Chapter 6 Flashcards
The idea of emotional intelligence is defined as the capacity to monitor one’s own and others’ thoughts and emotions, to distinguish between them, and to utilize this knowledge to influence one’s thinking and behaviors, among other things. What United States Supreme Court case established the “reasonable officer” standard for the use of deadly force by police officers? The phrase “blue curtain” refers to the secrecy and isolation from the rest of society that has developed as a result of the police subculture.
Which of the following characteristics is believed to be present at all levels of law enforcement?
The findings of studies on women in law enforcement suggest that they have achieved complete acceptability in the field and believe that they are given equal credit for equal work performance.
A fundamental and essential component of police operations is patrolling the streets.
- Special prosecution or a review board from outside the organization The use of deadly force against an unarmed and non-dangerous fleeing felon was judged an unconstitutional seizure under the Fourth Amendment in which case the Supreme Court ruled on the issue?
- Factors such as the officer’s living and working environment frequently have an impact on his or her discretion.
- Which of the following has not been widely recognized as a contributing factor to police shootings in the past?
- According to which important judgment, police officers have the authority to conduct a stop and frisk when they have reasonable cause to suspect criminal activity is taking on on their property?
- The historic case Tennessee v.
- Broken marginality is the phrase used to describe the societal weight that African–American police officers bear as a result of their dual status as members of a minority group and law enforcement personnel.
Free Flashcards about CJ Midterm
|When was the term criminal justice first used?||After the findings of the American Bar Foundation Project|
|Most police officer jobs are found at what level?||Local|
|The CJ system is vast, employing more than 2.4 billion ppl and costing federal, state, and local governments:||about $200 billion per year|
|What are the three main components into which the contemporary CJ system is generally divided?||Law Enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system.|
|this branch of government is responsible for the day-to-day operation of justice agencies||executive|
|Which crime is not included on the list of Part I or index crimes that is documented in the Uniform Crime Reports?||Simple Assault|
|Which theory considers crime a product of transitional neighborhoods that manifest value conflict?||Social Disorganization|
|Criminal law is structured to reflect the preferences of those who hold social power, according to which view of crime?||the Interactionist view|
|Index crimes are a key unit of analysis in which crime data source?||Uniform Crime Reports|
|Which crime theory focuses on a person’s bonds to society as a factor in preventing crime?||Social Control|
|The term terror was first associated with unrest in *blank* in 1917.||Russia|
|In what year did Congress pass legislation authorizing the creation of the Department of Homeland Security?||2002|
|What is an advantage of a legal system based on the principle of stare decisis?||The system promotes stability and certainty in legal decisions|
|What is NOT a source of criminal law?||The New Testament|
|A *blank* is the term for an irregular military band located in rural areas that attack military, police, and government targets.||Guerilla|
|What was the name of the organized private police that patrolled 18th century England?||Thief Takers|
|What term is used to describe organized groups of detectives who decieve criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity?||Sting Operations|
|English police officers are known as bobbies because:||Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel was responsible for their creation|
|What federal program supported innovative research on police work and advanced training for police officers during the 1970’s?||Law enforcement Assistance Administration|
|Community-orientated policing links police effectiveness to:||Productive interaction with the community being served|
|As of 2003, approx. what percent of local law enforcement officers were members of African American, Hispanic, or other non-white ethnic groups?||25 percent|
|The Kansas City Gun Experiment was an example of:||A police crackdown targeting a specific type of crime problem|
|What describes the experience of black officers who must deal with the expectation that they will give member of their own race a break, while at the same times experiencing overt racism from their police colleagues?||Double marginality|
