Which Of The Following Is A Generalization About African Music-culture

African music

Afrikan music encompasses all indigenous African cultures, including the Berber in the Sahara and the San (Bushmen), Khoikhoin (Hottentot), and Khoikhoin (Hottentot) in Southern Africa. There will be no mention of the music of European settlercommunities or the music of Arab North Africa in the current conversation. See Islamic arts: Music for information on the music of Islamic Africa.


It is well known that African music has experienced numerous and significant transformations throughout history. What is referred to as traditional music now is most likely extremely different from the music of Africa in previous eras. In addition, African music has never been strictly associated with any particular ethnic group in the past. The individual artist, his or her style and inventiveness, have always played a significant role in the music industry. The archaeological and other objects, pictorial sources (rock paintings, petroglyphs, book illustrations, drawings, and paintings), oral historical sources, written sources (travelers’ accounts, field notes, inscriptions in Arabic and in African and European languages), musical notations, sound recordings, photographs and motion pictures, and videotape are all examples of material sources for the study of African music history.

The musical cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa formerly reached as far north as North Africa throughout antiquity.

  • During this time period, human settlement of the Sahara rose significantly, and Neolithic, or New Stone Age, societies with a so-called aquatic lifestyle spread from the western Sahara into the Nile River basin along rivers and small lakes.
  • The wet climate became more constrained to shrinking lakes and rivers, and, to a greater degree, to the region of the upper Nile, as a result of global warming.
  • As a result of their long history in Africa, the cultures of the “Green Sahara” have left behind a great collection of iconographic documentation in the form of rock paintings, among which are some of the earliest internal sources on African music.
  • Based on stylistic evidence, this painting is dated to the Saharan period of the Neolithic hunters (c.
  • Many African civilizations still practice traditional dance traditions, which are reflected in the body decoration and movement style.
  • 6000–4000 bce).
  • Archaeological discoveries have revealed some of the earliest roots of African music.
  • There is a great deal of concordance between these depictions and traditional narratives of their beginnings.
  • Due to the fact that it appears on plaques manufactured around that era in the kingdom of Benin, thedùndnpressure drum, currently linked withYorubaculture and recognized over a vast belt throughout the savanna region, may have been imported as early as the 15th century.
  • The twin iron clapperlessbell appears to have come first, followed by the talking drum.
  • Other music-related archaeological discoveries include iron bells discovered in the Katanga (Shaba) area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and at a number of sites in Zimbabwe.

Accounts from the 14th-century Arab travelers Ibn Baah and Ibn Khaldun, as well as accounts from the European navigators and explorers Vasco da Gama, Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, Joao dos Santos, François Froger, and Peter Kolbe, are among the most important written sources (even if they are only superficially analytic) of exploration and discovery.

  • Bowdich (1819) made an attempt to notate the music; for Zimbabwe, Karl Mauch (1872) made an attempt; and for interior Angola, Brito Capelo and Roberto Ivens (1882) made an attempt to notate the music.
  • It is believed that single and double ironbells originated in Kwa-speaking West Africa and migrated to western Central Africa with Iron Age Bantu-speaking peoples, and from there spread to Zimbabwe and theZambezi Rivervalley, where they are still found today.
  • Thus, both characteristics were absent from East African music until the recent arrival of the time-line patterns of Congolese electric guitar-based music, which has now become widespread.
  • Due to the fact that they were employed as travel instruments, some models shrank in size during migration; others were changed, giving birth to the plethora of models that could be seen in western Central Africa during the first part of the twentieth century.
  • Another type of lamellaphone, termed thelikembein Congo, moved in the other way, traveling from the west to the east and northeast of the country as well as the southeast.
  • Thelikembe was adopted by theZande, Ngbandi, and Gbaya, who are speakers of theAdamawa-Ubangi languages.
  • Early in the twentieth century, the likembedistribution region expanded farther to the northeast, into Uganda, where it was adopted by the Nilotic Alur, Acholi, andLango tribes of that country.

Similarly, thelikembe migrated southward from the lower Congo, infiltrating Angola through the Kasai area of Congo, and being adopted as recently as the 1950s by the Khoisan-speaking!Kung of Kwando Kubango province in southern Angola, where it is still spoken today.

Extremely remote locations of Africa may have characteristics that are comparable, if not identical, to one another, but neighboring areas may have markedly distinct characteristics.

The reason behind this is a mystery.

The prevalence of almost similar xylophone playing methods and instruments among theMakonde and Makua -speaking peoples of northern Mozambique, as well as among some peoples of Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia, particularly the Baule and Kru, is another historical puzzle.

