Which Of The Following Is Most Often Used As A Starter Culture For The Production Of Cheese


What is starter culture for cheese and what does it do?

In cheesemaking, the phrase “starting culture” refers to bacteria that have been carefully produced to “initiate” the process of turning milk into cheese. A starter culture is utilized in the production of the vast majority of cheeses in order to convert the lactose sugar found naturally in milk into lactic acid. There are various reasons why this is advantageous for cheesemaking: The first step is to acidify the milk, which causes it to curdle and split, assisting in the formation of the curd, which is a vital constituent in cheese.

These two characteristics make it more difficult for ‘bad’ pathogenic and spoilage bacteria to thrive since they do not like acid and, in order to develop, they require the sugar found in dairy products.

Third, the process begins to produce flavor, which will later have an impact on the ultimate texture, smell, and taste of the cheese as it matures.

The bacteria are most typically introduced to the milk early at the start of the cheese-making process, thus the phrase “starting culture,” and are predominantly Lactic Acid Bacteria, which are responsible for the acidity of the cheese (abbreviated to LAB).

Cheesemaking has relied on beginning cultures for hundreds of years, and starter cultures are being used today.

A broad classification of them may be divided into two types:

  • In cheesemaking, the phrase “starting culture” refers to bacteria that have been carefully produced to “initialize” the process of turning milk into cheese. To make cheese, a starter culture is employed to convert the lactose sugar found naturally in milk into lactic acid, which is then utilized to make cheese. The following are some of the reasons why this is advantageous for cheese-making. The first step is to acidify the milk, which causes it to curdle and split, assisting in the formation of curd, which is a key element in cheese production. To make matters worse, producing lactic acid depletes the lactose sugar and milk nutritional reserves, leading to increased acidity in the finished beverage. ‘Bad’ pathogenic and spoilage bacteria find it difficult to develop in the presence of these two components — they do not like acid, and in order to thrive, they require the sugar found in milk. In this way, preventing the formation of harmful bacteria naturally aids in the preservation of cheese. (and is one of the reasons why cheese keeps longer than milk). After the third step, the process begins to produce flavor, which will eventually impact the overall final texture, aroma, and taste of the finished cheese. Microorganisms are required in order for all of this to take place. Starting cultures, which are mostly Lactic Acid Bacteria, are commonly used in the cheese-making process since they are introduced to the milk at the beginning of the process, thus the phrase “starter culture” (abbreviated to LAB). Is there a wide variety of beginning cultures to choose from? Cheesemaking has relied on starting cultures for hundreds of years, and they continue to be used today. As scientific knowledge has progressed, technicians have become competent at choosing and breeding certain strains, as well as preparing and blending specialized bacteria mixes that are designed especially to assist acidify milk and provide a variety of tastes and acidification rates. They can be broadly divided into two categories:

The majority of starters are currently manufactured in laboratories on a massive scale by multinational corporations before being packaged in a convenient form for consumers to consume. Three techniques are usually used to introduce these starters to the vat: by hand, by machine, and by injection.

  • Inoculation of the Vat is done directly (often called DVI). These are sachets of freeze-dried LAB powder that are stored in the freezer and may be sprinkled directly into the milk in the cheese-making vat without the need for any additional equipment. They are simple to use, simple to store, fast, consistent, and handy, and as a result, they are preferred by many manufacturers. Those who disagree, however, claim that they are too simple and that the resulting flavor is not as rich or nuanced. A good illustration would be to make bread with freeze-dried yeast — it is quick and easy, but it never produces the most delicious bread. Danisco and Hansen are two of the most well-known manufacturers of DVI. Bulk Starters are available for purchase in a variety of sachet kinds and sizes through retailers such as Orchard Valley, Westcombe Dairy, Goat Nutrition, and Moorland Cheesemaking Shop
  • Bulk Starters are also available via the company’s website. A little more traditional way, these are cultures that were collected from farms and are currently being kept alive and controlled by various laboratories around Europe, as opposed to the more recent methods. Barber’s is the only laboratory in the United Kingdom that still manufactures these old bulk ‘pint pot’ starters. These cultures are less polished than DVIs and include a greater number of bacterial strains. Because they are a live product, they are more difficult to manage for the cheesemaker, necessitating additional ‘incubation’ and ‘bulking’ on the farm to ensure that they are already active when they are put to the milk in the vat during the manufacturing process. However, as a result, they might generate a more complex flavor. Using the bread-making analogy once more, this is analogous to using good bread yeast – it produces richer flavors but is more fussy, difficult to regulate, and time-consuming
  • Natural Methods is a little like that. Farm cheesemakers used a variety of techniques to harness their own population of lactic acid bacteria in order to acidify the milk prior to the widespread usage of commercially purchased starter cultures. This includes preparing their own starter from soured or ‘clobbered’ milk, ‘back slopping whey,’ and especially employing wooden equipment in the baking process, among other things. This form of cheese-making, which is now commonly referred to as “natural cheese-making,” is rare, but it can still be found (especially in Europe). It provides the cheesemaker with the potential to create a cheese that is really unique to the region in which it is produced, but it can also create complications in the manufacturing process. More information about natural cheese-making may be found here.

Barbers are the nation’s first-time stars. Barber’s is the beginning star of choice in the United Kingdom. Since 1833, these large-scale Cheddar producers in Somerset have been producing one of the greatest commercial Cheddars in the United Kingdom. The traditional ‘pint-pot’ starting culture, on which so many small-scale farm cheese-makers rely, from Kirkham’s and Montgomery’s to Stichelton’s and Stonebeck, is considerably more highly regarded in the farmhouse cheese sector. These ‘pint-pot’ cultures are peculiar to the United Kingdom.