|The term “blue curtain” describes:||The secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture|
|What is not one of the six core beliefs at the heart of the belief culture?||Patrol work is the best assignment, since it gives officers the chance to be heroes in the eyes of the public|
|Crime and violence have been common since the nation was first formed.||True|
|Most Criminal cases are processes through the entire formal justice system.||False|
|The justice perspective advocates judges consider extra-legal factors in sentencing||False|
|During the past decade the crime control and justice perspectives have dominated in criminal justice.||True|
|It is estimated that there are 75,000 gang members in the US.||False|
|Self-report data findings show that people commit far fewer crimes than those projected by official statistics.||True|
|Laws created and retroactively enforced are ex post facto laws.||True|
|The nature and definition of due process remains unchanging across historical time periods||True|
|The Department of Homeland Security is responsible for securing our nation’s borders and transportation systems.||True|
|One criticism of private policing is that it could eventually replace government.||True|
|The detective bureau is considered the backbone of policing.||False|
|Large urban police departments made no noticeable gains in the recruitment of minority police officers during the 1990’s.||False|
|More than 50% of citizens who experience force at the hands of the police report an injury||False|
|In the landmark case Tennessee v. Garner, the U.S. Supreme Court outlawed deadly use of force by police.||False|
|The number of police officers killed in the line of duty trended downward during the 1990s.||True|
|The (BLANK) is the term used to describe the process through which large numbers of cases are systematically filtered out of the formal criminal justice process.||Criminal Justice Funnel|
|Millions of misdemanors, such as disorderly conduct, shoplifting, public drunkeness, and minor assult comprise level (BLANK) of the CJ wedding cake.||four (IV)|
|(BLANK) is another name for the eight index crimes from the Uniform Crime Reports.||Part I crimes|
|(BLANK) mandate like in prision without the possibility of parole after a third felony conviction||Three Strikes Law|
|The M’Naughten Rule established standards for the (BLANK) defense, and is used in the majority of the states.||Insanity|
|The (BLANK) amendment has been used in the past to argue that the death penalty is cruel and unusual||Eighth|
|The (BLANK) is the highest ranking office in the justice department||U.S. Attorney General|
|A (BLANK) is an operation designed to encourage and observe criminal behaviors so the officers can make an arrest||Sting|
|The (BLANK)rule is the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force, dating back to English Common Law.||Fleeing Felon|
|One perspective on the causes of police corruption holds that it is a product of society’s moral (BLANK) towards the vice-related behavior that police are sworn to control.||Ambivalence|
N. La Vigne, J. Fontaine, and A. Dwivedi published a paper in 2017 titled What is the public perception of the police in high-crime, low-income neighborhoods? T. Urban Institute, J. Fagan, T. Urban Institute, J. Fagan (2008). Why do people assist the police in the fight against crime in their communities? The factors of legitimacy and cooperation. Ohio State is a university in the state of Ohio. J. Crim. L. 231, et al. Bradford, B., Sergeant, E., Murphy, K., Jackson, J. Bradford, B., Sergeant, E., Murphy, K., Jackson, J.
- Is It Time to Take a Chance?
- 2017; 57 (2): 381-401.
- The journal’s doi is 10.1093/bjc/azv126.
- Meares, T.
- Young African-American men’s perceptions on the legitimacy of police officers.
- 92, no.
Inclusion and cooperation between the police and the general public are important aspects of policing and social identity.
24:1, doi: 10.1080/10439463.2012.724068 (online).
Gardener are among the authors of this paper (in press).
Contact with minorities is disproportionately high.
Tyler, T.R., Jackson, J.
Legitimacy in the eyes of the public and the exercise of legal authority: a framework for motivating compliance, cooperation, and engagement.
David Von Drehle and Alex Altman are two of the most successful directors working today.
The Inside Story of the Ferguson Tragedy Time Magazine is a publication that publishes articles on a variety of topics.
Kates and Graham are two of the most talented writers in the world.
In the police-community relationship, there is a crisis of confidence.
Jonathan Jackson, Ben Bradford, Jouni Kuha, and Mike Hough are among others who have contributed to this work (2014) Empirical legitimacy and psychological legitimacy are two interconnected psychological states.
