesoamerican architecture

While it appears that the Maya calendar played a role in the construction of these sites, it is not the renowned calendar that some have said predicts the end of the world in 2012. That is the Maya Long Count calendar, which was created for the purpose of keeping track of extremely long periods of time. For shorter time spans, the Maya also employed the 260-day Tzolk’in calendar, which they used for religious ritual scheduling, and the Haab’ calendar, which is based on the Earth’s rotation around the sun and is 365 days long.

  1. Written variants of the Long Count calendar have been discovered dating back to A.D.
  2. Related: Photographs show a previously unknown Maya civilisation The archaeological sites identified by Inomata and his colleagues are, on the whole, substantially older than that estimate.
  3. 250, which marked the beginning of the Maya Classic era, which was the apogee of Maya civilization.
  4. According to Inomata, the number twenty appears to be a significant number, possibly indicating that the architects of these constructions were already employing the base-20 numbering system.
  5. According to Inomata, the day is either May 9 or May 10 in this part of Central America.
  6. That the architects were counting down to the zenith passage and maybe incorporating their conceptions of calendar time into their city centers is inferred from this observation.
  7. A lidar study discovered hundreds of additional ancient Olmec and Maya sites in southern Mexico and western Guatemala, according to the results of the survey.
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Regional relations

In addition, the new research provides a more complete picture of the development of civilisation in Central America. The research area includes both Maya-dominated areas as well as places that were once inhabited by the ancient Olmec civilization, who created huge stone heads and pyramids that were more than 100 feet (30 meters) tall. However, because of the lush vegetation, archaeology may be difficult, and the many mounds that conceal structures and artifacts blend with the surrounding terrain.

  1. Among the questions, according to Inomata, is whether the Olmec had an impact on the Maya or whether the Maya developed mostly autonomously.
  2. Another topic is whether or not social hierarchy played a part in the systematic construction of city center structures.
  3. But according to Inomata, fresh study reveals that many of these population centers were built by hunters, gatherers and farmers who may have relocated periodically or every few years, as opposed to permanent residents.
  4. “It’s not a society ruled by monarchs, but rather a group of individuals who gather together and work on a large project,” Inomata explained.

Aguada Fénix was most likely a ritual meeting place for the Maya, who are assumed to have lived in non-hierarchical, nomadic society at the time they created Aguada Fénix. Aguada Fénix was likely a ceremonial gathering site for the Maya. Photograph courtesy of Takeshi Inomat.) a)

Large-scale layouts

A more complete picture of how civilisation emerged in Central America is also painted by the new findings. A large part of the research area includes Maya-dominated areas as well as places that were once inhabited by the ancient Olmec people, who created massive stone heads and pyramids that were more than 100 feet (30 meters) tall. Archaeology, on the other hand, might be challenging because of the lush vegetation, and the many mounds that conceal structures and artifacts blend into the surrounding environment.

  • It’s unclear if the Olmec had an impact on the Maya, or whether they developed mostly independently, according to Inomata.
  • Another topic concerns the role played by social hierarchy in the systematic construction of city centers.
  • But according to Inomata, new study reveals that many of these population centers were built by hunters, gatherers and farmers who may have relocated periodically or every few years, rather than by permanent residents.
  • Rather than governing themselves, the people banded together to complete the massive undertaking, Inomata explained.
  • At the time of their construction, the Maya were believed to have lived in nonhierarchical, nomadic communities.
  • a)

Civilization.ca – Mystery of the Maya

The Maya calendar in its ultimate form goes back to around the first century B.C., and it is said to have originated with the Olmec culture. Although incredibly accurate, the Maya priests’ calculations were so precise that their calendar correction is 10,000th of a day more precise than the conventional calendar used by the rest of the globe these days. The Maya and other Mesoamerican calendar systems are the most complicated and convoluted of all the ancient calendar systems. They had two calendar years: the 260-day Sacred Round, ortzolkin, and the 365-day Vague Year, orhaab.

  • Every 52 years, the dates of these two calendars coincide.
  • The Sacred Round, which lasts 260 days, is made up of two smaller cycles: the numbers 1 through 13 and the names of the days, which are all distinct.
  • These are the names of the days of the week: Imix (Ik), Akbal (Kan), Chicchan (Cimi), Manik (Lamat), Muluc (Oc), Chuen (Eb), Ben (Ix), Men (Men), Caban (Cib), Eiznab (Cauac), and Ahau (Ahau).
  • Pop (on the left) and Zotz (on the right) are glyphs representing two of the eighteen months of theVague Year.
  • The two cycles of 13 and 20 are intertwined and continue indefinitely without interruption.
  • The day Imix would be numbered 8 Imix at this point in time, while the concluding day of this 260-day cycle would be numbered 13 Ahau.
  • The 260-day cycle may be responsible for tying together a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the configuration of Mars, Venus’ appearances, and eclipse seasons.