Various types of diffusionist theories have been proposed in an attempt to address such conundrums.

Jones, might have been brought into Africa by Indonesian settlers in particular parts of East, Central, and West Africa during the early centuriesad.

There are more historical sources on African music and dance than one might expect, and they are more diverse.

Individuals transported as slaves from Africa to the New World were almost always from the hinterlands of the African coastal areas, rather than the exception.

For most of the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans were unable to travel straight into the inland regions of Angola.

In Brazil, for example, the music of the Candomblé religion can be traced back to 18th- and 19th-century forms of Yoruba orashaworship, which are still practiced today.

African instruments have also been modified and sometimes further developed in the New World; examples include the Central African friction drum and the lamellaphone, both of which are indigenous to the continent (in the Cubanmarimbula).

As a result of the drying of the Sahara, for example, communities have tended to migrate south.

As a result, the choral singing style of the Masai had a significant impact on the vocal music of the Gogo in central Tanzania, which can be heard in theirnindo and msunyunhochants, respectively.

Highlife music from West Africa, Congolese dance music, East African tarabu and South African styles are the most well-known of these musical genres.

Examples include the adaptation of hymns and secular songs into protest songs in order to raise awareness of political injustice and mobilize opposition to it, typically with modified lyrics.

Gerhard KubikDonald is a German actor and director. Keith Robotham is a fictional character created by author Keith Robotham.

EarMaster – Music Theory & Ear Training on PC, Mac, iPad and iPhone

When you begin studying any subject, one of the first things you will need is a brief introduction to the “jargon.” The fact that music is such a large topic means that some of the phrases used to talk about it are terms that break it up into smaller areas, similar to the way science is separated into subjects such as biology and physics. So, here are a few phrases that you could find useful if you’re trying to figure out what style of music you’d like to know more about. The majority of the music books you’ll discover on the shelf are devoted to Western classical music.

  • These principles might be thought of as a kind of grammar for the language of music itself.
  • It goes without saying that music evolves with time, just as language does.
  • But they do.
  • However, they all employ the same musical “language” and obey a set of rules that are essentially the same.
  • Whatever they did during the colonial era, Europeans brought their music with them everywhere they went.
  • What are the fundamental laws of this European musical dialect?
  • Western music is usually tonal, built on major and minor scales, tuned to equal temperament and played in a familiar meter, with basic rhythms, fairly rigid rules on harmony and counterpoint, and little room for improvisation, to give a brief summary.
  • The art music of the twentieth century, in particular, was highly interested in breaking down, if not completely rejecting, these principles.
  • This extensive use of established norms for Western music has become so commonplace that it is sometimes referred to as “common practice.” The fact that Western music seems familiar and understandable is due to their presence.
  • In the ears of someone who grew up listening to Western music, Non-Western music will have a distinctively alien sound that they can recognize immediately.
  • Note You may find the phrases “Western” and “Non-Western” to be overly Eurocentric, yet they are deeply ingrained in society, and you will need to understand what they imply in order to succeed.

If you don’t want to use the phrases yourself, you might be more detailed in your description. You can speak about European classical music or the European-American folk heritage, for example, as opposed to Indian classical music, Japanese folk music, or African-American musics, among other things.

Jazz, Blues, and World Music

Much of the music that is now popular cannot be categorised as either exclusively Western or exclusively Non-Western. Since colonial times, when European civilizations came into touch with a wide range of non-Western cultures, artists on both sides of the Atlantic have been experimenting with music that is a fusion of “the best of both worlds,” as the saying goes. Many musical forms have been developed that include both Western and non-Western influences. The styles that combine European and African musical traditions are among the oldest and most commonly practiced of all of these genres of music.

  1. The majority of popular music in the United States originated from this merging of traditions.
  2. The phrase “World Music” is frequently used as a catch-all category to refer to nearly any music that has gained great appeal but does not sound like popular music from North America.
  3. There are also bands who create distinct experimental sounds by drawing from many traditions.
  4. As part of the foundation of popular music, African-American traditions are often excluded from consideration in World music, but other North American traditions, such as Native American and Cajun traditions, may be considered in some cases.
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Tonal, Atonal, and Modal Music

As previously said, Western music has also evolved over time and has not stayed static. Because of the experiments of composers with new sounds, concepts, and even whole new or developing instruments, the genre has altered and progressed. Medieval European music, like many other non-Western traditions, was modal in structure and style. This indicates that a piece of music was not written in a certain key based on the major or minor scale. Instead, it was operating in a certain mode. Considering that it specifies the notes that are “allowed” in a piece of music and establishes its tonal center, a mode may be quite similar to a scale in appearance.

