- 1 Material and Non‐Material Culture
- 2 Society and Culture Culture Summary & Analysis
- 3 SOC100 – Culture notes
- 4 Ojibwe Material Culture
- 5 About the Ojibwe
Material and Non‐Material Culture
Sociologists distinguish between two parts of human culture that are intertwined: the physical objects of culture and the concepts that are linked with these items. When individuals talk about material culture, they are referring to the actual things, resources, and locations that they utilize to define their culture. Homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, offices, factories and plants, tools, means of production, commodities and products, stores, and so on are all examples of what is included in this category of objects.
In the United States, for example, technology is a critical component of contemporary material culture.
When we speak about nonmaterial culture, we are referring to the nonphysical concepts that individuals have about their culture.
For example, the non-material cultural concept of religion is comprised of a collection of concepts and beliefs about God, worship, values, and ethics that are not based in material culture.
A culture’s employment of numerous processes to form its members’ thoughts, feelings, and actions is considered nonmaterial culture by sociologists.
Society and Culture Culture Summary & Analysis
Everything created, taught, or shared by the members of a community, including values, beliefs, behaviors, and tangible things, is considered to be part of the culture. Culture is something that is learnt, and it differs considerably from one community to the next. We begin learning about our culture from the minute we are born, since the people who nurture us encourage particular habits and teach their own interpretations of what is acceptable and bad in their own way. Despite the fact that civilizations differ greatly, they are all divided into two categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture.
Material culture is comprised of the tangible, visible components of a culture, such as food, clothes, automobiles, weaponry, and structures, among other things. Aspects of material culture range from one community to the next in many ways. The following are some characteristics of contemporary material culture in the United States:
- Soy lattes, CD burners, running shoes, iPods, lifestyle magazines, organic veggies, and sport utility vehicles are some of the things you may find.
As an illustration, jewelry that denotes a person’s marital status is a prevalent type of material culture. A metal band is worn on the left ring finger of the left hand to signify that the wearer is married in the United States of America. A notice like this isn’t necessary in smaller, less industrialized communities where everyone knows everyone other.
In certain regions of India, ladies wear a necklace to signify that they are married, which is a tradition. In Northern Europe, persons who are married wear their wedding rings on the right side of their hands.
Nonmaterial culture refers to the intangible parts of a culture, such as its values and beliefs, that cannot be seen or touched. Nonmaterial culture is comprised of thoughts and ideas that define who we are and distinguish us from members of other civilizations. It is not limited to physical objects.
- Avalue is an idea about what is good or wrong, desirable or unpleasant that has been culturally accepted. When it comes to how things should be, values are a culture’s ideas about how things should be done, and they vary considerably from civilization to society.
As an illustration, many women in the United States now consider thinness to be a criterion of beauty. In Ghana, on the other hand, the majority of the population considers American fashion models to be sickly and unappealing. In that culture, as well as others, robustness is seen as a more attractive characteristic than skinniness.
- The exact concepts that people hold to be true are referred to as beliefs. Beliefs are supported by values.
For example, Americans believe in the right to freedom of expression and feel that individuals should be able to speak whatever they want without fear of retaliation from the authorities. Many Americans feel that freedom is a fundamental right that should be protected by the government and that people should be allowed to live their lives as they see fit with the least amount of interference from the government.
