Study: Humpback whales aren’t learning their songs from one another
BUFFALO, New York — Humpback and bowhead whales are the only animals known to modify the songs they sing over time, with the exception of humans. This is assumed to be due to a process of cultural learning. However, it’s possible that the humpbacks are no longer a part of that triad. It is possible that humpback whales are singing tunes that are not as “cultured” as previously supposed. New research by a University at Buffalo researcher clearly contradicts the commonly recognized cultural transmission concept, which suggests that whales acquire their songs from other whales, according to the findings of the study.
Neither cultural transmission nor social learning, according to our data, has a substantial impact on the way humpback whales adapt their songs over time.
9) in the Journal of Comparative Psychology, researchers looked at songs generated by groups of humpback whales that were not in auditory contact with one another but yet created acoustically equivalent songs.
“However, this appears not to be the case.” “However, what the whales are doing is far more spectacular in my opinion,” she says.
- In other words, it doesn’t matter what is heard or what is reproduced in any way.
- The melodies evolve over time in a way that is even more exact than what people do when they learn to communicate through language.” In the case of shifting whale song, the brilliant club DJ serves as a perfect metaphor.
- “They must consider beat matching, pace, and mood in order to sustain a continuous flow.” When they make adjustments, they do it in light of what came before them.
- Everyone population is distinct, and each takes its music in an own path.
- “I compare songs that have been there for 40 years with populations that have never come into contact with one another, and they’re both doing roughly the same thing,” says the author.
- The cultural transmission theory is appealing in part because it is difficult to envision what mechanism may be responsible for the variance in song lyrics.
- Songs that have the sound of a human snoring would be included in the “snore” genre of music.
- “I didn’t categorize anything at all, and I just utilized acoustic measures,” Mercado explains, adding that he intentionally picked publicly available records of data to prevent any allegation that he was cherry-picking information.
- This research indicates that whales are clever in ways that researchers and spectators were not previously aware of, according to Dr.
- ‘What we’re hearing is an extraordinary degree of acoustic complexity that is much beyond the capabilities of humans.’ That is something that ought to be recognized as well as further investigated.
“I’d like to investigate why whale music changes, as well as the potential benefits of this transition.”
Direct Care Staff Training:Meeting the Care Needs of Residents in a Culturally Diverse Environment
Introduction: You might be wondering: Why do I need to know about the many cultural origins of the people who live here? Being more conscious and respectful of the cultural distinctions among residents will enable you to better respect individual residents, give help in ways that are culturally comfortable to residents, and build meaningful connections with them. Many individuals from a variety of various origins have come to reside in the United States over the course of our history. Many people have migrated to the United States throughout the years from various regions of the world to establish a permanent base of operations.
- There are people who follow a variety of religious traditions.
- Many people have distinct ideas and values, as well as various methods of speaking and thinking, depending on their cultural background.
- What exactly is culture?
- The “truths” that are accepted by members of a group are referred to as culture.
- They are passed on to us by other members of the group.
- It is something that we do not consider in the traditional sense.
- Those beyond the age of 60, for example, are considered to be the most revered age group in various societies.
The oldest member of the family is accorded the highest level of respect.
Older individuals take great pride in their years.
Other cultures, on the other hand, place a higher importance on youth than on old age.
Hair coloring and plastic surgery may both be utilized to keep a young appearance, according to the experts.
Children occupy a unique position in the family hierarchy.
Aspects of attitudes and actions connected to caring for older adult members of families change between cultures, as seen by some of the findings.
In the United States, such expectations are less widespread.
Our own culture is extremely essential since we have a tendency to perceive other people’s actions through the lens of our own culture.
We even interpret their actions based on our own expectations of what they should do.
The most essential thing to understand about cultural differences is that they are neither good nor evil; they are neither right nor wrong.
Direct care workers must be sensitive to, and tolerant of, cultural variations in their patients.
Many cultural differences may be traced back to differences in how we speak and listen.
We will now study about communication skills and how they relate to cultural differences in the next section.
According to research, when Americans converse with one another, they prefer to look each other squarely in the eyes when they are talking.
It is a symbol of decency and courtesy.
If the individual is speaking to someone who is in a position of authority, such as a doctor or nurse or someone who is caring for someone, this is especially relevant.
Looking down to the ground or at the ground may be a manner of expressing respect for the person in charge.
When you are giving them directions, they may not look you in the eyes for the entire time that you are speaking.
