Which Of The Following Countries Represents A High-context Culture

What country is a high context culture?

Asked in the following category: General The most recent update was on March 12th, 2020. Japan, China, and the Arab countries are all examples of countries with a high context score. Low contextcultures may be found in places such as Scandinavia, Germany, and the United States. Is China a low-context culture or a high-context culture, in the same way? When people in a low context society say no, they really mean no. Continuing to offer tea is not only unnecessary, but it might also be deemed disrespectful, since it could be interpreted as an attempt to coerce them into accepting something they do not desire.

What nations, besides those mentioned above, are considered to have high-context?

Is Spain a country with a strong context culture?

Japan, China, France, Spain, Brazil, and a number of other countries fall within this classification.

High Context Countries 2021

Japan, like the majority of Asian countries, is regarded as one of the most high-context countries. Generally speaking, Japanese communication culture is characterized by being indirect and implicit. In Japan, there is a tradition known as Ba no Kuuki wa Yomu (also known as Kuki O Yomu), which translates as “reading the air,” which supports this. General, this practice involves becoming more aware of one’s own social position, reading behavioral signs and interpreting the situation without using words, as well as placing oneself in another person’s shoes to have a better understanding of their sentiments, amongst other things.


China is also included on the list of high context nations due to the fact that its culture is inspired by Confucian principles (benevolence, propriety, righteousness, etc.). There is a strong tendency toward collectivism in the country, and unity within the group is crucial. Direct communication is discouraged in Chinese social culture because it is considered unpleasant and uncomfortable in social situations. Save your face is an essential notion in Chinese society because it helps you to maintain your dignity and integrity.


The importance of social status and conformity to social standards are highly valued in French culture. France, like most high-context nations, has a formal and diplomatic communication style that is used by its citizens. It is necessary to have both verbal and nonverbal communication abilities in order to communicate effectively with the French. This is due to the fact that when communicating with the French, you will need to pay attention to their facial expressions, tone, gestures, and posture.


Russophobia and rely on group interactions are important aspects of Russian culture, which is characterized by a high level of context.

When communicating, Russians rely on contextual, non-verbal, traditional, and symbolic clues, as well as their own body language. Even if these norms of communication are not expressly mentioned, they are understood.


Due to the high context culture in Spain, all verbal contact is viewed through the prism of who said it, where they came from, how they’re saying it, and the emotions and reasons that lie beneath the words. The people of Spain are able to deduce meaning from nonverbal communication because they place a high priority on strong interpersonal ties. As a result, while they are interacting with people, they are always cognizant of the context and setting.

Saudi Arabia

The majority of Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia, rank quite high in terms of context. The usage of nonverbal clues such as facial expressions, body stance, silence, and tone of voice indicates that the commercial and social communication culture in Saudi Arabia is based on more than just what is spoken.


Brazil, like with other Latin American nations, has a strong context culture that is characterized by collectivist society, as does the United States. While Brazilians are quite cordial to outsiders, they will not normally include them in their inner circle since they will not be able to comprehend the subtleties of Brazilian speech.


The majority of Mediterranean countries, including Italy, are considered high context countries, and this is no exception. Italian culture is characterized by a collectivist perspective that places a strong emphasis on emotions, family, and group interactions. Open demonstrations of affection, as well as firm handshakes and hugs, are commonplace in the Italian way of living. When it comes to communication, the people of Italy depend heavily on body language, particularly hand gestures. It is critical, however, to adhere to social conventions and traditions.

South Africa

The black population in South Africa is dominated by a high-context culture that is prevalent throughout the country. Despite the fact that there are certain similarities amongst tribes in South Africa (such as the Xhosa, Zulu, or Pedi), each tribe has its unique communication culture. In general, elders are revered, and extended family networks are common in many cultures. In addition to rituals, proverbs, and dialogues with hidden meanings, South Africa’s traditional communication culture makes use of veiled meanings in talks.

High-Context & Low-Context Cultures

International challenges are becoming increasingly important to entrepreneurs today, regardless of the size of their organization. One of the most essential aspects of this body of research is the idea of high- and low-context cultures, which is discussed more below. Most civilizations may be divided into two categories: those with a high context and those with a low context. In business, the context may be thought of as the social atmosphere or surrounding area in which a transaction takes place.