SOC100 – Culture notes
|I. CULTURE AND SOCIETYA. Culture: Knowledge, language, values,customs, material objects passed from 1 generation to the next, one person tothe next. 1.Humansboth construct culture and are sustained by it 2.Culturevaries and changes through timeB.What appears to be natural features of ourlives (sexuality, aging, death, the consumption of food) are all mademeaningful by culture (Murdock).There is a strong connection between aperson’s values, beliefs, and behaviors and the culture in which they wereraised.1.Whentrying to understand why a person has particular values, use a sociologicalimagination and consider their cultural influences.If they were raised in a culture that valuesmonogamy, it would likely be the case that the person would expressdissatisfaction at their partner being intimate with another person, forexample.a.material culture: The physical or tangible creations that members of a societymake, use, and share for survival and enjoyment (cars, clothing, houses,computers, etc.)b.nonmaterial culture: Abstract or intangible human creations of society thatinfluence people’s behavior (language, beliefs, values, rules, family patterns,political systems, etc.) c.cultural universals (George Murdock 1945): Customs and practices that occuracross all societies (appearance, activities, social institutions,customary practices 1.Specific forms vary from one group to anotherand from one time to another within the same group.II. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE A. symbols: anything meaningful thatrepresents something else. -Shared meanings (flowerbehind ear, shaka sign, flag, color of clothing and gender) -But meanings vary byculture and thus are often misinterpreted: -AOKAY gesture is good inUS, but in France and Belgium, however, it means “You’re worth zero”while in Greece and Turkey, it isan insulting or vulgar sexual invitation.In parts of southern Italy,it is an offensive and graphic reference to a part of the anatomy.B. language: a set of symbols thatexpresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. -Humans have unique abilityto express abstract concepts and rules and thus to create and transmit culturefrom one generation to the next. -Language shapes ourperception of reality -Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.Language precedes thought. 1) Eskimo language has over twenty wordsassociated with snow which allows them to make subtle distinctions regardingthe different types of snowfall. 2) Japan and “excuse me”. 3) The number of words and expressionspertaining to technology that have entered the English language. These include cyberspace,virtual reality, hackers, morphing, information surfers, wired, and zapped. These words reflect thepreoccupation of American culture with technology.In contrast, many Americansare at a loss for words when they are asked to describe nature: varieties ofsnow, wind, or rain, kinds of forests, vegetation zones…Why?These things are not of great importance inurban American culture.-Mostsociologists believe that language influences our behavior and interpretationof social reality but does not determine it.-Language and gender: 1) Ignores women by using the masculine form to refer tohuman beings in general (man, chairman, mankind, which supposedly includes bothmen and women.) 2) Use of pronouns he and she show gender of person weexpect to be in a particular position.(Will little girls think it’s possible to be a cop if we mainly refer tocops as ‘he’?) (Under 10% of police in the US are female). 3) A language-based predisposition to think about women insexual terms reinforces the notion that women are sexual objects (fox, bitch,babe, doll=childlike and pet-like characteristics.) By contrast, men haveperformance pressures placed on them by being defined in terms of their sexualprowess (dude, stud, hunk).-Many changes have occurred(Ms. versus Mrs., food server versus waiter/tress, chairperson, etc.)-Language, race, andethnicity -Language transmitspreconceived ideas about the superiority of one category of people over another. 1) That’s mighty white of you, black mark 2) Racial slurs popularized in movies, music, often used inconjunction with physical threats against persons. -Language reflects ourfeelings and values.C. values: collective ideas about whatis right and wrong, good bad, desirable or not, in a particular culture. -Provide us with thecriteria by which we evaluate people, objects, and events.We use values to justify our behavior. Robin Williams, 1970 10 CoreAmerican values -Individualism, achievementand success, activity and work, science and technology, progress and materialcomfort, equality, efficiency and practicality, morality and humanitarianism,freedom and liberty, racism and group superiority. -Value contradictions:Real versus Ideal culture:Ideal culture is what people say they value, and Real culture is what people actually do – sometimes there are contradictions – ie, we say we value obeying the law (ideal culture) but we break the speed limit when we are late to work (real culture).D. norms: Established rules of behavioror standards of conduct.Vary accordingto culture (Japan: pool, sleeves, train windows) -Prescriptive andproscriptive -Formal and Informal norms -Folkways:Informal norms or everyday customs that may beviolated without serous