Which Of The Following Is True About People’s Responses To Popular Culture

Ch 7-8 Flashcards

Regarding people’s reactions to popular culture, which of the following statements is correct? People are frequently uninformed about the intricate nature of popular culture. What was the initial impetus for the exporting of popular culture from the United States? The choice to utilize it to promote items made in the United States What exactly does the term “cultural imperialism” allude to? The domination of popular culture forms from the United States around the world A/an is a term that refers to information on the average age, gender, and income of a magazine’s audience.

Existing preconceptions are reinforced by popular culture.

People who haven’t had the opportunity to experience it yet_ has been reconceived as pop culture.

Methods through which marginalized social groups are able to express themselves in new, nonmainstream ways are discussed.

When individuals disagree over a preferred or end state, they are said to be participating in conflict.

The conflict styles of persons from individualistic societies are not characterized by which of the following characteristics?

Ch. 7 – Subjecto.com

Which of the following is true about people’sresponses to popular culture? PEOPLE ARE OFTEN UNAWARE OF THE COMPLEX NATURE OFPOPULAR CULTURE
Those systems or artifacts that most people shareand that most people know about are known as_. POPULAR CULTURE
What initially motivated the exportation of USPopular culture? THE DECISION TO USE IT TO ADVERTISE U.S PRODUCTS
In the study of white and black job applicants, howdid interviewers who were influenced by negative stereotypes of Blacks differin in their behavior? THEIR SPEECH DETERIORATED
To what does cultural imperialism refer? THE DOMINANCE OF U.S. POPULAR CULTURAL FORMSTHROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
_ produces products of popular culture (e.g.,movies, cartoons, Hello Kitty) as commodities that can be economicallyprofitable. THE CULTURE INDUSTRY
Intercultural communication scholars are interestedin popular culture because MOST PEOPLE RELY ON POPULAR CULTURE FOR INFORMATIONABOUT OTHERS
Details concerning the average age, sex, and incomeof a magazine’s readership is known as a/an _. READER PROFILE
Which statement is not true about popular cultureand information about cultures? PEOPLE TEND TO THINK POPULAR CULTURE PRESENTS TRUEINFORMATION ABOUT THEIR OWN CULTURE
ACCORDING TO A STUDY ON HOW INTERVIEWERS RESPOND TOBLACK AND WHITE JOB APPLICANTS, BLACK JOB APPLICANTS
Which statement is true about popular culture andstereotypes? POPULAR CULTURE REINFORCES EXISTING STEREOTYPES
African American female characters who often appearas scenery in the background of television shows serve to perpetuate STEREOTYPES
Which of the following is true about how peopleresist cultural texts? REFUSAL TO PARTICIPATE IN POPULAR CULTURE IS ONEFORM OF SHOWING RESISITANCE
which of the following is true about the NavajoG.I. Joe doll?
Who tends to be most influenced by popular cultureportrayals of another cultural group? PEOPLE WHO HAVE LIMITED EXPERIENCE WITH THE OTHERGROUP
The impact that U.S. and Western media have had onthe rest of the world is known as _. MEDIA IMPERIALISM
_has been RE-conceptualized as popular culture LOW CULTURE
Electronic colonialism is DOMINATION OR EXPLOITATION UTILIZING TECHNOLOGICALFORMS.
Cultural Imperialism is_ DOMINATION OR EXPLOITATION USING TECHNOLOGICALFORMS
Popular Mexican American music in Los Angelesillustrates THE WAYS IN WHICH MARGINALIZED CULTURAL GROUPS AREABLE TO EXPRESS THEMSELVES IN INNOVATIVE, ALTERNATIVE WAYS
The fact that we are bombarded with popular cultureevery day and everywhere illustrates that it is _, a characteristic ofpopular culture. UBIQUITOUS
Which of the following is not true about theconsumption of popular culture? UNPREDICTABILITY IN ADVERTISING HAS BEEN REMOVEDTHROUGH CONSUMER PROFILING
which of the following is not true about resistingpopular culture? CULTURAL POLITICS ARE RARELY A FACTOR
The power relations of using media to market U.S.goods through movies on foreign screens are referred to as _. CULTURAL IMPERIALSIM
Portrayals of readership that give the average age,gender and household incomes are known as_. READER PROFILES
Domination or exploitation of other culturesutilizing technology is known as _. ELECTRONIC COLONIALISM
There is a great deal of research on why U.S.television programs are so successful in other cultures. FALSE
People resist the use of popular culture as a forumfor dealing with social issues. FALSE
Cultural groups are generally depicted accuratelyin popular culture. FALSE
The U.S film industry makes more money on theirfilms outside the U.S. than they do inside. TRUE
Generally a large number of people have to beinterested in something for it to be considered popular culture. FALSE
White American are so often portrayed in popularculture that it is difficult to stereotype them. TRUE
When non-American watch television shows forentertainment (such as CSI or Desperate Housewives), they don’t consider thestory a reflection of American reality. FALSE
Most language teachers encourage the use of popularculture to improve language skills because it teaches slang and inappropriatespeech varieties. TRUE
American television programs that cross culturaland linguistic frontiers are successful because they appeal to basic humanvalues. FALSE
Television is less a reflection of reality than aforum for discussing and working out ideas on a variety of topics. TRUE