  • The manner in which participants are outfitted The general atmosphere or tone of a meeting is defined as follows: The legal standing of the persons who are delivering the information.
  • The nonverbal communication of people in high-context cultures is therefore much more crucial to them than it is in low-context ones.
  • In the event that you have been invited to the meeting with an introduction from someone who knows you and the other company person, this may take a few hours.
  • In a high-context culture, a contract is only a beginning point for the talks that will ultimately lead to the conclusion of a business.
  • Japan, the majority of other Asian nations, the majority of Arab countries, Latin America, the majority of African countries, and Italy are all examples of high-context cultures.
  • However, for the purposes of demonstration, we shall limit ourselves to just these two categories of high and low contextual importance: In a low-context society, the words themselves are more significant than the social context in which they are said.
  • In a society where context is not important, a written agreement can be regarded at face value.

A contract is believed to be the end result of discussions rather than the beginning point of such conversations.

Because business operations in North America tend to follow low-context norms, most of us are more familiar with this system than we are with cultures that follow high-context norms.

Gifts may be anticipated in a society with a high level of context.

I would also recommend that, after you have arrived in a foreign country, you pay close attention to your host’s gestures and answers, and that you appropriately reply in the same manner.

For example, if you are in Asia, DOcompliment them and tell them about your impressions on their culture.

Beginning every encounter in Latin America with a nice talk about family or other social issues is recommended.

The lesson that many American businesspeople fail to grasp is that “it all comes down to connections.” Leslie Minor, Ph.D., has been named as the next chair of the Department of Social Sciences at Colorado College.

She may be reached by email at [email protected] Lowell Lamberton, Professor of Business, may be reached at [email protected] or on Twitter @llamberton. Co-authors Lamberton and Minor have collaborated on three college-level textbooks.

Answer Key

  1. As defined by the American Psychological Association, is the impression of belonging to an organization that is part of a larger culture.
  • CPage: 4 is the answer. The following nations would be regarded individualistic cultures:
  • Which of the following countries would be considered individualistic cultures:
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Understanding Cultures and Cocultures
  • CPage: 9 is the answer. Bloom’s: Reminiscing about the past Cultural Values and Norms to Look Out For Which of the following nations would be called low-context cultures:
  • A is the correct response. Page number: 13 Bloom’s: Reminiscing about the past Cultural Values and Norms to Look Out For Shape Communication
  • The degree to which people of a culture feel frightened by ambiguous circumstances and the extent to which they attempt to avoid them is referred to as the following:
  1. Salience, high-context culture, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are all characteristics of salience.
  • D is the correct answer. Page number: 14 “RememberingAhead: Cultural Values and Norms,” a Bloom’s publication. The degree to which a person identifies with a certain group is referred to as Shape Communication.
  • D is the correct answer. Page number: 19 Bloom’s: Reminiscing about the past Cocultures and Communication are on the horizon. The belief that one’s own culture is superior than other cultures is referred to as:
  1. Stereotypes, self-disclosure, ethnocentrism, contact hypothesis, and so forth
  • C is the correct answer. Page number: 36 Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence When it comes to intercultural communication ability, which of the following characteristics is incompatible with ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotyping?
  • B is the correct answer. Page number: 36 Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Specific ways for transitioning to a more conscious, competent style of intercultural communication have been identified in the literature. In the text, one of the tactics is described as follows:
  • B is the correct answer. Page number: 37 Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence
  • Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Developing Intercultural Communication Competence In the United States, one out of every five hate crimes is motivated by one of the following characteristics:
  • D is the correct answer. Page number: 22 Bloom’s: Reminiscing about the past Cocultures and Communication are on the horizon. The phrase “in-group” is used to describe the following:
  1. People who are well-known
  2. Celebrities
  3. People with whom we identify
  4. People with whom we have no association
  1. CPage: 7-8 is the answer. Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Understanding Cultures and Cocultures
  2. Bloom’s: RememberingAhead: Understanding Cultures and Cocultures
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Returning to the Test

Which countries have low context cultures?

Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Canada, and the United States are all examples of low – context cultures. Because business activities in North America tend to follow low – context norms, most of us are more familiar with this system than we are with high – context cultures, which is a good thing. Countries with a low – context culture include the United States and Germany. Furthermore, why is America considered to be a low context culture? American culture is characterized by a lack of context.

  • In addition to the points mentioned above, how do high context cultures vary from low context cultures?
  • Low – context cultures, on the other hand, rely heavily on explicit verbal communication.
  • What exactly is a low context?
  • In these civilizations, cultural conduct and beliefs may need to be openly stated so that individuals who are new to the culture are aware of how they should behave.