consequences (Brush teeth, wear right clothing, thanking people for helping you, etc.) -Mores:Strongly held norms with moral and ethicalconnotations that may not be violated without serous consequences. Taboos:Mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensiveand unmentionable. -Laws:formal, standardized norms that have been enactedby legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. -Civil or criminal.III. TECHNOLOGY, CULTURAL CHANGE AND DIVERSITY A. cultural change: many forces workingfor change and diversity.1. technology: knowledge, techniques,tools that allow people to transform resources into usable forms and theknowledge and skills required to use what is developed.2. cultural lag (Ogburn, 1966) A gap betweenthe technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions(material culture moves faster than non-material (cloning, stem cell research,internet privacy issues). Conflict.3. discovery, invention, and diffusion -Discover cure for cancer?AIDS? -Invention of guns, thewheel, -Diffuse into othercountries by media, military, tourism, immigration.B. cultural diversity: wide range of cultural differences found betweenand within nations. -homogeneous: Include people who share a commonculture and are typically from similar social, religious, political, andeconomic backgrounds (Japan, Sweden) -heterogeneous: Include people who are dissimilarin regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity(United States) 1.subcultures: a category of people who share distinguishing attributes,beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant mannerfrom the dominant culture (Native Americans, Generation Xers, Amish, ethnicsubcultures in LA, NY, and other large cities, like Asians, Vietnamese,Taiwanese, etc.)2.countercultures: a group that strongly rejects dominant societal valuesand norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.Young people most likely to join these ‘cause have less invested inexisting culture (beatniks of the 1950’s, flower children of 1960’s, religioussects, or cults, KKK, Nation of Islam, etc.).C. culture shock: the disorientation that people feel when they encountercultures radically different from their own(Japan swimming pools,small appliances, tins of black bikes and not even locked up, not saying helloto strangers=aggressive, coming home in Canadian airport,etc.)D. ethnocentrism and cultural relativism -Ethnocentrism:the practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture.Assume one’s way of life is superior to allothers (In Japan, people would rather crawl on floor than walk in housewith shoes…if we think that’s weird, we might be being ethnocentric)-CulturalRelativism:the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must beviewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards.For example, we don’t judge what people do in other cultures because we understand that it’s just part of their culture.-BUTmay be used to excuse customs and behaviors that may violate basic human rights(genital mutilation).IV. HIGH CULTURE, POPULAR CULTURE A. High culture:classicalmusic, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized byelite audiences, composed primarily of members of the upper classes, who havethe time, money, and knowledge assumed to be necessary for its appreciation. 1. Cultural Capital theory: (Bourdieu, 1984). -When sociologists look athigh culture and popular culture, the focus is primarily on the associationbetween culture and social class. -Karen Cox example. -High culture is a deviseused by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes. For example, if a lower class person goes to a 5-star restaurant and doesn’t knowwhat fork to use, they will know that they don’t belong there. -Since knowledge andappreciation ofhigh cultureare considered a prerequisite for access to thedominant class, its members can use their cultural capital to deny access tosubordinate group members and thus preserve and reproduce the existing classstructure (Hale, 1993). -The value of education ispart of cultural capital. -Parents give this to us. -People must be trained toenjoy high culture. -Individuals learn abouthigh culture in upper-middle and upper-class families and in elite educationsystems, especially higher education. -Possess a form of culturalcapital.B.Popular culture:Activities,services, products, assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle andworking classes (rock concerts, spectator sports, movies, and TV soap operasand sit coms.) -But rise of consumersociety in which luxury items have become more widely accessible to the masseshas greatly reduced the great divide between activities and possessionsassociated with wealthy people or a social elite (Huysses, 1984).1.fads andfashions (popular culture) -fad: a temporary but widelycopied activity followed enthusiastically be large numbers of people. -Most are short-lived. -fashion: a currently valuedstyle of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and morewidespread than a fad (in childrearing, education, arts, clothing, music,sports).