cultural globalization

Regarding people’s reactions to popular culture, which of the following statements is true? Popular culture is often misunderstood because of its complexities. In the beginning, what was the driving force behind the exporting of popular culture from the United States was unclear. Using it to promote US products was a conscious move. Culture Imperialism refers to what, exactly? Throughout the world, American popular culture forms have dominated. A/an is a term used to describe information about a magazine’s audience, such as the average age, gender, and income of those who read it.

  1. Existing preconceptions are bolstered by popular culture.
  2. _For those who haven’t had the pleasure of experiencing it yet_ has been reconceived as popular culture.
  3. Methods by which marginalized social groups are able to express themselves in nontraditional, inventive ways.
  4. Conflict is defined as a perceived or real incompatibility of objectives, values, expectations, or procedures between two or more independent parties.
  5. Nonresistant reaction reposes such as avoidance or dealing with conflict indirectly are more likely to be used by those who see conflict to be a threat to interpersonal and communal peace.

The conflict styles of persons from individualistic societies are not characterized by which of the following traits?

Emergence of global subcultures

Others believe that a primitive form of world culture is taking shape among a group of people who share similar beliefs, goals, and lifestyles. Ultimately, this results in a collection of elite organizations whose uniting goals transcend geographical boundaries.

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“Davos ” culture

Among these cadres, according to political scientist Samuel Huntington in his book The Clash of Civilizations(1998), is an elite group of highly educated people who work in the rarefied spheres of international banking, media, and diplomacy. Another such cadre is the military. These “Davos” insiders are named after the Swiss town that began holding annual sessions of the World Economic Forum in 1971, and they share shared ideals about individualism, democracy, and market economy with the rest of the world.

The international “faculty club”

Globalization of cultural groupings is not restricted to the upper classes alone, as some may believe. The sociologist Peter L. Berger remarked that globalization of Euro-American academic agendas and lifestyles has resulted in the formation of a worldwide “faculty club”—an international network of people who share similar values, attitudes, and research goals—in his discussion of Davos culture. Despite the fact that they are not as wealthy or privileged as their Davos counterparts, members of this international faculty club wield tremendous power through their affiliation with educational institutions around the world.

A good example of this, according to Berger, is the anti-smoking campaign, which began as a purely North American obsession in the 1970s and has now extended to other areas of the world, going down the paths of academia’s worldwide network.

Nongovernmental organizations

Another worldwide grouping consists of “cosmopolitans,” who foster an intellectual understanding for the cultures of their own countries. Specifically, according to Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, this group proposes a perspective of global culture that is focused not on the “replication of uniformity,” but rather on the “organization of variation.” Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are in the forefront of efforts to conserve cultural practices in the developing world are frequently cited as proponents of this viewpoint.

Native American groups are encouraged to perceive themselves as “first peoples,” a new global designation emphasizing the common experiences of exploitation shared by indigenous inhabitants of all lands.

By the beginning of the twenty-first century, institutions such as Cultural Survival were operating on a global scale, drawing attention to indigenous groups. These non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have globalized the effort to conserve indigenous world cultures by refining their identities.

Transnational workers

Another category has emerged as a result of the increase in the number of multinational workers. Arjun Appadurai, an anthropologist who was born in India, has conducted research on English-speaking professionals who can trace their roots back to South Asia but who live and work in other parts of the world. They circulate in a social environment that has numerous home bases, and they have acquired access to a unique network of persons and possibilities as a result of their participation. Examples include numerous software engineers and Internet entrepreneurs who live and work in Silicon Valley, California, but who have residences in – and strong social links to – Indian areas such as Maharashtra and Punjab, for example.

Culture industry – Wikipedia

In 1947, the critical theorists Theodor Adorno (1903–1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895–1973) coined the term “culture industry,” which was first used in the chapter “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), in which they proposed that popular culture is analogous to a factory producing standardized cultural goods—films, radio programs, magazines, and so on—that are used to manipulate mass People become docile and satisfied as a result of their consumption of the simple pleasures of popular culture, which are made available to them through mass communication media, no matter how tough their economic circumstances are.