The 260-day calendar was intended to keep track of key events involving the gods and mankind in the universe.

Symbols and omens were associated with each day of the calendar year, and the relentless march of the 20 days served as a continual fortune-telling machine, guiding the Maya through their lives.

It is composed of 18 months of 20 days each, with an unlucky five-day period at the end.

The 18 Maya months are known as: Pop, Uo, Zip, Zotz, Tzec, Xuc, Yaxkin, Mol, Chen, Yax, Zac, Ceh, Mac, Kankin, Maun, Pax, Kayab, and Cumku, in that order.

The Maya solar new year is considered to have begun somewhere in our current month of July, with the Maya month of Pop, and ended sometime in our current month of December.

This is consistent with the Maya belief that each month has an impact on the next.

After the tzolkin and thehaab were linked together, the result was a longer cycle of 18,980 days, or nearly 52 solar years.

The 52-year cycle, on the other hand, was insufficient for measuring the continuous passage of time through the centuries.

akin(one day); auinal(a month of 20kins); atun(a year of 360kinsor 18uinals); akatun(20tuns); abaktun(20tuns); abaktun(one year of 360kinsor 18uinals); abaktun(one year of 360kinsor 18uinals); (20katuns,or 400 years).

It took eachanaltun 64 million years to complete one cycle.

The year 3114 B.C.

of our current calendar is used to determine the date of its creation.

The Maya calendar utilized five digits in this order to designate a date: baktun, katun, tun, uin, and kin, in that order.

It has been 1,374,951 days (about 3,764 solar years) since the beginning of the last Creation, which took place at the Mayacalendar round point of 10 Chuen, 4 Kumku, since the beginning of the last Creation.

651 or 652, which is our current year.

Many of the deeds of gods committed during mythical times were reenacted by Maya monarchs, frequently on theanniversary of the original occurrence, which was meticulously calculated by Mayapriests and recorded in the calendar.

Examples include Maya monuments that record the dates of events that occurred 90 million years ago, while others foretell events that will take place 3,000 years in the future, among other things.

Among other things, the Maya believed that a person’s birthday or day-sign determined his or her fate throughout their lives.

Gods with more favorable traits were deemed fortunate; a kid born under the protection of a well-wishinggod was considered fortunate.

Many academics have pondered why the Maya calendar was so complicated in the first place.

Because of this, there was no requirement for the general public to comprehend the calendar, and it could be as detailed as the priests desired.

This group of priests juggled many cycles of time and estimated when a number of these cycles would occur simultaneously.

Olmec Civilization

The Olmec civilisation, which flourished in ancient Mexico, existed from around 1200 BCE to approximately 400 BCE in Pre-Classical (Formative) Mesoamerica. Olmec culture was characterized by monumental religious complexes, gigantic stone sculptures, ball games, the use of chocolate, and the worship of animal gods, all of which were passed down to the peoples that followed this first major Mesoamerican civilisation. Olmec influence and commercial activity stretched from their heartlands in the Gulf of Mexico (now the states of Veracruz and Tabasco) as early as 1200 BCE, extending as far south as present-day Nicaragua and as far north as present-day Guatemala.

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The Olmec Enigma

Pre-Classical (Formative) Mesoamerica was dominated by the Olmec civilisation, which flourished from around 1200 BCE to approximately 400 BCE in ancient Mexico. Olmec culture was characterized by monumental religious complexes, gigantic stone sculptures, ball games, the use of chocolate, and the worship of animal gods, all of which were passed down to the peoples that followed this first major Mesoamerican civilisation. Since 1200 BCE, Olmec influence and commercial activity have extended along the Gulf of Mexico, extending as far south as present-day Nicaragua.

The demolition of many Olmec sites’ monuments occurred between 400 and 300 BCE, and it is thought to have been intentional.

OlmecCities

It was the lush and well-watered coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico that helped the Olmecs to flourish at first, allowing them to cultivate crops such as maize and beans (which were typically harvested twice a year), resulting in an agricultural surplus that allowed them to prosper. They also, no sure, took use of the abundant local supply of plant food, palm nuts, and sea life, which included turtles and clams, among other things. In the first millennium BCE, large urban centers grew in San Lorenzo (the earliest), La Venta, Laguna de los Cerros, Tres Zapotes, and Las Limas, among other places.

Trade products typical of the Olmec period included obsidian, jade, serpentine (a kind of jade), mica, rubber, ceramics, feathers, and polished mirrors made of ilmenite and magnetite (a type of magnetite).

