Which Of The Following Is Not True Of A Collectivist Culture

Multiple Choice Quiz

  1. A. modify your communication style so that it is more closely aligned with individuals of different cultures. By obtaining understanding about different cultures, we may eliminate ambiguity and work together to discover common ground. d. all of the foregoing
  1. A. modify your communication style in order to better communicate with people from other cultures. By collaborating to discover common ground, you can lessen uncertainty and learn more about different cultures. d. any and all of the preceding options
  • There is no distinction between individualist and collectivist societies in terms of which of the following is not true:
  1. A. Self-promotion is favored in collectivist societies, as opposed to individualistic ones b. An individualist culture is characterized by a communication style that is devoid of context. In an individualist educated society, public speaking abilities are seen as advantageous. Collective cultures place a great importance on harmonious relationships.
  1. A. Individualist cultures place a larger importance on personal aims and wants than collectivist cultures, whereas collectivist cultures place a higher value on community objectives and needs. B. The terms “responsibility,” “loyalty,” and “commitment” indicate collectivist cultural norms. In contrast to collectivist societies, individualist cultures are preferable than collectivist cultures. Both of these statements are correct.
  1. It is defined as follows: A. an acquired set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are held by a discernible, substantial group of people who have shared history. b. the most firmly held and widely held perspective of what is judged good, proper, or useful thought or conduct by the majority of the population. c. what a person believes to be true or likely to occur. d. a group of individuals who live in a dominant culture but who retain ties to another cultural background
  2. Or
  1. Anglo-Americanabroadly-Scandinavian (Norway, Sweden, Finland) c. West Africand. a and b are both correct
  • Australia has a strong sense of individualism in its culture. As a result, you might conclude that they are as well
  1. A. a culture with a low power distance b. a culture of high-contextual communication c. a high level of power-distance cultured. none of the options listed above
  1. 1. a culture with a low power distance b. a communication culture that is highly contextualized. no. none of the above
  2. C. a high power-distance cultured
  • Choose the assertions about civilizations that are correct from the list below:
  1. A. The majority of the world’s population is concentrated in ethnocentric culturesb. Ethnocentric civilizations are only seen in North American and Western European cultures. To some extent, every civilization is ethnocentric in some way. There is widespread agreement that direct, unambiguous communication is preferred to indirect, implicit communication across cultures.
  • A. The majority of the world’s population is concentrated in ethnocentric cultures.b Ethnocentric civilizations are only seen in North American and Western European societies. A certain amount of ethnocentrism exists in every society. The belief that direct, clear communication is superior than indirect, implicit communication is shared by all civilizations.
  1. A strongly collectivist culture is characterized by the following characteristics: b. a culture that is strongly individualistic Cultured at short ranges of power
  2. B and c are both true.

Understanding Collectivist Cultures

Collectivist cultures place a greater emphasis on the needs and aims of the group as a whole than they do on the wants and ambitions of individual members. Relationships with other members of the group, as well as the interconnection of individuals, play an important part in the formation of each individual’s identity in such cultures.

Collectivistic Culture Traits

Among the characteristics of collectivist civilizations are the following:

  • In many cases, people describe themselves in terms of their relationships with others (for example, “I am a member of.”). Loyalty within the group is promoted. Determinations are made on the basis of what is best for the group. It is crucial to work as a team and to provide assistance to others. Rather than individual interests, a greater focus is placed on achieving collective goals. The rights of families and communities take precedence over the rights of an individual.

China, Korea, Japan, Costa Rica, and Indonesia are examples of countries that are comparatively more collectivistic than others. If a person demonstrates generosity, helpfulness, dependability, and attention to the needs of others, they are seen as “good” in collectivistic societies. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, tend to place a larger premium on attributes such as assertiveness and independence, which might be counterproductive.

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Individualistic civilizations are frequently compared with collectivist cultures in academic literature. Individualism is concerned with the rights and interests of each individual, whereas collectivism is concerned with the value of the group. Individualistic societies stress independence and personal identity above unity and selflessness, whereas collectivist cultures value unity and selflessness over individualism. These cultural differences are widespread and can have a significant impact on a wide range of aspects of how society runs.

Workers who live in a collectivist society, for example, may attempt to sacrifice their personal happiness for the greater welfare of the collective in order to achieve greater success.