Mesko and J.
Durrant & Associates (January 27, 2014).
Elijah Anderson’s full name is Elijah Anderson (2014, August 13).
The Washington Post is a newspaper published in Washington, D.C.
Kates and Graham have written a number of books that have been published in a variety of genres, including fiction, nonfiction, and nonfictional nonfiction (2014, September 5).
The Police Department’s Crime Report T.L.
As concerning as the city’s police force is, the schools in Ferguson are much more so.
Fornango are co-authors of this article (2014).
Tyler, T.R., et al (March, 2014).
Elijah Anderson’s full name is Elijah Anderson (2014, August 13).
According to the Washington Post.
G., Lachman, P., Rao, S., and Matthews, A.
G., Lachman, P., Rao, S., and Matthews, A.
Stop and Frisk: Striking a balance between crime prevention and community relations.
Tyler, T.R., Fagan, J., Geller, A., Tyler, T.R.
Street stops and the legitimacy of the police: Teachable moments in the legal socialization of young urban guys Yale Law School is located in New Haven, Connecticut.
In Floyd v.
In the Southern District of New York, in the United States District Court.
The experiment in procedural justice training with the Greater Manchester Police Department.
The experiences of victims in the criminal court system, as well as their recovery from crime International Review of Victimology, 19, 221–233.
Reisig, M.D., Tankebe, J.Mesko, G.
The European Journal of Criminal Policy Research, volume 20, number 2, pages 259-276.
Goldstein’s et al (August 12, 2013).
The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City.
Is it important for young people to follow the rules of the court?
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E., Manning, M.
A thorough evaluation of the research evidence on procedural justice and police legitimacy has been conducted.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E., Manning, M.
A thorough evaluation of the legitimacy of law enforcement.
The authors (Listwan, S.J.
; Agnew, R.; Cullen, F.T; Colvin, M.) have published a paper in which they discuss their research findings (2013).
Justice Quarterly, vol.
Yanos, P., Pratt, C., Koerner, J., and S.
In mental health courts, procedural justice is examined in terms of judicial procedures, participant perceptions, and results that are relevant to mental health recovery.
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., and Stanko, B.
Trust in the police in England and Wales is based only on authority.
Among those who have contributed to this work are Jackson (J), Huq (A.Z.), Bradford (B), and Tyler (T) (2013).
The legitimacy of the police and public opinions regarding the appropriateness of violence are examined.
In Floyd et al.
The City of New York, Opinion and Order, 08 Civ.
The American Journal of Sociology, volume 119, pages 351-393.
United States District Court for the Southern District of New York ruled in Floyd v.
On June 12, 2013, a lawsuit was filed.
Vickrey and D.G.
Jefferson, William B.
Using opinions to communicate as the voice of the court: How state Supreme Courts can communicate effectively while still encouraging procedural fairness The Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
Watson and B.
How stigma and uncertainty affect the influence of procedural justice on cooperation and resistance in police contacts with people suffering from mental disorders has been investigated.
30–39; Cauffman, E., Tatar, J.R., Kaasa, S.O., and Kaasa, S.
Female offenders’ perceptions of procedural justice: Time does not always cure all scars.
268–296 Stott, C., and Hoggett, J.
Pearson, G., et al (2012).
Rosenbaum, D.P., and Lawrence, D.S.
Meares, and J.
What motivates criminals to abide by the law?
Myhill, A., Bradford, B., and others (2012).
397-425 in Policing and Society, vol.
Understanding the importance of cooperation with the police in a multicultural society.
Sacks, A., Levi, M., Tyler, T.R., and Tyler, T.R.
The legal justifications for complying with the law.
Goodman and D.
Wood, are available online.
Is it possible for police legitimacy to generate collective efficacy?
Stanko, and T.
The impact of the 2011 London unrest on public perceptions of the police as well as attitudes toward crime, disorder, and sentencing is being investigated.