When it comes to business communicators from low-context cultures, which of the following characteristics are common? Choose one of the following: a.Taking into consideration the situation and feelings b.Inserting emphasis in appropriate places (1). Question 310 receives 1 point out of a possible 1. When it comes to business communicators from low-context cultures, which of the following characteristics is most common? Answer that has been chosen: a. The valuing group (2). b. Depending on the situation and how you feel ANSWER:c Reasoning: Communicators from low context cultures value individualism and logic, and prefer direct verbal interaction over indirect verbal interaction.

2.Chapter 1 Quiz Flashcards | Chegg.com

In a low context culture, which of the following is a prevalent feature among corporate communicators? The importance of written information is being highlighted. Which of the following is correct? (4)… When it comes to business communicators from low-context cultures, which of the following characteristics is most common? (See below for the correct response.) (5)… Ad When it comes to corporate communicators from low-context cultures, which of the following characteristics are common? A) Putting a high value on group participation B) Preferring indirect verbal communication (6)…

3.Guffey – Test Bank Instant – StudyLib

Businesses currently create a diverse range of communications that are sent through a number of mediums. The high-context culture of which of the following nations is represented by the letter d? The following is a characteristic of a corporate communicator who comes from a low-contextual background: a. (7)… The manner in which individuals interact with one another varies greatly from culture to culture.

The distinction between high and low context cultures is intended to distinguish civilizations that have features of both high and low context qualities, but to a lesser extent. Low-context societies also prefer that these conversations center upon fundamental questions, such as (8).

4.1. Communication skills a. are not as important as technical …

The meanings of nonverbal acts are frequently altered by a person’s cultural background. What is a frequent characteristic of a corporate communicator who comes from a low-context cultural background? (9)… Which of the following alternatives provides you the greatest ability to direct the attention of the receiver? a. a phone call Language is used in a low-context culture. a. exclusively in the realm of the creative ​(10)… In anthropology, high-context culture and low-context culture are two extremes on a spectrum of how people interact with their environment.

  • A total of 96 company managers from each culture were polled for the American and groups with low context, where people share less common knowledge or have fewer similar interests.
  • Furthermore, in Africa, it is usual for the handshake to take several minutes, but in the United States, things are completely (albeit briefly) explained in a low context culture.
  • (12)… 4.
  • contrast and identify some civilizations that have a high context and some cultures that have a low context; culture.
  • Another issue worth mentioning is that these cultural factors are significant.

5.Context is Everything – Department of State

People’s communication styles are influenced by a variety of cultural characteristics that are tied to context. The difference between civilizations with a high context and those with a low context is(14). 17th of June, 2020 — As it turns out, business relationships these days are a small world indeed. Members of each culture have been provided with special “filters” that allow them to communicate more effectively. In general, civilizations that favor low-context communication will be compensated more.

A low masculinity score reveals characteristics that have traditionally been deemed undesirable(16).

6.Solved31. Most people think that the best:1441427 …

When it comes to corporate communicators from low-context cultures, which of the following characteristics are common? a. Recognizing the importance of relationships, harmony, social standing, and maintaining one’s dignity. b.(17)… It goes by the names “high context” and “low context,” and it is the work of a similar anthropologist who also invented the They are complementary to one another and together they give a comprehensive framework for understanding culture. The following list illustrates the types of conduct that are typically observed in high and low context cultures within the five PfeifferCompany divisions.

Trait (18) must be included.

Hall coined the phrase “low-context culture” in the 1970s.

Some of the most prevalent traits of low-context civilizations are as follows: Traits and Examples 5:32; Agricultural Societies: Definition and History(19); and so forth.

Those who live in these societies feel that a good, competent professional is essential. In a high context society, a low-context communicator may be perceived as(20).

7.Understanding Cultural Differences Can Help Companies in …

Regardless of your industry—whether you want to establish a business in Mexico, start a business in the United States, etc. Mexico is often seen as a culture with a high level of contextualization. In high context cultures, it is seldom essential to communicate implicit signals that may be deduced from the context or common sense, and this is especially true in business. It’s important to remember the characteristics of low context cultures. (21)… by RG CARPENTER published in 2005 cited by 6 — These two cultures illustrate a low-context culture, represented by the United States, and a technological culture, represented by Japan.