  1. Barber’s Cheddar was accidentally introduced to the world of starting culture development by chance.
  2. After refining them with the bacteria to eliminate those that generated off flavors, errors, and other possible problems, he sold them back to the farmers to assist in producing more consistent cheese from bacteria that was specific to the local area.
  3. The scientific community continues to evolve, and this large-scale bacteria manufacturer, in the 1970s and 1980s, followed the times and opted to focus only on the production of DVI cultures.
  4. Because of this, Barbers informed their supplier that they intended to continue utilizing their current liquid bulk starters.
  5. Consequently, Barber’s decided to purchase all of the cultures, construct their own laboratory, and hire Ray Osbourne, the dairy microbiologist from their supplier, to ensure that the cultures remained viable (Ray Osbourne later received an MBE for his services to cheese!).

Thanks to Barber’s, modern-day cheesemakers may still employ ancient cultures and have a taste of the past thanks to the company’s products.

Related Articles

A large portion of the distinctiveness and flavor that we all know and appreciate in cheese is due to microorganisms present in cheese.

What are Microbes?

“Microbe” is an abbreviation for microbe, which can refer to any tiny living organism*. In this branch of the evolutionary tree, there are a variety of things to discover. Bacteria, yeasts, and molds are commonly found in cheeses and other dairy products. If we merely look at the categories above, we can see that there are thousands upon thousands of bacteria that may possibly be detected in cheese. For the purpose of brevity, we’ll stick to the fundamentals (thus the “101” designation). There’s a lot more to it than we can cover here.

* We’ll be using the terms “microbe,” “organism,” and “bug” interchangeably in order to prevent undue repetition.


Microbes in Cheese

The bacteria, molds, yeasts, and other microorganisms that make their way into cheese might be purposely introduced by the cheesemaker or affineur during the cheesemaking process. And by purposely, I mean that someone made a decision about which organism to include in the cheese based on their own judgment. The variety of bacteria that are introduced into the cheese without the direct involvement of the cheesemaker or affineur is of greater interest and importance to the cheese industry. This is the point at when a cheese acquires its so-called “terroir.” During the process of making cheese and aging it, a large number of ambient organisms infiltrate the process and become incorporated into the final product.

Lactic Acid Bacteria

In the cheese-making process, these are the microorganisms (bacteria) that are introduced to the milk at a very early stage in order to initiate the fermentation process. The primary process taking place here is the conversion of lactose to lactic acid, which results in the acidification of the milk, which explains how they got their name. Alternatively, you may have heard of these gentlemen being referred to as “starter cultures.” Examples of this category include the following:

  • Lactococci-Lactococcus lactisssp.lactisandLactococcus lactisssp.cremorisare common lactic acid bacteria that are used to produce cheeses such as cheddar
  • Lactococci-Lactococcus lactisssp.cremorisare common lactic acid bacteria that are used to manufacture cheeses such as cheddar
  • Streptococci-Streptococcus salivariusssp.thermophilusis an example of a culture that is regularly found in cheeses such as mozzarella
  • Lactobacilli-Lactobacillus helveticusis an example of a culture that is commonly found in Swiss and alpine cheeses such as brie. L. helveticusis is also extensively employed as an adjuvant in the treatment of many ailments. (below)

Lactic acid bacteria are a common starting culture that may be found anywhere.

Adjunct Cultures

Starting cultures of lactic acid bacteria may be found anywhere.


Adjacents are a subset of adjuncts. N on-S tarterL acticA cidB acteria are lactic acid bacteria that develop in cheese as it ripens and that were not introduced to the cheese for the purpose of acidifying the milk in the first place. The majority of the time, these bacteria are present naturally in the milk or are picked up on their approach to the cheesemaking process.

As cheese matures, the quantity of NSLAB bacteria increases, whereas the number of starting cultures decreases. Each of their precise functions in the production of cheese flavor is still being researched and studied in more depth. Examples include the following:

  • Bacteria such as Lactobacillus casei sp. casei and Lactobacillus plantarum

Eye Formers

Certain bacteria cause eye (hole) development in Swiss cheese (and to a lesser extent in Gouda cheese), which is noticeable in both varieties. Propionic acid is produced by the bacterium Propionibacterium freudenreichiissp.shermanii, which is a kind of bacteria that transforms lactic acid into carbon dioxide, propionic acid, and acetic acid. The carbon dioxide permeates into the cheese body and causes the eyes that we are all familiar with to appear. Aside from cheese, the various products of Propionibacterium metabolism contribute to the distinctive tastes that are generally associated with Swiss cheese.

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Gouda cheese, like Swiss cheese, is frequently decorated with eyes, but to a lesser extent than Swiss.

Specifically, citric acid is transformed to carbon dioxide and diacetyl in this instance (buttery flavor).


The two most common molds seen in/on cheese are blue and white molds, which are both related to the color blue. While there are certain molds that cheesemakers put to cheese in order to obtain the cheese they desire, there are several molds that naturally develop on the surfaces of cheese during the affinage process. The former will be covered in this article.