  1. A mode could indicate or suggest specific moods, or it might be intended to have a specific influence on the listener’s character in some way.
  2. Tonal music has dominated Western music from the Renaissance onward, and this has continued to this day.
  3. Consider a well-known song, such as “Row, Row, Row your Boat” or “Happy Birthday to You,” and imagine yourself singing it.
  4. If you did this, most people would be so disappointed that they would be willing to provide you with that last note.
  5. In tonal music, almost any melody is permissible, as long as it fits into the harmonies of the pieces as they wander away from and then return to their starting point.
  6. Some other scales, such as blues scales, are similarly effective when used inside a tonal framework, while others, like as whole-tone scales, are less effective in this context.
  7. “Atonal” is a term that literally meaning “not tonal.” The term “atonal music” refers to the treatment of all notes and harmonies on an equal footing, and it is intended to prevent the use of melodies and harmonies that would make the composition seem tonal.
  8. Other compositions may even do away with the notion that music must be composed of notes altogether; instead, they may be collections of noises and silences.
  9. Music, on the other hand, can be more or less tonal without becoming totally atonal in the process.
  10. This category includes a large number of Western children’s songs, folk songs, and pop songs.

Chromatic music is a type of music that goes much farther than that, in that it freely employs all of the notes of the chromatic scale while yet maintaining a tonal “home.” Polytonal music is defined as music that has more than one tonal center at the same time (Ives was a big fan of this composing style).

You don’t need to know anything about music to enjoy a catchy pop song – it’s only that it’s “catchy.” Art music is a general word that refers to any music that is loved by a smaller audience.

The majority of respondents feel that understanding and appreciating art music takes some more study, attentive listening, or other extra work.

This is due, at least in part, to the fact that popular tastes shift throughout time.

Today, however, operas from the nineteenth century are no longer considered popular entertainment, and popular works that could technically be considered opera – except for the fact that they are written in popular musical styles – are instead grouped with musicals, which are also considered popular entertainment.

  • It gradually fell out of popularity and was only known to a small number of jazz enthusiasts.
  • Classical music is a difficult concept to grasp since it has more than one meaning.
  • In the 1700s, Western Europeans developed a strong interest in the old classical style, which was later emulated by a large number of artists, sculptors, and builders across the world.
  • Unfortunately, no one can accurately describe what the music of antiquity sounded like today.
  • The music of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven’s early compositions are all examples of this style, which we refer to as classical rather than neoclassical because the actual classical music of ancient Greece and Rome has been lost to history.
  • The other great composers of Western music lived during different periods: Bach and Handel were Baroque era composers, Brahms and Wagner were Romantic era composers, and Ravel and Debussy were Impressionist era composers, to name a few examples.
  • All of the music written by great Western composers throughout history (along with contemporary art music that is a part of the same tradition) is therefore grouped together and referred to as classical music.

The labels “folk music” and “pop music” are also used to refer to music that has more than one meaning.

Lullabies and children’s singing games are among the genres covered, as are songs for festivities, ceremonies, and holidays, as well as melodies that everyone may enjoy singing together or dancing to with their friends and family.

Nobody usually recalls who composed or modified a folk song, and there may be several versions of a single folk song in existence at any given time.

The music that everyone appreciated the most, as well as the music that was significant to their traditions, were taught and remembered by youngsters in every culture throughout the world.

In many societies, pop music has essentially displaced folk music as the music that everyone is familiar with and enjoys listening to.

Even the sorts of music that are deemed popular might shift in a short period of time.

Additionally, popular music is used to refer to any form of music that is currently or has previously been a top seller.

As the advent of recording technology drove traditional music to the sidelines, some musicians made it a point to record old folk tunes in order to ensure that they were not lost forever.

Considerable of them also created new songs in a “folk” style that gained some success in the 1960s, notably in the United Kingdom. Despite the fact that these current melodies do not match the classic definition of folk music, they are nonetheless referred to as such.

Suggestions for Listening and Further Study

A discussion about music might be difficult to understand if you are not exposed to certain examples. If you would like to hear some music from the genres listed above, or if you are going to offer this lesson to a group of students, here are some options that are simple to locate. Some categories also give ideas for where to begin your search if you wish to learn more about a certain topic.