Around 900 BCE, the site of San Lorenzo shows signs of deliberate devastation, whilst La Venta, on the other hand, began to grow, eventually becoming the new capital and supporting a population of over 18,000.

For example, in La Venta, the structures are arranged symmetrically along a north-south axis with four giant heads facing outwards at important locations, ostensibly acting as guards to the complex.

In addition to a massive ceremonial step pyramid (now a shapeless mound), a sunken plaza that was once lined with 2-metre-tall basalt columns, and two smaller pyramids/mounds, the site contains features that would be replicated time and time again at the major sites of later Mesoamerican cultures with whom equal attention was paid to the precise alignment of buildings.

Do you enjoy history? Subscribe to our free weekly email newsletter! The Colossal Head of the Olmec In this photograph taken at the de Young Museum of Fine Arts in San Francisco, Mary Harrsch is depicted (CC BY-NC-SA)

Religious Beliefs

It was the lush and well-watered coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico that allowed the Olmecs to flourish at first, allowing them to cultivate crops like as maize and beans (which were typically harvested twice a year), resulting in an agricultural surplus. Additionally, they most likely took use of the abundant local supply of plant food, palm nuts, and marine life such as turtles and clams, among other resources. In the first millennium BCE, large urban centers grew in San Lorenzo (the earliest), La Venta, Laguna de los Cerros, Tres Zapotes, and Las Limas, among other locations.

  • Obsidian, jade, serpentine, mica, rubber, earthenware, feathers, and polished mirrors made of ilmenite and magnetite were some of the typical Olmec trade items.
  • 2001 (Madman) is a fictional character created by the fictional character Madman (CC BY) It is possible that an early ball court was built on one of the man-made hills, and that carved basalt drains ran through one of those hills.
  • Around 900 BCE, the site of San Lorenzo shows signs of deliberate devastation, whilst La Venta, on the other hand, began to thrive and eventually became the new capital, supporting a population of over 18,000.
  • In these settlements, it is the pre-meditated architectural layout of their religious centers that is the most striking.

A massive ceremonial step pyramid (now a shapeless mound), a sunken plaza once lined with 2-metre-high basalt columns, and two smaller pyramids/mounds are among the features that would be replicated time and again at the major sites of later Mesoamerican cultures, with whom equal attention was paid to the precise alignment of buildings, such as the Maya.

Enjoy learning about the past?

Largest Head of the Olmec In this photograph taken at the de Young Museum of Fine Arts in San Francisco, Mary Harrsch is shown (CC BY-NC-SA)

Olmec Art

Large stone heads, which were manufactured by the Olmec culture, are unquestionably the civilization’s most stunning legacy. These were carved out of basalt and each one has a distinct set of facial characteristics, which allows them to be regarded portraits of genuine monarchs. There have been reports of the heads being about 3 meters high and weighing 8 tons, and that the stone from which they were carved had been brought 80 kilometers or more, most likely on giant balsa river rafts. There have been 17 discoveries, with ten of them coming from San Lorenzo.

  • The reason that these massive sculptures solely portray the head may be explained by the idea held by Mesoamerican cultures that the head was the only part of the body that contained the soul.
  • Many of these carvings are found near cave openings, and the majority of them represent sitting rulers, like at Oxtotitlan, where a figure wears a green bird costume, and Chalcatzingo, where another monarch sits on her throne among a maize field.
  • Intriguingly, the Olmecs frequently buried their sculptures, including enormous works, maybe as part of a ceremonial act of remembrance and commemoration.
  • Jade and ceramic were also popular materials for sculpture.
  • He is one of the gods who was most frequently depicted in small sculpture, and he is one of the most popular (another feature seen in the gods of later cultures and representing the paper and rubber sap strips which were burnt during rites as the smoke was thought to propitiate rain).
  • The jade has been crafted to portray a were-jaguar monster with just jade tools, and then polished, maybe with a jade abrasive, to get the desired appearance.

It was common to see animals depicted in paintings, especially the more formidable ones such as jaguars and eagles. Intriguingly, the Olmecs frequently buried their sculptures, including enormous works, maybe as part of a ceremonial act of remembrance and commemoration.

Legacy in Mesoamerica

The Olmecs had an impact on the civilizations they came into touch with across Mesoamerica, notably in pottery and jade sculpture. Objects with Olmec images have been discovered in Teopantecuanitlan, which is 650 kilometers away from the Olmec heartland, demonstrating this. Numerous deities portrayed in Olmec art and mythology, such as the sky-dragon (a kind of caiman monster with flame eyebrows) and the feathered serpent god, would return in subsequent faiths in a recognizable form. For the Maya and the Aztecs, the snake-god, in particular, would be turned into the main gods Kukulcan and Quetzalcoatl, respectively.

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