White Mold

In cheeses such as camembert and brie, Penicillium camemberti (also known as Penicillium candidum) is the most common mold species, and it is responsible for the lovely white lawn on the surfaces of the cheeses. Aspects of the metabolism of this mold, such as the odors of mushrooms and ammonia associated with white mold cheeses (as well as the texture of white mold cheeses), can be attributed to the mold (soupy goodness). Examining the inside of a piece of young brie can frequently reveal that this is the case.

Penicillium camemberticovers are a kind of penicillium.

Blue Mold

Penicillium roquefortianandPenicillium glaucumare the two most important actors in the world of blue mold. These are the things that give the blues to the bleus. Molds are responsible for the creation of the colors, as well as the creation of the specific flavor and texture. According to the information in the first paragraph of this essay, these molds are alive, breathing creatures. They will change color and generate off-flavors if they are deprived of oxygen, as well as shift their metabolism and get sick.

A widespread myth is that when blue cheeses are punctured during the maturing process, mold is introduced into the cheese.

They are there to produce air channels, which is what they are intended to do.

The mold is often introduced to the milk during the preparatory cheese-making phases or to the curds just before they are hooped, depending on the method of cheese-making. By admitting oxygen into the body, the piercing only helps to stimulate mold development.

Mold-like Yeast

Among the blue molds, Penicillium roquefortianas well as Penicillium glaucumas are the most prominent. These are the things that give the blues to the bleus! As well as creating the particular flavor and texture, the molds also help to generate the unique colors. Because these molds are alive, breathing creatures, as stated in the introduction of this piece, They will change color and generate off-flavors if they are deprived of oxygen, since their metabolism will be altered. Therefore, it is not recommended to vacuum-package blue cheese (or any mold-contain cheese for that matter).

Actually, the needles are intended to help establish air passages between the lungs.

Due to the introduction of oxygen, the piercing merely helps to promote mold development.

Surface Ripened Bacteria

Brevibacterium linensis one of the most prevalent bacteria that make up “smear” germs, and it is also one of the most contagious. Also responsible for foot odor, which explains why many surface-ripened cheeses have a distinct scent to them. This bacteria creates a wide range of chemicals, some of which are responsible for the characteristic odour. Corynebacteria are another another type of bacteria that may be discovered on these cheeses in large numbers. It’s crucial to remember that the mix of microorganisms that creates the magic in many cheeses is critical to their success.


Butyeast are often utilized in the production of molded and surface ripened cheeses, despite the fact that they are often overlooked. Additionally, they are naturally found in a variety of natural rind cheeses. These are critical components of the maturing process for many types of cheese. Natural rinds are often the result of a delicate balance of yeast, mold, and bacteria that occurs throughout the production process. This will be the subject of a separate post in the future. TopDisclaimer For the most part, we discussed microorganisms separately in this section.

It is the mix of bacteria, yeast, molds, and other microorganisms that causes the magic to occur.

For More Information
  • Microbial processes in cheese manufacturing
  • Wikipedia – Lactobacillales
  • Wikipedia – Penicillium
  • MicrobialFoods.org


This post has an infographic that summarizes the information contained within it.

Cheese Production

On this page, you will find information on the general manufacture of cheese, including legalCheese Definitions, Ingredients, Bacterial Cultures, and the General Manufacturing Procedure.

Cheese Definitions

There are many different kinds of cheese. The materials, the processing, and the properties of the cheese are all determined by the variety. Several cheeses’ compositions are established under the Standards of Identity in the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Cheese can be manufactured with either pasteurized or unpasteurized milk. Cheese prepared from raw milk has distinct tastes and textural features that distinguish it from other types of cheese. Before creating some cheese kinds, raw milk is subjected to a little heat treatment (below pasteurization) in order to eliminate some of the spoilage organisms and to provide more favorable circumstances for the growth of the cheese cultures.

Some kinds of cheese must be matured for a period of time more than 60 days.

In order to cause the proteins in the milk to coagulate, acid cheeses are manufactured by adding acid to the milk.

Most forms of cheese, such as cheddar and Swiss, coagulate the milk with the help of rennet (an enzyme) in addition to the starting cultures used to make them.

Cheese that has been processed is manufactured from natural cheese and additional substances that have been heated together to modify the texture and/or melting qualities of the cheese while also increasing its shelf life.


The most important component of cheese is milk. Cheese is created from a variety of milks, including cow, goat, sheep, and water buffalo, or a combination of these milks. The sort of coagulant that is employed is determined by the type of cheese that is wanted. A moderate food acid such as acetic acid (the acid found in vinegar) or gluconodelta-lactone (also known as gluconodelta-lactone) is used to make acid cheeses. Traditionally, calf rennet or, more recently, rennet generated by microbiological bioprocessing has been used to make rennet-based cheeses.

Depending on the cheese, flavorings may be used to enhance the flavor.

Bacterial Cultures

Because their major source of energy is lactose found in milk, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in the production of cheese. Lactic acid bacteria are also used in the production of yogurt and other dairy products. There is a large range of bacterial cultures available that impart diverse taste and physical features to cheeses, as well as different textures and flavors. Fox (2004), Kosikowski and Mistry (1997), and Law (1998) provide more in-depth descriptions of cheese cultures and microbiology (1997).

  • The metabolism of the starting cultures contributes taste components that are desired by the consumer, as well as helping to inhibit the growth of spoiling organisms and diseases.
  • Adjunct cultures are employed to give or enhance the distinctive aromas and sensations that distinguish cheese from other dairy products.
  • Brevibacterium linensof gruyere, brick, and limburger cheeses are examples of adjunct cultures that may be employed as a smear to wash and smooth down the exterior of the cheese after it has been made.
  • It is necessary to utilize torula yeast while making brick and limburger cheese in order for it to mature properly.