It is common to compare and contrast collectiveist and individualistic civilizations. Individualism is concerned with the rights and concerns of each individual, whereas collectivism emphasizes the value of the group. Individualistic societies stress independence and personal identity over unity and selflessness, whereas collectivist cultures favor unity and selflessness over these attributes. These cultural differences are widespread and may have a significant impact on a wide range of areas of society’s functioning, including education and employment.

Workers who live in a collectivist society, for example, may be motivated to sacrifice their personal satisfaction in order to benefit the collective as a whole.


According to the findings of the research, collectivist societies are related with poor relational mobility, which is defined as the number of options individuals in a society have to develop relationships with others of their choosing in that community. When there is little or no relational mobility, it suggests that people’s connections are solid, robust, and long-lasting. These types of relationships are typically developed as a result of variables such as family and geography, rather than as a result of personal choice.

People who are strangers in a collectivistic society are more likely to stay strangers in a collectivistic culture than they are in individualistic cultures.

This is most likely due to the fact that changing these connections is incredibly tough.

According to the inverse of this, individuals in individualistic cultures put out extra effort and energy into actively sustaining intimate connections, which is generally accomplished through higher self-disclosure and greater closeness.

When compared to collectivist societies, where strong interpersonal connections are more anticipated, interpersonal interactions in individualistic cultures are more problematic and weak. People must put out additional effort in order to keep these connections going.


In addition, cultural differences have an impact on the drive to either stand out or blend in with the rest of the group. In one experiment, individuals from different cultural backgrounds, including American and Japanese, were instructed to choose a pen. The bulk of the pens were the same color, with the exception of a couple that were different colors. The majority of participants from the United States preferred the brightly colored pen. However, the Japanese participants were considerably more likely to chose the majority color, even if they liked the distinctive hue, as opposed to the other participants.

Social Anxiety

According to research, collectivistic societies are more supportive of socially hesitant and withdrawn tendencies than individualistic ones. In one study, participants from these cultures had higher degrees of social anxiety as compared to people from individualistic cultures, according to the findings. However, it is possible that collectivist beliefs were not the only factor in this development. Persons in collectivist nations in Latin America, for example, showed lower levels of social anxiety than people in collectivist countries in East Asia, according to the findings.

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Social Support Use

According to research, collectivistic societies are more accommodating of those who are socially hesitant and retreat from social situations than other cultures. The participants in one study reported higher degrees of social anxiety when compared to those from individualistic cultures, according to the findings. It is possible, however, that collectivist beliefs were not the only factor in this development, as previously stated. Persons in collectivist nations in Latin America, for example, showed lower levels of social anxiety than people in collectivist countries in East Asia, according to the study.

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Individualism & Collectivism

Cultures influence how we perceive and interact with other people, as well as how we perceive and interact with ourselves. The contrast between individualism and collectivism is one of the most generally acknowledged divisions between different types of civilizations. Individualism places a high priority on one’s own independence. It is more common for individuals in individualist societies to “view themselves as distinct from others, identify themselves based on their particular features, and perceive their attributes as relatively constant and unchanging.” The “interior” of an individualist’s concept of self is more important than the “outside,” with less emphasis placed on external elements such as circumstances and other individuals in the individual’s life.

  1. Individualists prefer to communicate in indirect ways — they say what they mean and place a high value on information that is given plainly and unambiguously — rather than directly and explicitly.
  2. Personal interdependence is highly valued in a collectivist society.
  3. When it comes to collectivism, a person’s sense of self is determined more by their relationships with other individuals or their participation in a group.
  4. It is common for them to communicate in indirect ways —collectivists indicate what they truly mean, but may say something different in order to avoid confrontation or public disgrace.
  5. In collectivist societies, the individualist notion of having a more unchanging, true private self is not as alluring as it is in individualist cultures.
  6. Inversely, to someone who is more individualistic, the collectivist demand for social agreement and collaboration may appear stiflingly conformist, and vice versa.
  7. You shouldn’t assume that someone is an individualist simply because their cultural background is individualist.
  8. Even within a very collectivist culture, there will be individuals who are more individualistic in their outlook.

It is more prevalent in heterogeneous groups and environments for people to be adaptable. The desire to participate in intercultural interaction is partially motivated by this desire: we want to absorb diverse cultural frameworks and learn how to apply them in relevant societies and settings.