According to Adorno and Horkheimer, the inherent danger of the culture industry is the cultivation of false psychological needs that can only be met and satisfied by the products of capitalism; as a result, mass-produced culture was seen as particularly dangerous to the more technically and intellectually difficult high arts by Adorno and Horkheimer.

The Frankfurt School

In 1947, the critical theorists Theodor Adorno (1903–1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895–1973) coined the term “culture industry,” which was first used in the chapter “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), in which they proposed that popular cultureis analogous to a factory producing standardized cultural goods—films, radio programs, magazines, and so on—that are used to manipulate mass No matter how tough their economic circumstances are, people become docile and comfortable as a result of their consumption of the simple pleasures of popular culture made available through mass communications medium.

According to Adorno and Horkheimer, the inherent danger of the culture industry is the cultivation of false psychological needs that can only be met and satisfied by the products of capitalism; as a result, mass-produced culture was seen as particularly harmful to the more technically and intellectually difficult high arts by Adorno and Horkheimer.

Authentic psychological needs, on the other hand, are freedom, creativity, and real happiness, which correspond to an earlier delineation of human wants, as defined by Herbert Marcuse, and which are referred to as the “three C’s.”

The theory

Specifically, the development of cultural material in capitalist countries is the subject of this article. It calls out the exorbitant nature of cultural economics as well as the items that appear to be of lesser quality produced by the system. As argued by Horkheimer and Adorno, mass-produced entertainment seeks to appeal to a large number of people and hence provides both the intellectual stimulation provided by high art and the fundamental liberation provided by low art by its very nature.

Horkheimer and Adorno draw persistent parallels between fascist Germany and the American cinema industry in their writings and lectures.

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Dominance in post-Enlightenment contemporary society, whether by monopoly capitalism or the nation state, is illustrated by this logic of dominance.

Influences

It is possible that Adorno and Horkheimer’s work was affected by both the larger socio-political setting in which it was created and by other significant thinkers at the time of its composition. The Culture Industry is a novel written in California in the early 1940s during a time when they were perceived as two ethnically Jewish, German émigrés. It is influenced by European politics and the war that devoured the continent at the time of its writing. A parallel development was the emergence of studio monopolization in the American film industry, which was described as “Hollywood at its most classical, American mass culture at its most Fordist.” Horkheimer and Adorno were profoundly inspired by important developers of social, political, and economic theory, including, but not limited to:

  • Theories of alienation and commodity fetishism developed by Karl Marx
  • The concepts of instrumental reason developed by Max Weber, as well as Georg Lukacs’ idea of the reification of consciousness

Elements

Anything a person creates is a manifestation of their efforts as well as a statement of their aspirations. In addition, there will be a use value: the benefit to the consumer will be derived from the usefulness of the product. The value of the currency will be determined by its utility and the conditions of the market, such as the prices paid by the television broadcaster or the rates charged at the box office. Modern soap operas, on the other hand, with their interchangeable stories and formulaic storytelling tropes, are a reflection of standardized production processes, as well as the diminishing worth of a mass-produced cultural commodity.

  • Scott as the titular American general, was released at a period when there was strong anti-war feeling in the United States of America.
  • Dialectics was used to create a situation where the viewer might connect with the patriotism either seriously (the thesis) or cynically (the antithesis), and this helped to establish the tone for the rest of the film’s interpretation.
  • Due to the fact that the subtext was instrumental rather than “value-free,” ethical and philosophical questions must be considered.
  • As Adorno points out, a picture like Patton is popular art that seeks to stir up controversy in a world of social order and unity that, in Adorno’s opinion, is devolving into cultural blandness.
  • But what happens if the established order is disturbed?
  • Karl Marx’s theory of Historical Materialism was teleological, which means that society progresses via a dialectic of unfolding phases, from ancient modes of production to feudalism, capitalism, and finally to a future communist society.

Adorno, on the other hand, believed that the culture industry would never allow a significant core of challenging content to emerge into the market in order to disrupt the existing quo and promote the eventual establishment of a communist state.

Mass culture

The idea of “the Enlightenment as Mass Deception” is a focal point of the Dialectic of Enlightenment, and it is one of its central themes. The phrase “culture industry” is meant to refer to the commercial marketing of culture, the part of industry that is explicitly concerned with the creation of culture, as opposed to “genuine culture,” and the branch of industry that deals with the commercial marketing of culture. In their view, industrially created culture robs individuals of their creativity and takes over their thinking for them, as Horkheimer and Adorno argue.