Tonal, Atonal, and Modal Music

  • Turn on the radio and tune in to any station that plays tonal music, unless your Classical station is playing twentieth-century music. Medieval chant and Indian classical music are the most easily accessible types of modal music in the genre of modal music. Even in the area of twentieth-century music, the shelves tend to be packed with the work of composers who have remained faithful to some form of tonality throughout their careers (Ralph Vaughan Williams, George Gershwin, and Aaron Copland, for example). Atonality may be found in the works of John Cage, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and Edgard Varese, among others.
  • Listen to anything by Mozart or Haydn, or Beethoven’s early compositions, if you want to hear music from the true classical period. From other eras, listen to Bach or Vivaldi (Baroque), Brahms, Schubert, Chopin, or Tchaikovsky, or Beethoven’s later works (Romantic), Ravel or Debussy (Impressionist), Stravinsky, Hindemith, or Schoenberg (Modern)
  • From other cultures, listen to Bach or Vivaldi (Baroque), Brahms, Schubert, Chopin, or Tchaikovsky, or Beethoven’ This scholarly work, A History of Western Music by Donald Jay Grout, provides a wealth of information. Music Makers, edited by Clive Unger-Hamilton, is a straightforward blend of history and reference book
  • It is a great gift for music lovers. Aside from that, the vast majority of conventional music dictionaries and encyclopedias are nearly entirely devoted to Western Classical music. There are several relevant picture books and even movies available for youngsters on the lives and music of the world’s most famous composers. Additionally, seek for picture books that describe the story of a well-known opera or ballet performance. Any normal music theory book or course will cover the fundamentals of Western music
  • Nevertheless, there are certain exceptions.
  • There are just a few items in this category that are readily available, such as Indian Classical music, such as concerts by Ravi Shankar. In rare cases, a web search for classical music from a specific nation will yield up some audio snippets. To give two examples, at the time of this writing, sound snippets of Chinese opera and Tunisian classical music could be available on the internet.
  • Look for compilations of folk music from England or Australia, sea shanties, or American cowboy songs if you want to hear the sound of classic Western folk music. Children’s book and cassette sets such as Wee Sing’s “Fun ‘n’ Folk” and “Sing-Alongs” are excellent resources for young students. To hear current folk-style music, listen to Joan Baez, John Denver, Bob Dylan’s protest songs, Simon and Garfunkel, or Peter, Paul and Mary
  • sThe Rough Guide series of books and records contains several that investigate modern folk musicians. This would be a wonderful location to start studying more on the subject of current folk music
  • For those who reside in a Western culture, it might be difficult to obtain recordings of non-Western folk music, as the vast majority of Western listeners do not have a preference for it. To expose children to music from various cultures, Wee Sing releases a “Around the World” book and cassette that has children’s songs from all over the world
  • The Music for Little People catalogue also contains several recordings that introduce children to music from other cultures. Ellipsis Arts releases traditional music from non-Western countries for adults, and it is available on iTunes. Check out the recording department of your local library for music from Africa or Asia, as well as native American and Australian music. Some of the Rough Guide series are devoted to specific folk or traditional music
  • Others are more general.
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Music that Combines Western and Non-Western Traditions

  • Listen to any jazz, blues, gospel, Latin dance, or reggae for music that has been using aspects of both for a long enough period of time to have created its own traditions. There are several publications available on these musical styles, notably jazz and reggae. The PBS documentary “Jazz” by Ken Burns provides a detailed audiovisual introduction of the genre. Most popular music is greatly inspired by both African and European traditions, and this is true of almost all genres. On the radio, turn up the volume and tune in to “World” music to hear what’s going on in contemporary Non-Western cultures as their performers are impacted by American and European mainstream music. Learning about this subject from the Rough Guide series is an excellent place to begin your research.

Postal Workers

This piece was created by four postal workers in Ghana.

When and where was it created?

This particular piece is a field recording that was recorded by James Koetting in 1975. The music was created by the postal workers canceling stamps in the University of Ghana post office in Ghana. The whistled part is from the hymn “Bompata,” by the Ghanaian composer W.J. Akyeampong (b. 1900). This type of music is created daily as a normal part of life for the Africans in Ghana.

Why and for whom was it created?

The music is not intended for performance. In fact, the creators do not even consider what they are doing as music. They basically created it for themselves as a work song. The music probably helps the postal workers to pass the time at work and to help them somewhat enjoy the monotony of what they are doing. The music helps the workers to control the mood of the workplace.

What is the subject?