1.3.4 – Individualist or Collectivist

1.3.4 – Individualist or CollectivistIndividualist or CollectivistTheway you responded to the Sharing theRewards exercise tells you something about how you feel regarding individualachievement and reward. Most Americanschoose to divide the available pool in a disproportionate way; they do notgenerally divide the money equally. Thistendency to stress either individuality or a more collective response is oneof the most widely distributed traits around the world. Not every culture is at one end or the otherof the spectrum, but the majority tend to favor one over the other in everydaylife. Knowing about the basis of this Collectivism versus Individualism constructwill help you to recognize, understand, and anticipate attitudes in differenttypes of cultures.Individualist� The individual identifies primarily with self, with the needsof the individual being satisfied before those of the group. Looking afterand taking care of oneself, being self-sufficient, guarantees the well-beingof the group. Independence and self-reliance are greatly stressed and valued.In general, people tend to distance themselves psychologically and emotionallyfrom each other. One maychooseto join groups, but group membershipis not essential to one�s identity or success. Individualist characteristicsare often associated with men and people in urban settings.Collectivist�One�s identity is, in large part, a function of one�s membership and role ina group, e.g., the family or work team. The survival and success of the groupensures the well-being of the individual, so that by considering the needsand feelings of others, one protects oneself. Harmony and the interdependenceof group members are stressed and valued. Group members are relatively closepsychologically and emotionally, but distant toward nongroup members. Collectivistcharacteristics are often associated with women and people in rural settings.

Look at the list of characteristicsand behaviors given below. If you decide the statement ismore likelyto apply to people living in an individualist culture, write “I”in the underlined blank space; if you think it is characteristic of acollectivist culture, write “C.”Characteristicsand Behaviors
1. People answer the phone by giving the name of the organization.
2. People give cocktail parties.
3. Inter-group rivalry is strong.
4. Employee-of-the-year awards are offered.
5. People adhere to tradition.
6. People are promoted based on production and results.
7. Contracts in business are used frequently.
8. There is a need for autonomy.
9. People change jobs frequently.
10. People believe that conflict clears the air.
11. There is a need for affiliation.
12. Short-term relationships are common.
13. It�s okay to stand out.
14. Face-saving is important.
15. It�s common for mothers to ask their preschoolers what theywant to wear each day.
16. Self-help books are popular.
17. Decisions are made by consensus.
18. The language has one word for mother�s brother, another forfather�s brother.
19. Marriages are arranged.
20. People have potluck dinners.

Why Your Understanding of Collectivism Is Probably Wrong

Consider the following scenario: you’ve won a 2-week, all-expenses-paid trip to a far-off nation. While you aren’t sure where you are, the people around you inform you that you are in a collectivistic culture. What pictures come to mind when you think about it? Are the folks kind and helpful? Are they assisting you and being cooperative? Do they have a strong sense of belonging to their friends and family? If that’s what your gut is telling you, you’re not alone. When I moved to Beijing, it was the intuition that had been hidden away in my brain.

It’s a part of our standard operating procedures.

In the 1990s, cultural psychologists, the majority of whom were located in North America and Europe, devised questionnaires to assess collectivism in different cultures throughout the world (e.g., Singelis, 1994).

  • “When I work with people, I get a good sense of accomplishment.” [quote]”I enjoy sharing small things with my neighbors.”

After the scales were written, the next stage was to ensure that they were accurate and dependable. The surveys passed the statistical reliability tests in a short period of time. People who agreed with the statement “I feel good when I work with others” were more likely to share their possessions with their friends and neighbors. So far, everything is going well. Researchers went out to investigate civilizations all around the Pacific Ocean, armed only with dependable tests and instruments. They began by compiling a list of collectivism-related distinctions that experts were quite certain existed (e.g., Heine, Lehman, Peng,Greenholtz, 2002).

  • The Untold Story of Cultural Psychology Within 20 years, researchers had completed enough investigations to be able to pool them all together and do a meta-analysis on the results.
  • America, the country of the cowboy, was more collectivistic than Japan in its social structures (Oyserman, Coon,Kemmelmeier, 2002).
  • Those in the United States were more collectivistic than people in each of those countries.
  • Perhaps the numbers were correct, but people’s assumptions were incorrect – perhaps Japan and China aren’t genuinely collectivistic societies after all!
  • Our Microscopes Have a Design Flaw However, the majority of responses steered clear of that tack.