In their correspondence with the Japanese, Americans utilize normal, everyday language, with the exception of technical phrases and pronouns such as “you” or other pronouns, which are used only when absolutely essential (22) … the most difficult countries to do business in – both economically and politically – on July 17, 2019 The communication in low-context is more explicit because it relies more on the China is considered a high-context culture because communication tends to be your Chinese colleagues and partners share many common cultural traits, low-context communication is more explicit because it relies more on the Communicator is missing |

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Communicator(23) must be included.

8.Erin Meyer Quotes (Author of No Rules Rules) – Goodreads

Furthermore, ‘Multicultural teams require methods that are low in context.’ Begin by following Erin Meyer on Twitter. All conflicts, controversy, and misunderstanding are founded in the personalities of those involved. In Culture Map: Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business It is only when you begin to recognize what is common in your culture yet different(24) that you will be able to go forward. To understand culture better, consider the following five perspectives: When dealing with cross-cultural circumstances, many corporate executives focus on the things they can control and ignore the rest.

  • Low context cultures are often more straightforward, and they prefer to utilize words to attempt to (25) communicate their thoughts and feelings.
  • Culture and country influence the types of nonverbal communication that are used.
  • Individuals conducting business in various regions of the world can benefit from each of these areas.
  • (26)…

9.(44) How do you communicate in a cross-cultural product …

28th of July, 2019 — And in the majority of these firms, I had the opportunity to collaborate with cross-cultural teams. Effective communication in low-context cultures must be straightforward, unambiguous, and explicit. The United States is the world’s lowest-context culture, followed by Canada, which comes in second.

In France, an effective business communicator employs second-degree(27) language. 12th of February, 2010 — The following situations may arise while conducting business in a high context culture such as Mexico, Japan or the Middle East: Misunderstanding(28)…

10.Excellence in Business Communication, 12e … – Anvari.Net

B) do not feature a common language, but do include nonverbal practices that are universal across cultures. 7) In today’s global corporate environment, communication and culture are essential. 42) In a low-context society such as the one that exists in Germany, individuals use figurative language to express meaning. Explanation: A) Business communicators can make use of the four recommendations listed below. (29)… 20th of January, 2015 — All You Need to Know About Different Cultures Can Be Discovered Using These 8 Scales Americans have the most explicit or low-context culture of any people in the planet (low-context culture).

  • One of the most popular misconceptions is that various civilizations approach time in different ways.
  • by A Karphammar — Published on 2018-07-31 — It is critical to recognize and comprehend differences in order to successfully do business.
  • Silence is a frequent characteristic, and it is not seen as being uncomfortable because it is on the.
  • During those three weeks, I described usual terminology such as uncertainty avoidance and discussed how Outsourced may be utilized as a foundation for each of these functions.
  • (32)… These findings create cross-cultural management issues for organizations, according to MA Khan (2018, cited by 9).
  • Culture is the interacting aggregate of common qualities that impact a person’s behavior.
  • (33)… People from low-context cultures, according to Ting-Toomey (Communicating Across Cultures, 1999), prefer to demonstrate the following characteristics in the majority of circumstances (34).

In the same way, the communicator’s known background (years of service experience) is important.

Furthermore, the nature of military culture, which is centered on training, is a (35).

by J Thomas Comparing the characteristics of a high-context culture, such as South Korea, with those of a low-context culture, the word contexting has become part of the corporate communication language in both countries.

(36)… Understand the notion of common cultural features and be able to name a few of them.

Throughout the process, there may be personality clashes and power disputes over(37).

When a Canadian businessman conducting business in Kuwait is startled by the outcome of his encounter with It is also usual in Africa for the handshake to linger several minutes; in these civilizations, cultural behavior and values may need to be expressed in writing(38).

Excerpt Links

(1).Chp.1 Bus Com Flashcards | Quizlet (2).out of a possible 100 points (1). Stephen slammed the door in the manager’s face. (3). Which of the following is a characteristic shared by most businesses. Chapter 1 Quiz Flashcards | Chegg.com (4). (5). Which of the following is a characteristic shared by most businesses. (6).Quiz+ | Which of the Following Is a Typical Characteristic of a Corporation? (7). Instant Test Bank for the Guffey Test | StudyLib (8). Communicating in High Context Cultures vs.

  1. The importance of communication skills a.
  2. (10).
  3. Civilizations with a high level of context and cultures with a low level of context – Wikipedia (12).
  4. It is important to understand the cultural context – Sage Publications (14).
  5. Communication in a High-Context against a Low-Context – ToughNickel (16).
  6. Solved31.
  7. The Context of Cultures: High and Low (section 18).1.4.6 – (19).