-Cultural imperialism: Theextensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations (Hawaii). -Homogeneous global culture?Or just becoming Westernized?V. SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURE A. Functionalist: Sees society asstable, orderly system with interrelated parts that serve specific functions. -Culture helps people meetsmany needs: 1)biological: food and procreation 2)instrumental needs: law and education 3)integrative needs: religion and art -Societies in which peopleshare a common language and core values are more likely to have consensus andharmony. -Popular culture is the gluethat holds society together. -Regardless of differences,we can all enjoy a sporting event or a good movie… -We become homogenized as aresult of seeing the same images and being exposed to the same beliefs andvalues (Gerbner, 1987).-Dysfunctions: numeroussubcultures (different values) -But may overemphasize harmonyand cooperation. -Also needs to look atstructural problems like class-based inequalities, racism, and sexism, that maycontribute to conflict.B. Conflict: Assumes social life is acontinuous struggle in which members of powerful groups seek to control scarceresources. -Valuesand norms help create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful insociety while excluding others. -Marxsaid that ideas were cultural creations of society’s most powerful members. -Political,economic, and social leaders use ideology:an integrated system of ideas that is external to, and coercive of, people, tomaintain their positions of dominance in a society (Marx).-Popularculture is merely part of the capitalistic economy, products and servicescreated.We begin to think we need thesethings. Symboliccapital: public trust in the product (Boourgieu, 1984).If it’s Nike, it MUST be good.-Also,the issues of language and power and who gets to define. -Butsome say conflict focus too much on societal discord and the divisiveness ofculture.C. Interactionist (SymbolicInteractionist) -Microlevel analysis -focus on the sum ofpeople’s interactions. -People create, maintain,and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities. -Symbols make communicationpossible by providing shared meanings (clothing, for example.) -Flags, new norms, newmeanings -Values and norms arereinterpreted in each social situation we encounter. -But even Simmel said thatthe larger cultural world eventually takes a life of its own independent of theactors who daily re-create social life.Thus, people may be more controlled than they realize: Money:develops a social meaning that extends beyondits economic function. -Becomes an end in itself,rather than a means to an end.-But no systematic frameworkfor analyzing how we shape culture and how it, in turn, shapes us. -Also doesn’t say how sharedmeanings are developed AND doesn’t address thedisagreements on meanings. -Fails to take larger socialstructure into account.VI. CULTURAL PATTERNS FOR THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY A.Important changes in cultural patterns may include: 1. cultural diffusion and cultural diversityRESOURCES Websites: TheSociology of Culture – Wikipedia Books of Interest:After Subculture: Critical Studies in ContemporaryYouth Cultureby Andy Bennett and Keith Kahn-Harris (2004)The Graffiti Subculture: Youth, Masculinity andIdentity in London and New Yorkby Nancy Macdonald (2003)Hippies of the Religious Right:From the Countercultures of Jerry Garcia to the Subculture of Jerry Falwellby Preston Shires (2007)|
Ojibwe Material Culture
Following consultation with Native American elders, spiritual leaders, tribal authorities, and lineal descendants, it has been established that some things are culturally sensitive and should not be purchased. It is not possible to see images of these objects on this website or in the Collections Onlinedatabase.
Where are the rest of the collections?
Collections Online allows you to look for images and artwork linked with the Ojibwe, as well as items associated with other Native American cultures and groups. To learn more, go to Collections Online. TheGale Family Library is home to a collection of books and manuscripts relating to the Ojibwe people and culture.
About the Ojibwe
The Ojibwe are a vast group of Native Americans that live throughout North America, and they are one of the Native American tribes who live in Minnesota. They are a member of the Algonquian language family, which encompasses the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the United States as well as a portion of Canada’s eastern border. Currently, Ojibwe nations may be found in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Canada, among other places.
What is the difference between ‘Chippewa,’ ‘Ojibway,’ ‘Ojibwa,’ ‘Ojibwe’ and ‘Anishinaabe?’
Chippewa is one of the many names given to the Ojibwe people, who are also known as the Chippewa. As a result of the widespread mispronunciation of the word Ojibwe, the term “Chippewa” has been widely used. Ojibwe (also spelled Ojibwa or Ojibway) is a term that literally translates as “to pucker,” and it refers to the way that the Ojibwe traditionally construct moccasins with a puckered toe in their footwear. In the Ojibwe language (also known as Ojibwemowin), the word “Anishinaabe” means “man.” All of these words are appropriate and are often used among numerous Ojibwe tribes and cultures across the world.
Why is “Ojibwe” used in museum records?
The use of a single word, “Ojibwe,” across the catalog records ensures uniformity and promotes searchability throughout documents in the collection.