Direct eye contact between a man and a woman is considered a sexual invitation in various cultures of the Middle East.
Use of direct and indirect communication techniques: Another variation across cultures is the preference for direct rather than indirect communication approaches.
They have a reputation for being upfront, honest, straightforward, and exact.
If you have a disagreement with someone or anything, it is acceptable to talk directly about the issue and attempt to resolve it.
People in many cultures, on the other hand, prefer to communicate in an indirect manner.
Consequently, one may choose to communicate with the other person in a convoluted manner to inform them of the situation.
Instead of outright stating that there is an issue, the resident may make a suggestion that there is a problem.
If you are unsure, it is advisable to ask questions in order to try to comprehend the message that the resident is truly attempting to communicate.
Those from various cultures, notably those from Asia, may strive to avoid saying “no.” The usage of the word “no” may lead the other person to feel embarrassed.
It might simply suggest that the other person has heard what you have to say.
The usage of first names is another area where we find cultural variances in the way people address one another.
This is true even whether they are meeting someone for the first time or have just known them for a short period of time.
However, in certain cultures, addressing someone by their first name is considered a gesture of deference.
The use of a formal title assists the individual in maintaining a feeling of dignity.
When it comes to touching, another area where there are cultural variations is how we interact with one another.
The quantity of physical contact that is deemed proper varies from culture to culture, though.
Persons from Latino origins, on the other hand, may be considerably more comfortable with informal touching and embracing than people from other backgrounds.
Religious regulations may also place restrictions on physical contact.
Muslims are subject to a similar restriction.
Consequently, it is not appropriate for a female direct care staff member to be angry if she offers her hand to meet an Orthodox Jewish or Muslim guy and he does not extend his hand in return to shake hers.
It’s possible that he’s merely following the precepts of his faith.
Many people in the United States feel most at ease when they are roughly an arm’s length apart from the next person.
Other cultures, such as Latino and Arab cultures, on the other hand, are highly comfortable with individuals standing very near to one other.
Few, if any, people will be familiar with every aspect of any culture.
This may enable you to be more sensitive in the future.
It is critical to understand when distinct cultural habits and practices come into conflict with one another.
In order to ensure that you comprehend the significance of conduct that appears to be out of place, ask questions.
Stereotypes: Stereotyping is one of the things that might get in the way of us being polite to others.
Structural stereotypes are a mode of thinking that does not take into consideration the variations between persons in a group of people.
While some elderly individuals are feeble and unwell, many older people are robust, active, and in good health, despite the fact that they are becoming older.
“All of the lads who reside in the inner city are members of gangs,” says the author.
Structural stereotypes assist us in organizing enormous quantities of information into a limited number of categories.
We make the error of assuming that everyone in the group exhibits the same features, which is incorrect.
Even the most positive stereotypes do not apply to every member of a group.
If you do not take the time to consider the real possibility that the resident with whom you are working does not fit into a stereotype, you may fail to treat him or her in a respectful and appropriate manner, which may result in negative consequences.
It is always a mistake to generalize about people based on their physical appearance.
Making an attempt to communicate with persons whose first language is not English can be challenging. The following recommendations may be of assistance.
- Use clear, concise language and speak a little slower than you normally would. We have a tendency to speak rapidly at times. For those who are fluent in English, the rapid pace may not be an issue. However, moving at a slower speed will offer non-English speakers more time to comprehend your message
- Avoid shouting. Raising your voice or yelling will not help people comprehend what you’re saying. Speak with a natural tone of voice and with clear pronunciation of your words. Avoid using slang or jargon
- Avoid using terms that are too close together. Many of the idioms used by Americans are understood by individuals who are familiar with our culture. Those from different cultures, on the other hand, may find them difficult to comprehend. Some examples include: “It was a piece of cake to do the work.” “Thank you a million times.” “It was a great time celebrating my birthday with everyone.” Expressions like this may only cause confusion in the minds of those who are just learning the English language. Draw visuals or demonstrate through demonstrations in addition to the written word. These strategies may be beneficial in increasing comprehension. Pay close attention to how you seem. Take note of the individual with whom you are conversing’s facial expression, the usage of his or her arms, or other motions. These may assist you in determining whether or not the other person understands what you are saying.
Think about how your words could be perceived by someone who is unfamiliar with your own language. 2006 – The year 2006
Practice Quiz for What is Culture?
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