For example, researchers have discovered compelling evidence that people in Japan unconsciously compare themselves to other (supposedly collectivistic) Japanese people, resulting in a lower evaluation of their own collectivism than they would otherwise have (Heine, Lehman, Peng,Greenholtz, 2002).

  1. The premise was that individuals in some cultures just tend to agree more than they do otherwise – they are more acquiescent.
  2. In order to resolve this issue, researchers would need to make adjustments to their findings, statistically adjusting for the degree to which individuals prefer to agree.
  3. Doing “my own thing” might mean different things to different people.
  4. Researchers suggested that the solution to this problem was to create scales regarding certain occurrences (Peng, Nisbett,Wong, 1997).
  5. If we could only get our microscopes to work properly, we might be able to discover the truth.
  6. However, there is one thing that all of these theories have in common: they are concerned with our microscopes rather than our notions.
  7. Researchers who looked in the proper areas have already discovered a few indications that had been scattered.

Tight links and the sharing of irrigation water in the hamlet bred both harmony and discord in the community.

“Even while tensions exist under the surface, passions are strong, and grudges are still held, the surface of the relationship is managed to reflect harmony.” Another clue can be located in Ghana, which is a long distance away.

People in Ghana were far more prone than Americans to assume that their friends were covertly scheming against them, when compared to individualistic Americans.

Pieces that aren’t going to fit And the evidence continues to mount, indicating that these are not isolated instances of collectivism, but rather are a regular aspect of collectivism in its overall structure.

When participants read about, for example, an excited colleague who volunteered to assist them in reviewing an important work assignment, they were asked to write about what they thought may happen next.

In spite of the fact that Chinese participants perceived their coworkers as more of a family with a stronger sense of shared identity than their American counterparts, this level of alertness prevailed.

In contrast to popular belief, the developing theory holds that this tension arises because of collectivism, rather than that it exists in spite of collectivism.

Rice’s Unwavering Vigilance There are, of course, numerous additional contrasts between China and the United States of America.

A cultural revolution occurred in China as well, which had the effect of putting neighbor against neighbor and having long-lasting effects on people’s desire to trust others (Wang, 2017).

Moreover, in order to dive deeper into these probable factors, the researchers that conducted the vigilance study contrasted locations inside China.

People in the southern hemisphere have been cultivating paddy rice for years.

Rice farmers were required to arrange irrigation networks and muster double the amount of manpower per hectare than wheat farmers were had to do in order to succeed (TalhelmOishi, 2018).

Even now, people living in rice-growing areas exhibit more characteristics of collectivism than individuals living in wheat-growing areas (Talhelm et al., 2014).

Rather from being based on disparities in the national political system, they were based on differences in the territorial borders of collectivism.

Collectivism is being de-idealized.

The early collectivism scales were really concealing this image, as it turns out.

For example, my recent research has discovered that persons who live in collectivistic societies are more likely to agree with the statement “We should keep our elderly parents at home with us.” Take a look at Figure 2.

People in the United States were more likely than those in other countries to believe they would find more supportive friends if a friend advised them to split up with a new lover when I asked them to picture it.

Collectivism frequently places a high priority on things other than warmth and well-being.

The validity of this perspective shows that the solution to cultural psychology’s open secret rests less in the removal of self-reports and more in the formulation of appropriate questioning techniques.

In spite of their communal tendencies, the Chinese people sometimes have feelings of suspicion toward one another, as seen here.

References Adams, G., et al (2005).

Heine, S.

R., Peng, K., Greenholtz, J., and Lehman, D.


What is it about cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales that is objectionable?

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.

3, pp.

G., and Schreckenbach, H.


Catholic Press, based in Accra, Ghana.

Liu, M.

Morris, T.

Yang have published a paper in Nature Communications (2019).

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.

14538–14546 Oyserman, D., Coon, H.

(in press) (2002).

E., and Wong, N.

(in press) (1997).

Psychological Methods, 2, 329–344.

An significant and real characteristic of cultural diversity between cultures is individualism.


Singelis, T.

Singelis (1994).

Individual Differences in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, volume 20, pages 580–591.

Talhelm and S.

The impact of rice growing on the culture of southern China.


Oishi (Eds.

New York: Routledge.

Kitayama, S.