General Manufacturing Procedure

Temperatures, durations, and pH targets for successive procedures, as well as the order in which processing steps are performed, the use of salting or brining, block formation, and aging, all varies significantly amongst cheese varieties. The flow chart below offers a high-level overview of the procedures involved in cheese production.

For the purposes of example, the general processing stages for Cheddar cheese are employed. Further information may be found in the literature references provided by Fox (2004), Kosikowski and Mistry (1997), Law (1997), Walstra et al. (1999), as well as the Goff, website.

General Cheese Processing Steps

  • Pasteurize or heat treat milk
  • Cool milk
  • Inoculate with starter or non-starter bacteria and allow to ripen
  • Add rennet and form curd
  • Cut and reheat
  • Drain whey
  • Texture curd
  • Add salt or brine
  • Finish with salt or brine Cheese should be cut into blocks. Store and age the product
  • Package the product

The timeframes, temperatures, and target pH values utilized in the production of cheddar cheese will vary depending on the specific formulation and the intended end use of the finished cheese. These parameters can be modified to improve the qualities of Cheddar cheese for shredding, melting, or aging for a period of several years, among other things.

1. Standardize Milk

Before cheese manufacture, milk is frequently standardized in order to maximize the protein to fat ratio in order to produce a high yield of excellent quality cheese.

2. Pasteurize/Heat Treat Milk

Milk may be pasteurized or lightly heat-treated, depending on the kind of cheese being produced, in order to minimize the amount of spoilage organisms present and enhance the environment in which the starting cultures may thrive. Due to the fact that some milk variants are created from raw milk, these products are neither pasteurized or heated. Ageing raw milk cheeses for at least 60 days is required to limit the chance of exposure to disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) that may exist in the milk throughout the manufacturing process.

3. Cool Milk

After pasteurization or heat treatment, milk is cooled to 90°F (32°C) in order to get it to the temperature required for the starting germs to grow successfully. If raw milk is used, it must be cooked to 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 degrees Celsius).

4. Inoculate with StarterNon-Starter Bacteria and Ripen

Starting cultures and any non-starter adjunct bacteria are added to the milk, which is then maintained at 90°F (32°C) for 30 minutes to allow the cultures to mature. The ripening process allows the bacteria to multiply and initiate fermentation, which lowers the pH of the cheese and enhances the flavor of the finished product.

5. Add Rennet and Form Curd

The rennet is the enzyme that works on the milk proteins to cause them to curdle and become curd. Following the addition of the rennet, the curd is allowed to rest for around 30 minutes, allowing a hard coagulum to develop.

6. Cut Curd and Heat

The curd is left to ferment until it achieves a pH of around 6.4. The curd is then sliced into small pieces with cheese knives and cooked to 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius). The heating process aids in the separation of the whey from the curd.

7. Drain whey

The whey is emptied from the vat, and the curd forms a mat on the floor of the vessel.

8. Texture curd

The curd mats are sliced into portions and stacked on top of each other, with the tops being switched over every few minutes. This phase is referred to ascheddarin g. When cheese is aged, it aids in the expulsion of additional whey, the continuation of the fermentation until a pH of 5.1 to 5.5 is attained, and the “knitting” of the mats, resulting in a more tightly matted structure overall. The curd mats are then milled (cut) into smaller pieces after they have been dried.

9. Dry Salt or Brine

When making cheddar cheese, the smaller, milled curd pieces are returned to the vat and salted by sprinkling dry salt on top of the curd and mixing it in. The curd is made into loaves and then immersed in a brine, which is used in the production of several cheese kinds, such as mozzarella (salt water solution).

10. Form Cheese into Blocks

To make the cheese, the salted curd bits are put in cheese hoops and squeezed into blocks until they are firm.

11. Store and Age

The cheese is kept in refrigerators until it reaches the required maturation stage. Cheese can be matured anywhere from a few months to several years, depending on the type of cheese.

12. Package

Cheese can be chopped into blocks and packed in this manner, or it can be waxed.

Cheese Cultures Explained: Everything You Need to Know

Dairy products must be aged or cultured in order to be used in the cheesemaking process. Especially if you are just beginning started on your cheesemaking adventure, you may be unclear with what cheese cultures are, how they operate, and which one you should employ to achieve the cheese you seek. Make use of our guide to assist you in getting started!

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What Are Cheese Cultures?

The term cheese culture refers to a collection of certain bacteria strains that are blended in order to produce a specific type of cheese. They are also employed to aid in the growth of beneficial bacteria in the milk, resulting in a more complex and developed flavor. Despite their differences, all cultures perform the same fundamental function: they increase the acidity of milk by absorbing the lactose (a natural sugar contained in milk) and converting it into lactic acid. Three factors make this section of the procedure particularly advantageous in the cheesemaking process:

  1. The acid aids in the separation of the milk into curds, which are a vital element in the production of cheese. Due to the consumption of the sugar contained within the milk, lactic acid causes the milk to become more acidic. Following this stage, the cheese begins to develop its distinct flavor, texture, and scent.

How Are Cheese Cultures Classified?

In spite of the fact that most cheese cultures have a remarkably similar makeup, they may be distinguished by the temperature at which they function, the types of bacteria strains they include, and the proportion of each strain present in the culture. The type of bacteria strain and the percentage of each strain will change depending on the sort of cheese you wish to manufacture.