The music does not have a distinct subject. I suppose the subject could be work (since to the workers it is not considered music), or social engagement and participation. The subject of work music functions as making boring and repetitive work more interesting. In this instance the workers have turned life into art. This type of music also welcomes social engagement and participation because they all join together to make a complex creation. Anyone is welcome in participating in the “song” and complex rhythms. “Much African music shares this generous,open-hearted quality that welcomes participatio.” (Tition, p. 91).

What is being expressed?

I believe that cooperation and an upbeat positive attitude are being expressed in this piece. The workers are working together in harmony (literally and figuratively) to get the work done and enjoy themselves while doing so. They cooperate to make rhythms and melodies together that turn their job into an enjoyable experience. The music greatly expresses the culture of and style of the African music-culture. As a generalization, the culture makes everyday happenings as well as social situations into music-making events. This music is expressed not in media, but just in the social context. This piece also somewhat expresses the style of African music with features such as polyrhythms, repetition, and improvisation. The piece expresses the African belief that music is a necessary and normal part of life.

What techniques did its creators use to help us understand what is being expressed?

As mentioned above, the workers express their cooperation by making intricate polyrhythms and harmonies. They make the rhythms by putting the letters on the table, tapping the table to add to the rhythm, inking the stamp, stamping or canceling the letters, and clicking scissors. One men whistles a tune from a Christian hymn and another joins him, creating a harmony. Through their actions while working, they express their culture by making regular occurrences and social contexts music-making events. Their positive attitude towards work is expressed by their techniques of using what they have to make rhythms and melodies.

What kind of structure or form does it have?

The music is improvised, but does have some repetitive patterns. There are continuous underlying rhythms that continue throughout the piece. These rhythms are repeated, but vary from time to time to add to the complex sound. The percussion rhythms are formed by three of the workers. Two men at a table slap a letter rhythmically several times to bring it to the position where it is to be canceled. They ink the marker, forming another rhythm in the percussion. A third worker has a pair of scissors that he clicks to add onto the complex rhythms. There is a melody from a church hymn that one worker begins to whistle. The form of this hymn that is repeated through out is an AABA form. This melody is added onto at different times by another whistler creating a harmony. Of course it is not a totally structured piece, and it would never be done the same twice, but there are some things that do take on some sort of form but are often improvised, varied, and added upon.

What does it sound or look like?

When I first heard this piece, and before I knew anything about it, the piece sounded to me like percussion instruments such as drums, and of course whistling. (I was right about the whistling but did not realize that the percussion is made from everyday items.) It sounds very complex and has a very rich texture. Much is going on at once, creating amazing percussion rhythms and many timbres. Now that I know how the piece is created, in my mind I visualize a very inviting setting where men are enjoying their work, are fun to be around, are friendly, and are cooperative. The piece does not sound like any type of post office I have ever been in, so it is fun to imagine what it would be like to walk by a post office, such as the one in which this recording comes from, and have it be just a regular daily part of life.


  • Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World’s Peoples, 4th edition is a book on the music of the world’s peoples. General Editor Jeff Todd Titon contributed to this article. The book was published by SCHIRMER Thomson Learning in Belmont, California, USA, in 2002. “
  • Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World’s Peoples” is a book on the music of the world’s peoples. Set of four CDs. The first CD, “Postal Workers,” was released in 2002.

Clave: The African Roots of Salsa

Dr. Christopher Washburne’s article The term “African-derived” is frequently used to refer to musical forms that originated in the Americas and the Caribbean that are influenced by Africa. It’s no different when it comes to salsa, and the following conversation analyzes what is uniquely African about the music: The notion of clave is a rhythmic concept that may be found in a number of Latin-American genres. The clave’s resemblance to African bell patterns in both sound and function lends support to a theory about the instrument’s origins as well as an evolutionary relationship between African music and salsa.

  1. Chris Washburne and drummer Bobby Sanabria on the bandstand.
  2. With origins in Cuba and Puerto Rico and emergence from the musical atmosphere of New York City in the 1950s, it has gained widespread appeal across the Americas, including other Caribbean islands, and has even gained acclaim in Europe and Japan.
  3. The term salsa, which literally translates as “sauce,” has been in use since the late 1960s, when New York’s Fania Records used it as a “catchy” marketing label to promote their records.
  4. The word clave literally translates as key, clef, code, or keystone in Spanish.
  5. Claves are two wooden sticks that are struck together to generate a piercing, high-pitched sound.
  6. When it comes to Latin music terminology, the word clave refers not only to these instruments, but also to the exact rhythmic patterns that they play, as well as the underlying laws that regulate these rhythmic patterns.
  7. The clave beat is the driving force behind all of the musical and dancing elements of a salsa performance.