  • Everything becomes homogenized as a result of mass manufacturing, and the little variety that exists is made up of minor inconsequential details.
  • Sublimation is no longer conceivable since psychological urges have been fueled to the point of no return.
  • They are formed in such a way that they as nearly as possible represent the truths of reality.
  • No matter how out of the ordinary the filmmakers attempt to be, the endings of their films are typically predictable due to the existence of previous films that followed the same schemas.
  • All undertakings become increasingly focused on achieving financial success.
  • Culture that is authentic nurtures the ability of human imagination by giving suggestions and possibilities; yet, authentic culture does so in a different way than culture that is manufactured, in that it allows for individual thought.
  • Authentic culture is one-of-a-kind and cannot be crammed into any pre-existing frameworks.

This, on the other hand, cannot be described as culture or as what culture is meant to be.

When it comes to the culture sector, the argument is sometimes thought to be essentially gloomy in character since its advocates appear to decry “mass media” and their audiences.

On the contrary, such mass engagement is just a semblance of democracy, or a sort of democratic participation that appears to be genuine.

“The cultural business continually defrauds its users of the things that it perpetually promises,” says the author.

Behold, the works of art have become commodified: Beethoven, Mozart, and Wagner are only utilized in fragmented form when they are used in advertising.

“Today’s culture is infecting everything with a sense of sameness.” Subversion, according to Adorno and Horkheimer, has ceased to be a possibility.

Observations

It is said by Professor Wiggershaus that “the other side of Adorno’s seemingly paradoxical description was ignored: that logical objectivity could still be achieved for the modern work of art, in any major sense, only as a result of subjectivity.” Adorno’s political relevance would be diminished in this context, according to the argument that politics in an affluent society is more concerned with action than with ideas.

  1. He also observes that Adorno’s work is generally ignored by the younger generation of critical theorists, which he attributes in part to Adorno’s incapacity to derive practical inferences from his theoretical framework.
  2. He agreed with Marx’s basic Marxist theory of society, which demonstrated how one class exerts dominance over another, but differed with Marx in his failure to employ dialectics as a tool of proposing alternatives for social transformation.
  3. Adorno’s belief that the majority of the population is nothing more than a collection of objects for the entertainment business is connected to his belief that the moment when the working class might be used as an instrument for toppling capitalism has passed.
  4. These critics consider the formation and reinforcement of elitism to be a component of the function played by genres such as opera and ballet, but only to a certain extent.
  5. Music critic Alex Ross stated in The New Yorker in 2014 that Adorno’s theory had a newfound significance in the digital era, arguing that “The pop hegemony is nearly complete, with its celebrities controlling the media and wielding the economic clout of tycoons to their advantage.
  6. Scholar Taking inspiration from Adorno, Jack Zipes took aim at the mass consumerism and corporate hegemony that underpin the Harry Potter series.
  7. Zipes noted the following in his examination of Harry Potter’s worldwide brand: “It must adhere to the norms of exception established by the mass media and pushed by the cultural business as a whole to be considered acceptable.

It is necessary for a person or product to adhere to the hegemonic groups that define what constitutes a phenomena in order to be considered a phenomenon “.

See also

  • A sector of the economy devoted to relaxation and tourism, the leisure industry is defined as A cultural critic is a professional who evaluates the norms and behaviors of a society in a reasonable manner.
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References