Cheese cultures are categorised according to the temperature at which they perform their functions. The following are the two most frequent types of cheese cultures:

Mesophilic Culture:

If you want to work with this sort of cheese culture, you need keep the temperature at mild or medium, up to 90°F. When creating hard cheeses like as Monterey, Cheddar, Jack, Edam, and Gouda, it is perfect for use in a range of applications. Mesophilic culture is also the more prevalent of the two types of cultures since it is used to manufacture the vast majority of cheeses that cannot be cooked to a high temperature.

Thermophilic Culture:

Because it is a heat-loving bacterium, this type of cheese culture performs best at temperatures ranging from 68 to 125 degrees Fahrenheit (68-125 degrees Celsius). There are a number of cheeses made with it including Mozzarella and Parmesan but also Swiss, Romano and other varieties that can resist high temperatures such as Provolone and Romano. The range of growth and flavor production for each particular culture will vary based on not just the temperature, but also the number of strains of bacteria utilized and the ratio of each strain used, among other factors.

Starter Culture vs. Non Starter Culture

Cheese may be made without using a beginning culture in certain cases (for example, certain types of fresh, unaged cheeses like cream cheese and cottage cheese), but the vast majority of cheeses require the use of a starter culture in some form. Starter culture is a kind of bacterium (LAB, or lactic acid bacteria) that has been carefully cultured and is used to initiate the transformation of milk to cheese. The following recipes are excellent for beginners or if you’re searching for a basic approach to get started with creating your own cheese!

Some starting cultures, such as Mesophilic culture, have a broader range of applications, and may be used in a number of cheese recipes ranging from semi-soft to hard.

Non-starter culture (NSLAB or non-starter lactic acid bacteria, for short) is made up of microbial groups that are less abundant in curds and grow under circumstances that are distinct from those of their counterparts.

National Center for Biotechnology Information states that this kind of culture dominates the cheese microbiota during ripening because of its ability to endure a hostile environment, which has an impact on curd maturation and the development of the cheese’s final qualities.

What Types of Cheese Cultures Does The CheeseMaker Offer?

Cheese culture is a critical component of cheesemaking since it is responsible for forming the substance of the cheese. At The CheeseMaker, we can assist you in locating the cheese culture that you require for your project. In our role as specialists in cheesemaking, we supply you with all of the cheesemaking supplies you may want in order to produce cheese in the comfort of your own kitchen. When you want cheesemaking components or supplies, allow us to assist you in selecting the most appropriate things to get you started on your homemade cheesemaking journey right away!

  • It is one of the most popular types of cultures to be used in cheese recipes.
  • MESOPHOLIC CULTURE MA 4001-4002- If you enjoy making semi-hard or hard cheeses, we recommend using this type of mesophilic culture because it is ideal for making Roquefort cheese as well as other semi-hard and hard cheeses such as Cambozola and Castello Blue.
  • Mesophilic Culture MA11-14-16-19-If you enjoy Brie or Camembert and would like to experiment with creating it from scratch, this is the culture for you.
  • Mellow Ripening Culture BT 02-This type of culture mix is best used for soft ripened and fresh unripened cheeses, as well as for soft ripened and fresh unripened cheeses.
  • Culture for Thermophilic Cheese TA 61-62-If you enjoy making hard and aged cheeses, then this culture is a must-have.
  • Thermophilic Culture TM81- If you’re seeking for a culture that is vegan-friendly, this is the culture for you!
  • Culture in a Thermophilic Environment When seeking for a culture that can withstand extreme temperatures, Su Casu is the one you should choose.
  • Mesophilic FT001-02 Feta Cheese Culture – If you enjoy Feta cheese and want to try making it at home, this culture is for you.
  • Cheese Making Culture/Mold/Rennet Kit for Camembert or Brie Cheese- If you’re not sure where to begin or are frightened by the vast array of cheese cultures available, we recommend starting with a kit.
  • Following along is simple with our list of step-by-step directions and downloadable eBooks.
  • The fact that all of our beginner kits are pre-measured and include an eBook for you to reference makes them extremely simple to use.

Starter kits are especially ideal for novices because they include all of the materials, instructions, and equipment you will need to get started on your cheesemaking adventure. This will save you endless hours of time at the supermarket!

What is the Difference Between Each Culture?

Cheese cultures are distinguished from one another by the combination of bacteria strains in varied ratios. These combinations are what separate one cheese culture from the others and place these cultures in their respective categories. Our cheese cultures are also distinguished by their characteristics, their application, and the number assigned to them. For more details, please visit the websites of each culture listed above to discover what is included in each package. Most of our cheese cultures are available in 2-packet or 4-packet sets, allowing you to produce cheese in small or large quantities depending on your personal choice and the number of servings you require.