The clave pattern has two measures in duration, with each measure being diametrically contrary to the previous measure.” The two measurements are not diametrically opposed; rather, they are balanced opposites, such as positive and negative, expansive and contractive, or the poles of a magnet, that work together to balance one another.

If the pattern were to be suddenly reversed, the impetus contained inside the beat would be completely lost.” Cornelius (1991: 15–6) defines formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formal Example 4 shows how to write the clave, also known as son clave, that is present in salsa.

  • The way a song begins decides which measure of the clave will be played first in the song’s final measure.
  • where the accented rhythms of melody occur).
  • According to custom, once a song is started, the clave does not affect the sequence of the measures.
  • A song’s beginning function is comparable to that of continuous bell patterns seen in West African musical traditions in that it provides a rhythmic formula that acts as the foundation for the song’s progression.
  • The beat might be played out loud or indicated by the music.

According to the following excerpt from the inscription located on the inner cover of the inaugural edition of New York’s Clave magazine, which was published throughout the 1970s, the clave idea extends far beyond the musical context: “The clave concept extends far beyond the musical context.” “Clave” is a term that, in our opinion, goes beyond explanation and definition.

  • It’s about being on time, on key, and on clave.
  • ” Clave is a part of history and culture.
  • The seeds were planted in the Caribbean, and the resultant grandchild is Salsa.
  • The rhythm’s African origins are reaffirmed, which is a significant achievement.
  • The first assumption is that the clave rhythm originated in Africa.
  • Second, this exact pan-West African bell design (example 1), or something similar, existed during the 1700s, according to historical records.
  • Third, when new practices formed as a result of the fusion of diverse African peoples in the New World, new performance styles emerged as a result of this fusion.

Each musician contributes to the perpetuation and advancement of the tradition via the small variances in feel and subtlety that they bring to the performance.

Rumba is a type of music that originated in Cuba and was brought there by African slaves and their descendants.

Although the bell pattern, known as the clave, in rumba Columbia differs from the pattern seen in this example, it is still used.

When the same two strokes are missing, the pattern is instead began on the third stroke, as is the case in various Haitian musical traditions.

It’s possible that it began as a single variety, or that it was the product of the fusion of two or more different African forms.

The influence of marching bands and other Spanish forms, which were frequently heard in the major towns throughout the 1700s, may have contributed to the duple meter feel of the music.

This style is most commonly referred to as rumba clave (clave rhythm).

One eighth note is added to the final stroke of the 3rd portion of the rumba clave, which is employed in salsa to create the son clave (example 4).

The term “son clave” was coined in reference to its use in son, a musical style with Spanish influences that originated in Cuba’s rural areas in the early 1900s and spread around the world.

This simplicity was also influenced by the popularity of Latin music in countries other than Cuba, which was another element in its implementation.

Rumba heritage has always had an impact on the style of salsa music and performance, but the domination of this new and increasing market necessitated a shift in focus.

If you have a friend who is new to Latin music, you may test this idea with them.

It first gained popularity during the mambo dance craze that occurred in the 1950s in the United States and Puerto Rico, and it has stayed in usage ever since, most notably in salsa performances today.

The current drumming styles in Ghana also suggest that a similar process of rhythmic adaptation has taken place there as well.

According to David Locke’s book Drum Gahu, a “gankogui” pattern (example 5) “establishes the overall rhythm of Gahu” and that when playing this music one should “always strive to establish your feeling for timing and groove by concentrating on this heard phrase” are examples of such patterns (Locke, 1987: 16-19).

Take note that the gankogui is composed of five strokes and differs from the son clave only by one stroke.

During the time of the slave trade, it is possible that this pattern was in use.

There are many difficulties in this quest because of the amount of generalization and speculation that must be done due to the lack of objective documentation in written or recorded form.

However, the parallels between the clave rhythm and its role in salsa and African bell patterns are worth noting, as they may point to the roots of the clave notion that is being used today in salsa.

This is not to say that new types of complexities are not formed as a result of the introduction of newer styles, but rather that musical change is a continuous process.

We’ve offered this one evolutionary hypothesis above in the hopes that it would spark more investigation. Dr. Christopher Washburne is a professor at Columbia University in New York City. Copyright was protected from 1999 to 2002. C.Washburne is a fictional character created by author C.Washburne.

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