Rice vs wheat cultivation in China is responsible for large-scale psychological disparities inside the country.

Transparency International is a non-profit organization (n.d.).

Wang, Y., ed., retrieved from (2017).

Yoshida, T., ed., retrieved from (1984). Possession by a spirit and inter-village strife In E. Krauss, T. Rohlen, and P. Steinhoff (Eds. ), Conflict in Japan (pp. 85–104), a collection of essays. The University of Hawaii is located in Honolulu.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The term refers to the collection of similar views, behaviors, and attitudes that are connected with a big group of individuals. Answer:B2. This type of tale is defined as one that has symbolic components that convey the common feelings and values of a civilization. Answer:CMyths are stories that contain the ideals of a society in a narrative form. 3. The term refers to a collection of symbolic behaviors that follow a predetermined order. Rituals need not be religious in nature — they may be any customary manner of going about one’s daily business.

Which of the following is NOT one of the dimensions defined by Hofstede?

  1. Masculinity-femininity
  2. sindividualism-collectivism
  3. swealth-poverty

Answer:C Culture is unaffected by material wealth or poverty. 5. A culture in which the standards are thoroughly ingrained in the minds of its members is said to be .

  1. A culture with a high context
  2. A repressive culture
  3. A culture with a low context

Answer:A The situation in which persons from that culture live is of critical importance to them. 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true about a high-context culture:

  1. Answer:A The setting in which individuals from that culture operate is quite important. 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true of a high-context culture? 7.

Answer:BBehavior is typically stable in high-context societies, although there are exceptions. Seventh, the right definition of ethnocentrism is the conviction that

  1. If one believes that one’s culture is “unoriginal” and has been derived from other cultures, one believes that one’s own culture is “right” and has been derived from it
  2. One believes that one’s own culture is superior to all other cultures.

As noted by Arnould and Thompson (2005), which of the following does not contribute to Consumer Culture Theory? Answer:B8.

  1. Consumer identities, marketplace cultures, and holy consumption are all discussed.

Answer:CThis is a component of cultural expression. Nineteenth, which of the following is NOT a stage in the process of acculturation? This is an aspect of culture, to be sure, but Nineteenth, which of the following is not a stage in the process of acculturation?

  1. Individues, families, households, or other categories of people who live in different countries
  2. Individuals, families, households, or other categories of people who seek asylum in another country
  3. Individuals, families, households, or other categories of people who live within or between different social strata in a society

Web exercise

Visitwww.ec.europa.eu/health-eu/my environment/social environment/index en.htm This website is dedicated to the study of the impact of the social environment on people’s health, lifestyles, behaviors, and attitudes, among other things. What is the significance of this knowledge in the context of marketing?

Which of the following is NOT true about collectivistic cultures Ingroup members

Visitwww.ec.europa.eu/health-eu/my environment/social environment/index en.htm On this website, you will learn about how people’s health, lifestyle, behavior, and attitudes are influenced by their social environment and how they might change. What is the significance of this information in the context of marketing campaigns?

How Cultural Differences Shape Your Happiness

Tov delves into some of these discoveries and explains why they are important in the interview that follows. He also cautions us not to oversimplify cultural differences—and to remember our commonalities—in our daily lives. Kira Newman (KiraNewman.com): For what reasons do you believe it is critical for the science of positive psychology to investigate cultural disparities in well-being? William Tov (translator): The psychology of happiness, and particularly efforts to make people happy—interventions to help people improve their well-being—is one of the topics that people are skeptical about.

  1. That is an assumption that I believe needs to be examined further.
  2. According to this definition, Westerners are more likely than Easterners to report higher degrees of happiness in terms of enthusiasm, cheerfulness, and being jolly and joyous, whilst Easterners are less likely to do so.
  3. However, it’s possible that the problem isn’t with them; rather, it’s with the method we’re judging their well-being.
  4. It also has an impact on how we construct our institutions to encourage well-being and well-being promotion.
  5. However, we would not be able to copy that technique in its entirety from an East Asian society.
  6. It’s critical to recognize that the things that we believe should make people happy may not be the same as they appear to be, and that they may not work in the same manner.
  7. WT: It’s a complicated situation.

Many diverse studies have demonstrated how certain concepts, attitudes, and socialization practices may impact well-being—but it is unlikely that any one of these factors is responsible for the majority of these effects.