Culture Image Use
Mesophilic Culture MM100-101 Mozzarella, Camembert, Brie, Chevre, Blue, Feta and Fromage Blanc
Mesophilic Culture MA 4001-4002 Roquefort, Cambozola, Castello Blue, Colby, Cheddar, Gouda, Brick and other hard or semi-hard cheeses.
Mesophilic Culture MA11-14-16-19 Acidifies milk and can be added to Camembert and Brie cheese. You can also make Cheddar, Colby, Monterrey Jack, Blue cheese, Feta, Chevre and other cheeses.
Mesophilic Culture BT 02 Can be used as the culture to make homemade Camembert, Brie, Blue cheese, Mozzarella, Chevre, Feta, Fromage Blanc, and other cheeses.
Thermophilic Culture TA 61-62 Great for making homemade Parmesan, Romano, Provolone, Mozzarella and Swiss.
Thermophilic Culture TM 81 Great for making Italian style cheeses and Mozzarella. This culture creates a moist, soft, and stretchy structure.
Thermophilic Culture Su Casu This culture is a blend of Thermophilic bacteria for making Parmesan,Elemental/Swiss. This culture has a very high heat resistance.
Feta Series FT001-02-Mesophilic Specially-formulated freeze-dried culture blend for Feta cheese.
Camembert or Brie Cheese Making Culture/Mold/Rennet Brie and Camembert cheeses.

Why Is Cheese Culture ImportantWhat Is It Used For?

Cheese culture is essential not only for the manufacturing of cheese, but also for the preservation of cheese once it has been produced. Cheese cultures also contribute in the prevention of harmful bacteria development, which can degrade cheese and limit its shelf life if not properly maintained. It is for this reason that cheese lasts longer than milk! The beneficial bacteria included in cheese cultures assist the rennet or coagulant in setting the cheese while undermining the harmful bacteria already present.

In addition, cheese culture has the important role of influencing the flavor and texture of the cheese.

Overall, cheese cultures are critical in the creation of cheese, the development of different textures and flavors in particular varieties of cheese, and the preservation of cheese.

Which Cheese Culture Do I Need?

The sort of cheese culture you will require will be determined by the type of cheese you wish to produce. Our recipe for homemade cheese By outlining the kind of cultures you will want, you can eliminate the guessing! However, if your recipe does not specify the sort of cheese culture you will use or if you are working on a whim, a basic rule of thumb is to pay close attention to the temperature of the inoculation during the ripening phase. While we recommend using the mesophilic culture if the temperature is between 68 and 125 degrees Fahrenheit, the thermophilic culture should be used in any temperature between 68 and 125 degrees Fahrenheit.

The texture of the cheese (soft, semi-soft, or hard) will also influence the type of culture that is required for its production.

The use of a thermophilic starting culture in hard cheeses such as Swiss and Parmesan, as well as other hard cheeses, is common since these types of starter cultures exhibit exceptional heat tolerance and are therefore frequently used in cheese that demands high temperatures. 5.

How Do You Store Cheese Cultures?

Unopened cheese cultures should be stored in the freezer or somewhere cool to keep them fresh and prevent the growth of more germs (bacteria thrives in warm environments!). In order to prevent moisture from getting into the culture, be sure to lock or shut them in a tight plastic bag or tiny mason jar while not in use. Cheese cultures have a shelf life of up to two years if they are kept correctly.

What’s the Difference Between Cheese CultureCheese Mold?

Cheese culture is largely used to produce the substance of the cheese inside by encouraging the growth of beneficial bacteria in the milk, which results in a cheese with a more complex and complex flavor. It is a collection of unique bacteria strains that have been assembled for the purpose of producing a certain cheese2. However, cheese mold assists in the formation of the exterior of the cheese by introducing bacteria to the mixture, which results in the cheese’s distinct texture and flavor.

What Cheeses Are Made With Cheese Culture?

Because most cheeses such as Cheddar, Gouda, Mozzarella, Brie, and Camembert are aged, they necessitate the employment of a certain type of cheese culture in order to produce them. Only in rare cases, some soft, fresh cheeses such as cream cheese or cottage cheese, which are not aged, do not require the addition of any form of cheese culture to be successful. In order to make the most popular cheeses available, mesophilic or thermophilic bacteria cultures are used, which are distinguished by the temperature at which they grow and reproduce.

When in doubt about the sort of cheese culture to use, feel free to refer to a cheese recipe or this page for help in determining the best option for you!

What Other Cheese Cultures Are There And What Are Their Uses?

Some of the other sorts of cheese cultures that we sell include the feta and camembert/brie starter kits, which are used to manufacture cheeses that are particular to these two varieties of cheese, respectively. Another type of culture is Propioni bacterium, which is utilized in the making of Swiss cheeses for their fragrance, taste, eye development, and other characteristics. However, while there is a limitless array of cheese cultures accessible, mesophilic and thermophilic cultures are the two most prevalent and widely utilized types of cheese cultures.

This culture may also be used in conjunction with a thermophilic culture to produce a variety of hard cheeses such as: Provolone, Romano, Parmesan, Mozzarella, and so on.

No matter what sort of cheese you are experimenting with, starting with these two types of cultures will ensure that you are on the right road. However, always double check your recipe to confirm that you are using the correct cultures.

Where Do Cheese Cultures Come From?

Cheese cultures are formed by the fermentation of milk, which can come from a variety of sources depending on the animal from which it was derived, such as a cow, goat, or sheep, among others. It is necessary to utilize pasteurized milk derived from animals in order for beneficial bacteria to proliferate in milk products. Cheese cultures are made up of lactic bacteria that are added to milk in order to break down the lactose (sugars) contained in it and make it more digestible as well as more environmentally friendly.

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Benefits of Cheese Cultures for HealthWellness – Probiotics

Foods that have been fermented, such as yogurt, kombucha, and even cheese, have achieved broad appeal as a result of the numerous health advantages they give. Fermented foods and beverages include a large number of beneficial bacteria known as probiotics, which aid in the restoration of gut health and contain a large number of digestive enzymes. There are several short- and long-term health benefits to consuming fermented dairy products like kefir or yogurt, as well as certain types of cheeses (in moderation, of course!) that can improve your overall heath.