  1. H. Horkheimer and Adorno (p.107)
  2. Marcuse, Herbert (p.107) (1966). Eros and civilization: a philosophical investigation of the work of Sigmund Freud (4. pr. ed.). Durham (2003) p.66
  3. Durham (2003) p.68
  4. Durham (2003) p.70
  5. Durham (2003) p.71
  6. Scannel (2007), p.45
  7. Scannel (2007), p.47
  8. Scannel, Paddy (2007, p.45). Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. p.136.ISBN 978-0807015544
  9. AbDurham (2003) p.66
  10. Durham (2003) p.68 (2007). Media and communication are important. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, p. 37. ISBN 9781412902687
  11. Hansen (1992), p. 46
  12. Scannell (2007), pp. 37–44
  13. Adorno, Theordor, and Max Horkheimer, Adorno, Theordor, and Max Horkheimer, Adorno, Theordor, and Max Horkheimer, Adorno, Theordor, and Max Horkheim (2002). In Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments, there is a section titled “Enlightenment as Mass Decption.” Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 94.ISBN0-8047-3633-2
  14. s ^Adorno, Theordor
  15. Horkheimer, Max (2002). (2002). In Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments, there is a section titled “Enlightenment as Mass Decption.” Page 106. ISBN 0-8047-3633-2 (Stanford University Press). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. See for an examination of the interplay between the economics and the goals of culture in the framework of dialectics. See Lincoln, Charles for further information. The Dialectical Path of Law in 2021, to be precise. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  16. AbBehrens, Roger (2002). Theoretical critique. abHorkheimerAdorno, page 145
  17. AbHorkheimerAdorno, page 129
  18. AbHorkheimerAdorno, page 145
  19. AbHor Rolf Wiggershaus was the author, while Michael Robertson was the translator (1995). The Frankfurt School’s history, philosophies, and political relevance are all explored in this article (1st MIT Press pbk. ed.). 513 ISBN 978-0262731133 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)
  20. Alex Ross and Ross, Alex (8 September 2014) “The Naysayers: Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, and the Critique of Pop Culture” is a collection of essays by Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, and others. The New Yorker, to name a few publications. In Zipes (2002), page 175 it is stated that Sticks and Stones: The Troubled Success of Children’s Literature from Slovenly Peter to Harry Potter
  21. Sticks and Stones: The Troubled Success of Children’s Literature from Slovenly Peter to Harry Potter

Bibliography

  • John Durham Peters is a writer and poet (2003). A Study in Subtlety by Horkheimer and Adorno The Polity Press, Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-7456-2934-6
  • Hansen, M. Cambridge: Polity Press, ISBN 978-0-7456-2934-6
  • (1992). In this paper, Adorno, Derrida, and Kracauer discuss mass culture as hieroglyphic writing. New German Critique.56(56)
  • Horkheimer, Max, and Adorno, Theodor W. New German Critique.56(56)
  • Horkheimer, Max, and Adorno, Theodor W. (2002). Noerr, Gunzelin Schmid, and Gunzelin Schmid (ed.). Philosophical fragments from the Dialectic of Enlightenment (PDF). Edmund Jephcott was in charge of the translation. San Francisco, California: The Stanford University Press (ISBN 978-0804736336), 2004. On June 14, 2017, a PDF version of this document was made available for download. Scannell, Paddy (August 2016)
  • Retrieved 4 August 2016. (2007). Media and communication are important aspects of everyday life. SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-1-4129-0269-4
  • London, UK: SAGE Publications.

Continuation of Reading

  • T. W. Adorno’s Negative Dialectics is a seminal work in the history of philosophy. Adorno, T.W.A Sample of Adorno’s ideas on the culture industry and popular music (Archive)
  • Adorno, T.W.A Sample of Adorno’s ideas on the culture industry and popular music (Archive)
  • Adorno, T.W.A Sample of Adorno’s ideas on the culture industry Stanford University Press is a publishing house based in Stanford, California. Cook, D. The Culture Industry Revisited (2002
  • Cook, D. The Culture Industry Revisited). Hesmondhalgh, D. The Cultural Industries (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996)
  • Rowman & Littlefield (1996). Sage Publications, 2002
  • Scott, Allen J., The Cultural Economy of Cities, 2002. Sage Publications (2001)
  • Steinert, H.Culture Industry (2001). Wiggershaus, R. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance (Cambridge: Polity, 2003)
  • Wiggershaus, R. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance Adorno on Popular Culture, by R.W. Witkin, published by the MIT Press in 1994. (2003, 2003)
  • Routledge, 2003

External links

  • T. W. Adorno’s Negative Dialectics is a seminal work in the field of critical theory and philosophy. Adorno, T.W.A Sample of Adorno’s ideas on the culture industry and popular music (Archive)
  • Adorno, T.W., and Horkheimer, M.Dialectic of Enlightenment (New York: The Seabury Press, 1973)
  • Adorno, T.W.A Sample of Adorno’s ideas on the culture industry and popular music (Archive)
  • Adorno, T.W., and Horkheimer, Stanford University Press is a scholarly publishing house based in Stanford, California. Cook, D. The Culture Industry Revisited (2002
  • Cook, D. The Culture Industry Revisited) D. Hesmondhalgh’s book, The Cultural Industries, was published by Rowman & Littlefield in 1996. Scott, Allen J., The Cultural Economy of Cities (Sage Publications, 2002)
  • Sage Publications, 2002. (2006)
  • Steinert, H.Culture Industry (2001)
  • Sage (2002). Wiggershaus, R. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance (Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2003)
  • Wiggershaus, R. (1994)
  • Adorno on Popular Culture, edited by R.W. Witkin, MIT Press (1994)
  • (2003, 2003)
  • Routledge

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