The legitimacy of legal institutions, as well as their effect.
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E., Tyler, T.R., Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E.
A randomized field trial of procedural justice for the purpose of shaping citizen perceptions of police legitimacy.
268-296 in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, vol.
An integrated contextual model of public trust in local law enforcement.
Tomkins, Bornstein B.
Increasing the number of people who appear.
Racial reconciliation, truth-telling, and the legitimacy of the police are all important issues.
Tyler, T.R., et al (2011).
Princeton University Press is located in Princeton, New Jersey.
Is it a reasonable police officer?
The National Policing Improvement Agency is based in London, United Kingdom.
Leben’s et al (2011).
The paper was presented at the Utah State Courts’ educational conference, which took place in Midway, Utah.
Madan, Brown, A.D., Galatzer-Levy, I.R., C.
Marmar are co-authors of the paper Madan, A.
The effect of murdering and wounding people on the mental health symptoms of police officers is being investigated.
California’s Judicial Council (Judicial Council of California) (2011).
The Center for Court Innovation is based in San Francisco, California.
M., et al (2011).
Bloomsbury USA is based in New York, New York.
The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, volume 50, number 1, pages 3-32.
At the intersection of speed enforcement policy, police legitimacy, and decision acceptance is a situation known as “caught in their own speed trap.” Police Quarterly, vol.
Hasisi, B.; Weisburd, D.; Hasisi, B.
Taking it beyond assigned identities: The relevance of procedural justice in Israeli airport security screening Law and Society Review, vol.
GIBSON & E.
Evaluation of predictors of weapons reporting at the school and among students.
Hurwitz are co-authors of this work (2010).
Missed Opportunities, Shared Responsibilities: The Cambridge Review Committee’s Final Report on Missed Opportunities and Shared Responsibility (2010, June 15).
Kubrin, Steven F.
Stucky collaborated on this project (2010), Proactive policing and robbery rates in different cities across the United States.
The importance of procedural justice and the function of the mental health court judge in preventing recidivism are well documented.
Michael Hough, Jeremiah Jackson, Bryce Bradford, Alyssa Myhill, and Peter Quintin (2010).
The Journal of Policing, 4(3), 203-210.
The Jim Crow of the Twenty-First Century.
Policing from a Different Perspective The Criminal Justice Policy and Management Program at the Harvard Kennedy School is a two-year program.
The benefits of self-regulation in the areas of legitimacy and criminal justice Tankebe, J.
Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 7, 307-359.
Vigilante, policing, and procedural justice: Ghanaian vigilantism, the rule of law, and other issues.
Mesko, G., and Reisig, M.D.
Prisoner misconduct, procedural justice, and legitimacy are all discussed.
Murphy, K., Tyler, T.R., and Curtis, A.
Building regulatory compliance: Is procedural justice effective when people question the legitimacy of the laws that they are supposed to follow?
Youth, police legitimacy, and informal interaction are all factors to consider.
Hinds, L.; Murphy, K.; Hinds, L.; Murphy, K.
Public satisfaction with the police: Using procedural fairness to increase the credibility of the police force.
et al (2009).
The perceptions of young people toward the police.
Police Quarterly, vol.
Manning collaborated on this project (2009).
Stuart, J., Fondarcaro, M., Miller, S.A., Brown, V., and Brrank, E.M.
764–684 in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, volume 37, number 6.
Policing and Society, vol.
The role of emotions in mediating the relationship between procedural justice and compliance behavior.
Tyler, T.R., Fagan, J., Tyler, T.R., Fagan, J., Tyler, T.R.
Legitimacy and cooperation: What motivates individuals to assist the police in their efforts to combat crime in their communities?
231-275 In 2008, K.
Hinds, and J.
R., and Fagan, J.
Farole, D.J., Farole, D.J.
In this study, we looked at the impact of the Harlem housing court on tenant views of justice.
2005), Sherman et al.