Many Asian cultures are more collectivistic in nature, and your attention will be drawn more frequently to a social issue than it would be in the West.

It is your social roles that have an impact on your behavior, and your social roles are varied depending on who you are with.

In collectivist societies, there is less emphasis placed on you as an individual who is distinct from the rest of the group.

The United States promotes being agentic, believing in one’s ability to achieve one’s objectives and take action—this is what is meant by influence.

It is beneficial to be energetic and excited; it is beneficial to be enthusiastic.

It could be more beneficial to be quiet, tranquil, and relaxed so that you can see how other people are reacting and feeling—and so that you can be a little bit more sensitive in the way you conduct yourself.

The researcher Shigehiro Oishi conducted a study in which he examined your parents’ expectations of you.

As a result, our views about our obligations to others and our responsibilities to ourselves have an impact on our well-being.

The results of another study, which compared students from Taiwan with those from America, revealed that when students believed that their self-worth was highly dependent on the approval of others, they reported lower levels of well-being.

To give another example, according to a research conducted on Japanese participants, when Japanese students achieve achievement, they experience a range of feelings.

In addition to this idea of dialecticism, there is another important belief: that good things follow from terrible things, and bad things follow from good things.

According to one research, Japanese students are more inclined than other pupils to assume that unpleasant things might happen if you are very joyful.

Pupils from Europe and North America, as well as Asian students who performed well, were all quite pleased.

“People who are happy are more likely to be in excellent relationships.” “They have access to social help.” According to this study, if you have these kind of dialectical ideas, you may find yourself being indecisive in your daily life since you can see both the benefits and drawbacks of any action.

You’ll be debating whether or not you made the proper choice for a long time because there was something positive about the alternative option you might have taken.

KN: It appears that there is a great deal that we do not understand about this subject.

WT: I believe that one of the most essential issues for future study is to clarify exactly what we mean by collectivism, as well as the various ways in which people might be collectivistic.

This difference between vertical collectivism and horizontal collectivism was introduced by Harry Triandis in the 1960s.

Respecting those individuals and treating them in a certain manner are required.

Even so, you’re still a collectivist, in the sense that you’re concerned with your interpersonal relationships and the aims of your social circle.

However, this is a very broad stroke because there is such diversity among these other countries.

The study of cultural psychology began with the documentation of differences between groups of people, which was important research at the time.

It’s possible that you’re unintentionally fostering misconceptions about individuals from specific groups.

It’s possible that you’re unintentionally reinforcing preconceptions about people from specific groups.” William Tov is a rabbi from Israel.

In the future, I believe it will be critical to strike a balance between acknowledging and comprehending the differences as well as the commonalities.

We’re more attracted to the contrasts between people than the similarities.

That is exactly as it should be.

WT: A few of the most consistent findings aren’t usually the most exciting discoveries.

Economic well-being is important throughout civilizations.

Using the term “well-being” to refer to life satisfaction, this association becomes much stronger.

The association between money and emotional well-being tends to be less than it used to be (actually feeling happy or joyful).

Another finding that we observe across a wide range of nations is that individuals who are happy tend to be in excellent relationships.

Generally speaking, the happiest individuals are those who have someone to whom they can turn when they are in need of assistance.

The fact is that I believe there is something basic about that, and there are various theories that argue why we genuinely need to be in relationships.

KN: What are some of the other common misunderstandings regarding culture and well-being that people have?

That is a really crucial caveat: On a scale of one to ten, the level of life satisfaction among Singaporeans and Japanese is between six and seven, which is not a state of distress.

Due to a high level of political and social instability in various nations in the Middle East, life satisfaction in those countries is lower than the national average, and in some cases it is below the national average.

It has remained in the positive territory.

KN: So far, it appears that the majority of the study has focused on contrasting Western and East Asian civilizations, correct?

I believe that things are steadily changing, especially in the last ten years.

These large cross-national surveys that are being conducted, particularly by the Gallup organization, are becoming increasingly common.

This is allowing us to have a better knowledge of overall well-being throughout the world.

I’m aware of only one study that attempted to do so and found that people are collectivist in some ways and individualistic in others across all cultures, according to my knowledge.

If we have a more sophisticated understanding of non-Asian, non-Western cultures and countries in the future, we will be able to better understand how the environment and social practices shape the well-being of those cultures and countries.

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