  1. Some of the benefits of cheese include the fact that it is a fantastic source of protein, it is high in vitamin B12 (which is essential for energy and neurological system health), it contains many good fats, it aids in muscle development, it helps to boost your immune system, and many more!
  2. Think about this the next time you’re concerned about cheese’s effect on your waistline before restricting your consumption of it!
  3. We provide a huge assortment of cheese cultures, molds, and materials for any type of cheesemaker, whether you’re just getting started or ready to try more sophisticated recipes.
  4. If you need assistance in locating the one you want, the CheeseMaker can assist you in getting started!
  5. Sources-

A Complete Guide to Cheese Cultures for Making Homemade Cheese

A cheese culture is a collection of specific bacteria strains that have been combined (typically by a culture firm) for the purpose of producing a certain cheese. The majority of cheese cultures function in a similar manner, although they are categorised according to the temperature at which they function. Cheese cultures are distinguished from one another not only by the temperature at which they are produced, but also by the types of bacteria that they contain.

The types of bacteria strains present in a cheese culture, as well as the proportions of each strain present, will differ based on the type of cheese being produced.

How Do Cheese Cultures Work?

All civilizations do the same fundamental tasks. Cheese microorganisms increase the acidity of milk by absorbing the lactose (milk sugar) present and turning it into lactic acid as quickly as possible. This prevents the already-present bacteria from reproducing and aids the rennet (or coagulant, if one is employed) in setting the cheese. When used in the cheesemaking process, starter cultures also contribute in the formation and retention of the taste and body of the cheese. They are also used later in the aging phase.

Classifying Cheese Cultures by Temperature

Cheese cultures are frequently classified according to the temperature range in which they thrive.

  • When we say that something is mesophilic, we imply that it is fond of the medium, which implies that a mesophilic culture will grow best at temperatures up to 90oF.
  • Temperature-loving is referred to as thermophilic. It is necessary to add this sort of culture to milk that has been cooked to higher temperatures.

With the exception of the coldest temperature category, each of the other temperature groups contains cheese cultures made up of various bacteria strains in varying amounts. It is the various combinations and ratios of ingredients that result in the various cheeses.


There are various cheese cultures available, each of which contains a unique combination of bacteria designed to produce a distinct type of cheese. When it comes to manufacturing cheese, these are excellent beginning points for anyone who is not ready to explore and simply wants a basic approach to follow. In addition to detailed usage instructions, several of these starting cultures even include the rennet necessary for fermentation.

Starter Culture — Cheese 201 — The Cheese Shop

Returning to Cheese 201 Cheese has an allure that both captivates our palate and challenges our mind at the same time. Cheese, which is simple in nature but appears sophisticated in the production process, excites (and sometimes intimidates) us with its many tastes, textures, colors, and scents that can be created from only four fundamental ingredients: milk, culture, rennet, and salt. By comprehending that cheese manufacturing is just “stages of controlled deterioration,” as described by cheese master Steve Jenkins, it becomes much easier to comprehend how these many components work together to produce the vast universe of cheese.

  • Most popular in the United States are cow, goat, sheep, and water buffalo milk, as well as a combination of these milk sources.
  • It varies from animal to animal how much milk they produce.
  • Starter Culture: Often a one-of-a-kind recipe, starter culture remains active during the ripening/aging process and is one of the most important factors in determining the flavor, look, and scent of a cheese.
  • There are two techniques for coagulating milk and making curd: Lactic Coagulated and Rennet Coagulated.
  • Each of these ways makes use of the starting culture to carry out a certain duty during the cheese-making process in a different way.
  • Lactic acid is used to acidify (decrease the pH) the milk, which is then used to make cheese.
  • Cheeses created using lactic acid (or other acids such as lemon juice or vinegar) will also contain rennet, but only to aid in the firming of the curd, not to form the curd itself.
  • Cheese that has been coagulated using rennet: When making rennet cheese, the primary enzyme rennin is used.
  • Almost all hard cheeses are rennet-coagulated cheeses, which means they have been coagulated using rennet.

It was often believed that rennet could only be taken from the fourth stomach of young ruminant animals; however, today, it is frequently professionally generated and can be microbial, vegetable, or synthetic.

Yogurt, Sour Cream, and Cheese, Oh My! – Milk and Microbes Make Cultured Dairy Go ‘Round

05th of June, 2020 Josie Greve-Petersen contributed to this article. June is National Dairy Month, a time to commemorate and appreciate everything related to dairy! The inaugural dairy appreciation month was held in 1937, and it was originally known as National Milk Month to encourage people to drink milk. Today, National Dairy Month serves as an opportunity to recognize and celebrate everything that the dairy business has to offer the globe. There are countless dairy products to choose from, and many of them require the assistance of bacteria in order to be transformed into our favorite delicacies.

Pathogens such as Listeria and Salmonella, as well as spoilage organisms such as yeasts and molds, are all well-known to the general public.

Adding bacteria to milk allows for the production of a range of cultured dairy products.

The following sections discuss two prominent cultured dairy products.


Every stage of the cheese-making process is influenced by microbes! There are hundreds of different cheese kinds available today, all of which start with some form of milk and are then processed by bacteria to create their own distinct texture and flavor characteristics. The acidification of the milk is the first stage in the cheesemaking process. Acidifying milk is the process of lowering the pH of milk, which is accomplished by adding starter culture, or beneficial bacteria, and heating it.