Law and Society Review, vol.
The development of Peel’s principles: A historical investigation of the history of police “textbooks.” Journal of Criminal Justice, volume 35, number 1, pages 69-79.
The relevance of procedural fairness in the development of police-youth interactions.
The Center for Court Innovation is based in New York.
Attention, felons: the Evaluation Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago is now open for business.
California’s Judicial Branch’s Strategic Plan for 2006-2012 is titled “Justice in Focus” (2006).
Tyler, T.R., et al (2006b).
Annual Review of Psychology, vol.
a Tyler, T.R., et al (2006).
Princeton University Press is located in Princeton, New Jersey.
R., et al (2006).
Annual Review of Psychology, vol.
Willan is from the United Kingdom. R.J. MacCoun, R.J. MacCoun (2005). 1,171-201 in Voice, Control, and Belonging: The Double-Edged Sword of Procedural Fairness, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 1, Number 1, 2017.
the United States Army – Army Values
Many individuals are familiar with the meanings of the phrases Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Individual Courage. However, how often do you witness someone genuinely living up to their expectations? Armed forces soldiers study these principles in depth during Basic Combat Training (BCT), and they embody them every day in all they do – on and off the battlefield alike. Briefly stated, the Seven Core Army Values mentioned below define what it means to be a Soldier.
Remember to have complete trust and commitment to the United States Constitution, the Army, your unit, and your fellow Soldiers. The act of putting one’s trust and allegiance in something or someone requires one to believe in and devote one’s self to that things or someone. A loyal Soldier is one who supports the leadership and is willing to speak out for his or her fellow soldiers when necessary. By donning the uniform of the United States Army, you are demonstrating your allegiance to the country.
Meet all of your responsibilities. Doing your duty entails more than just doing the duties that have been allocated to you. Being able to do tasks as a member of a team is considered to be a duty. Performing the duties of the United States Army requires juggling a slew of objectives, activities, and obligations that are always changing. Our task consists on stacking one assignment on top of another. Every time you resist the urge to take “shortcuts” that might compromise the integrity of the final result, you are fulfilling your responsibilities as a member of your team or organization.
People should be treated with the respect that they deserve. As stated in the Soldier’s Code, we commit to “treat people with decency and respect while expecting others to treat us in the same way.” Respect is what allows us to see the best in other people and respect them for it. Respect is based on the assumption that everyone has done their work and fulfilled their responsibilities. And self-respect is a necessary component of the Army’s concept of respect, which stems from the knowledge that you have given your all.
Put the wellbeing of the country, the Army, and your subordinates ahead of your own personal interests. The scope of selfless devotion extends far beyond a single individual. Serving your nation entails performing your duties honorably and without regard for personal benefit or recognition. The commitment of each team member to go a little further, suffer a little longer, and examine a little closer to discover how he or she may contribute to the endeavor is the fundamental building block of selfless service.
Before your own personal interests, prioritize those of your country, the Army, and your subordinates. It takes a community to provide selfless service. Serving your country entails performing your duties selflessly and without regard for personal gain or recognition.
To provide unselfish service, the fundamental building block is each team member’s willingness to go a little further, endure a little longer, and examine a little closer to see how he or she might contribute to the endeavor.
Do what is proper in terms of law and morality. Intuitiveness is a trait that develops as a result of following moral values. It necessitates that you do and say nothing that might lead people to believe you are lying. As your integrity rises, so does the amount of trust that others have in you and your abilities. In other words, the more decisions you make based on integrity, the more this highly cherished value will influence your relationships with family and friends and, ultimately, your basic acceptance of yourself.
Face your fears, danger, or difficulty head on (physical or moral). Throughout history, our Army has been synonymous with individual bravery. If you have physical courage, it means that you can withstand physical hardship and put your own safety at danger at times. In certain cases, dealing with moral hardship or dread can be a protracted, drawn-out process that takes time and patience. This is especially true if the acts taken are not popular with others. You may develop your personal bravery by standing up for and taking action on the things that you believe are right and just on a regular basis.
Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes
Human beings are diverse and multidimensional entities with many different personalities. To better understand why people behave in the ways that they do, psychologists and sociologists have published hundreds of pages of literature seeking to describe what it is that makes human beings “tick.” Why is it that one person may laugh off an insult while another feels the urge to strike the person who has insulted them? Why do certain cultures place a high emphasis on the individual’s individuality, but others place a higher value on the group’s ability to function as a whole?
We will not be able to cover everything that is involved in human psychology in one little portion of this chapter, but we will need to identify a few essential concepts that are relevant to our study of communication and speech in general.
The definitions for these words may be found in the table below.
Principles or standards of desired or ideal behavior that we use to defend our views and attitudes are called underlying principles or standards of desirable or ideal behavior.
Ideas we express about issues that may explain our attitudes toward them are important to consider.
A state of thought that is supportive to or hostile to a person, policy, belief, institution, issue, or other thing. To illustrate how these components interact together to construct a person’s belief system, let us use the following scenario. For example, you can state that you value your independence above all other things. If you feel that it is occasionally essential to police or even invade other countries or nations to safeguard freedom, you could also admit that you believe it is important to do so.
Furthermore, as an extension of this principle, you are grateful to those who serve in the military in order to safeguard your freedom and liberties.
Because you believe that freedom is essential, your general favorable attitude toward veterans and veteran issues is a direct expression of this view.
What should you do in this situation?
Her behavior and demeanor do not reflect the values that she professes to have.
Psychologist Lewis Wolpert discovered in his book Six Impossible Things Before Breakfast: The Evolutionary Origins of Belief that most of us prefer to place the responsibility for our conduct (particularly negative behavior) on other factors such as our environment or circumstances.
Keep in mind, however, that people are immensely complex beings, and as a result, our belief systems are also very complicated beings.
Consider the image of a home or a structure.
In addition to serving as the general structural support, it also serves as a scaffold for the addition of all the other components to the home, such as walls, rooms, a roof, and so on.
When a strong value system is absent, beliefs that are not backed by a strong value system are often considered ephemeral beliefs, meaning that they do not persist over time.
Similarly to how we use our windows and doors to gaze out onto the world, attitudes are the dispositions we have to perceive the people and places around us in either a favorable or a negative way depending on our circumstances.
In other words, certain beliefs are stable, while others are subject to change.
Some people’s beliefs are difficult to dislodge or change.
You are most likely responding to one of your fixed, basic ideas, such as “it is wrong to murder,” if you are vehemently opposed to the death sentence or abortion, for example.
If this is the case, it is doubtful that a ten-minute lecture will alter your point of view.
These kinds of views are referred to as variable beliefs.
Your pals who are vegetarians do not cause you any problems because you consume meat.
Suddenly, you’re reevaluating your way of life and your eating habits.
What exactly is going on?
Following the presentation of the facts and arguments, you may be persuaded to adopt a vegetarian diet and lifestyle.
You are rethinking your position now that you have new evidence.
Knowledge of how your audience members think, believe, and interpret the world will provide you with “insider” information that will help you pick themes, examples, and proof that will be most effective for your audience members.
Additionally, it may be beneficial to consider how stubbornly we humans hold onto our views, frequently after being given with data that clearly contradicts them.
According to Wolpert, “when looking at data that is relevant to a certain worldview, people are more likely to perceive what they anticipate to see and come to the same conclusion” (7-8).
We pay attention to evidence that supports our already formed views and ignore other contradicting facts because it does not fit with how we interpret the world in which we live.
You must be prepared to deal with this natural human propensity when it arises.
What methods will you use to acquire this information from them? First and foremost, you must choose what questions to ask and what sorts of information to gather. One of the most important areas to begin is with the collecting of demographic information about the population.