  • As the acidity of the milk increases, the process of changing it from a liquid into a solid begins.
  • This enzyme causes milk to solidify into curds, with the residual liquid known as whey being separated from the curds.
  • When it comes to cheese, hard cheeses are sliced into extremely small pieces, whereas soft cheeses are virtually ever cut.
  • In order to form the curds, they are placed in baskets or molds and squeezed to eliminate any residual whey from the mixture.
  • Salting is a vital step in the cheesemaking process, not only for preservation purposes, but also for taste enhancement objectives.
  • Fresh cheeses are finished and ready to consume once the shape and salting processes are completed.
  • Affinage is a slang term for the process of aging cheese.
  • Each type of cheese is distinct from the others.

Many old cheeses include non-starter bacteria, which activate throughout the ripening process to provide tastes or form eyes (holes) in the product, depending on the variety. Aged cheeses are ready to be consumed once they have undergone affinage.


The milk is cooked to a high temperature of 185°F in order to manufacture yogurt. It is at this temperature that milk proteins are broken down, preventing the formation of curds. The longer the milk is cooked, the thicker the resulting yogurt will become. After being heated, the milk is swiftly cooled to around 113°F before bacteria are introduced to it. The microorganisms will next ferment the milk for 4 to 12 hours, depending on the strain. Lactose, or milk sugar, is converted into lactic acid by the bacteria during the yogurt fermentation process.

  • Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are two types of bacteria that are required for the production of yogurt.
  • Many households rely on cultured dairy products as a staple meal.
  • In order to effectively manage dangerous bacteria, as well as to guarantee that the beneficial bacteria can do their jobs, effective sanitation is required.
  • Another excellent example of how PSSI may contribute to the provision of safe, high-quality food is provided by the company.

dairy product – Cultured dairy foods

The growth of microbiological and nutritional sciences in the late nineteenth century resulted in the development of the technology required to manufacture cultured dairy products on an industrial or commercial scale. It has been known to make fermentedmilks from ancient times, when warm raw milk from cows or sheep, goats or camels, camels or horses was naturally preserved by common strains of Streptococcus andLactobacillusbacteria. (The “cultures” were generated by incorporating a little bit of the prior batch into the current batch.) Due to the effectiveness of these non-toxic lactic acid makers in inhibiting spoilage and harmful organisms, it was feasible to keep fresh milk for several days or even weeks without refrigeration.

  1. It is the first fermentation step, which involves the partial conversion of lactose (milk sugar) to lactic acid, that is critical in the manufacture of cultured dairy products.
  2. At temperatures of roughly 32 degrees Celsius (90 degrees Fahrenheit), these bacteria multiply extremely quickly, with their population potentially doubling every 20 minutes.
  3. The formation of additional chemicals by subsequent or secondary fermentations can include diacetyl (a flavoring component found in buttermilk) and alcohol (from yeasts in kefir), as well as butyric acid (a carbohydrate present in yogurt) (which causes bitter or rancid flavours).
  4. In addition to these less well-known products, kefir, koumiss, acidophilus milk, and novel yogurts containing Bifidobacterium are becoming increasingly popular.

These foods are high in calcium and protein, and they are a good source of both. Additionally, they may aid in the establishment and maintenance of good gut bacterial flora as well as the reduction of lactose intolerance.


The majority of people believe buttermilk is heavy in fat because of its name. It is really named for the fact that buttermilk was previously the watery byproduct of the buttermaking process, hence the name. It is now common to find modern buttermilk that is produced from low-fat or skim milk and that has less than 2 percent fat or even none at all. In many areas, the correct term for this product is “cultured low-fat milk” or “cultured nonfat milk.” Skimor low-fat milk is used as the beginning component in the preparation of buttermilk.

  1. In order to reduce wheying off, this heating procedure is performed in order to eliminate all naturally present bacteria as well as denature the protein in question (separation of liquid from solids).
  2. dextranicum, are added to generate the acidity and distinctive flavor of buttermilk.
  3. The process of ripening takes around 12 to 14 hours (overnight).
  4. After that, it is packed and stored in the refrigerator.

Sour cream

Sour cream is manufactured using the same temperature and culture processes as buttermilk, with the exception of the addition of an acidifier. The most significant change is the beginning material: sour cream is made using light 18 percent cream instead of heavy cream.


Buttermilk and sour cream are both created in a similar manner to yogurt, although yogurt requires a distinct set of bacteria and temperatures. Total solids are raised to 14 to 16 percent by adding nonfat dry milk or fresh condensed skim milk to whole, low-fat, or skim milk to make it more solid. The combination is heated to the same temperature as buttermilk and then cooled to 45.6 to 46.7 degrees Celsius (114 to 116 degrees Fahrenheit). During this stage, a culture consisting of equal partsLactobacillus bulgaricus andStreptococcus thermophilusis introduced to the warm milk, which is then processed using one of two ways.

Milk is allowed to incubate in enormous heated tanks to produce forblended yogurt (also known as Swiss or French-style yogurt).

yogurtHomemade yogurt that is fresh and delicious.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a bacterium that has been introduced to the bacterial cultures of several yogurt makers.

In humans, L. acidophilus has been shown to have potential health advantages, including the alleviation of yeast infections and the restoration of normal bacterial balance to the digestive tract following antibiotic therapy.

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