Ucf stars (22): Designing for a Japanese High-context Culture – (23).

Context plays an important role in the Chinese workplace.

Quotes from Erin Meyer (author of No Rules Rules) on Goodreads.com (25).

Nouns and nonverbal communication differ in different cultures (27).


The 12th edition of Excellence in Business Communication.

(30) .





Portland Scholar (35).

Is the High/Low Model Effective in Contextualizing Koreans?


– Textbooks 18.3 Common Cultural Characteristics – Textbooks (38).

659 Niche Markets

  • Money, Health, Hobbies, Relationships, and three other profitable areas are organized into seven categories: money, health, hobbies, and relationships. There are a total of 659 specialized markets.

Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect

  • Define cultural difference in terms of its aspects
  • Identify the implications of cultural differences on global business

Cultural Differences and Global Business

Managers who are considering expanding their operations into foreign markets must be aware that the circumstances they are accustomed to in their own country may be different in other nations. For example, Wal-first Mart’s worldwide growth was into Mexico, which was its first international expansion. Wal-Mart stores in Mexico were designed in the same manner as those in the United States, with a stand-alone store surrounded by enormous parking lots as the model. However, it quickly discovered that there was an issue.

  • Customers had to walk through the parking lot to get to the store, and they could only purchase items that they could carry back to the bus stop on their own.
  • Problems such as those experienced by Wal-Mart are easy to detect, and in many cases, they are also simple to resolve.
  • Understanding cultural differences is particularly crucial for managers, who must be able to relate to and encourage their people in order to effectively lead and motivate them.
  • He conducted his investigation among more than 100,000 employees of a multinational firm spread over 40 different nations.
  • In these investigations, nine dimensions were established that characterize distinctions between national cultures.

Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, assertiveness, future orientation, humane orientation, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, and gender equality are some of the factors to consider. Let’s take a closer look at each of them.

  1. Distance between two points of power. The degree to which individuals tolerate an unequal allocation of power and status privileges is referred to as power distance (or power distance gap). The rule of law is more respected in nations with a high power distance, and people are expected to follow the laws. There is also more tolerance for concentrated power in countries with a high power gap. The electricity gap between India, Mexico, and the Philippines is very large. United States, Australia, and Israel have low power distance, which is also known as Uncertainty Aversion. Uncertainty avoidance is a term used to describe the degree to which people are uncomfortable with risk, change, and ambiguity. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, there is a greater focus placed on norms, structure, order, and predictability. France, Japan, and Costa Rica, for example, are countries that place a high value on avoiding ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is low in the United States, India, and Sweden, whereas performance orientation is high in these countries. The degree to which innovation, high standards, and exceptional performance are fostered and rewarded is referred to as performance orientation. Countries with a high level of performance orientation place a high emphasis on materialism and competition, and they intend to spend in training to help their citizens improve their performance. Assertiveness is strong in the United States and European nations
  2. Argentina, Russia, and Greece have low assertiveness
  3. And performance orientations are high in Argentina, Russia, and Greece. In contrast to being cooperative and compassionate, assertiveness is defined as the degree to which individuals are strong, confrontational, and aggressive in their behavior. Communication is straightforward and plain in nations with a high level of assertiveness, such as the United States, Germany, and Mexico. In this environment, individuals are encouraged to take the initiative, and relationships are likely to be competitive. Switzerland and New Zealand are among the countries with the lowest levels of assertiveness. Managers in these nations are more inclined to seek agreement and cooperative decision-making
  4. They are also more likely to be future-oriented. Future orientation refers to the degree to which delayed gratification and long-term planning are prioritized over immediate satisfaction and short-term advantages. Countries with a high degree of future orientation favor long-term investments above short-term consumption in order to maximize future returns. It is analogous to the ability of humans to postpone satisfaction when faced with a choice. Higher levels of future orientation are found in Canada, Switzerland, and Malaysia
  5. Lower levels of future orientation may be found in Poland, Argentina, and Russia
  6. Humane Orientation. An indicator of a country’s humane orientation is the extent to which justice, selflessness, generosity, and compassion are fostered and rewarded. Individuals are responsible for promoting the well-being of others in countries with a strong humane orientation, as opposed to the state providing social and economic support. The Philippines, Ireland, and Egypt have a high humane orientation, whilst France, Germany, and Singapore have a low humane orientation. Institutional Collectivism is a type of collectivism that exists within an institution. Individual integration into groups and organizations is measured by the degree to which organizational and social institutions promote people to become members of those groups and organizations. In nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, the distribution of resources and the taking of collective action are promoted. Group loyalty is promoted, even if it means sacrificing one’s ability to pursue one’s own objectives. Sweden, Japan, and Singapore are examples of nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, whereas Germany, Argentina, and Italy are examples of countries with a low level of institution collectivist. In the United States, low institutional collectivism has resulted in arguments about the right work-life balance
  7. In-Group Collectivism has resulted in questions about the appropriate work-life balance. It is the extent to which individuals demonstrate pride, loyalty, and togetherness in their organizations or families that is referred to as in-group collectivism. Those living in nations with high levels of institutional collectivism identify with their families or organizations, and their actions are dictated by their roles and responsibilities. Individuals who are members of a group are distinguished from those who are not members of the organization. India, Egypt, and China are examples of nations with strong institutional collectivism
  8. Sweden, New Zealand, and Finland are examples of countries with low institutional collectivism
  9. Gender Egalitarianism is another important factor to consider. Gender egalitarianism refers to the extent to which male and female equality is realized in a given society. Countries with a high level of gender equality give greater chances for women and have a higher proportion of women in positions of authority. Sweden, Poland, and Costa Rica are among the countries with the highest levels of gender equality. Japan, Italy, and Egypt are among the countries with the lowest levels of gender equality. Women often have a lesser social and economic standing in these nations, as well as in the culture.
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Germany and Poland have cultural features that are comparable to one another, as seen in the following chart. A comparison of cultural traits between Germany and Poland using data from the GLOBE 2004 research is presented.

Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business

When businesses wish to grow globally, they must be cognizant of the cultural variations that exist. Managers must be sensitive to the cultural context in which they operate in order to be effective. There have been several instances of advertising that had imagery or statements that were considered to be objectionable to some cultures. For example, when Pepsi altered the color of its vending machines from dark “Ice” blue to light “Ice,” the company saw its leading market dominance in Southeast Asia eroded by Coke.

  • Managers must also take into consideration various modes of communication.
  • Giving a superior the news that he has made a mistake is, for example, seen as insulting in many cultures.
  • In the United States, an appointment is defined as the time at which someone is anticipated to come at a location.
  • The importance of cultural variations must be recognized and accommodated by global management.
  • The impact of cultural variations on the fundamental functions of management, on the other hand, is less clear.
  • Yes and no are the correct answers.
  • What managers do in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Brazil is precisely the same as it is in any other country.
  • Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the four fundamental management functions that we have identified and described.
  • Planning. The ability to prepare for the future and the ability to avoid uncertainty have a big influence on how firms plan. The current state of the organization is analyzed, and adjustments necessary to achieve future goals are planned for in cultures with a high level of future orientated thinking and behavior. In a culture with a low future orientation, the past of the organization is taken into consideration, and planning is centered on conserving traditions while going forward in the organization. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, planning will be extremely careful, and only plans with a low chance of failure and a high degree of assurance of outcomes will be taken into consideration. Planning will be considerably more flexible in nations with a low level of uncertainty avoidance. The plans will acknowledge that the future is unpredictable and will anticipate that problems will be addressed as they arise
  • The process of organizing Firms’ organizational structures are influenced by two factors: performance focus and institutional collectivism. Organizations focused on teams and collective efforts would most likely be the most effective in nations with a high degree of institutional collectivism. In nations with low levels of institutional collectivism, hierarchical organizations with clearly defined lines of power and well defined roles are more likely to be effective than decentralized arrangements. Organizations in high-performance orientated cultures would be built on the successes of individual employees. Individual objectives would be established, and success would not be evaluated solely on the basis of reaching predetermined objectives, but rather on how well one does in comparison to others. In nations with a low performance focus, cooperation and collaboration would be prioritized above competition. Organizational outcomes-based goals would be more successful
  • This is the case in leadership. When it comes to leadership, power distance and a humanitarian approach are crucial concerns. People would expect leaders in high power distance nations to be more directive, and they would want laws and processes to be well established. For example, in nations with a short power distance, leadership would have to be more collaborative, and people would challenge norms and procedures that they did not believe were fair or appropriate. Motivation would be influenced by a more humane approach to life. Leaders in cultures with a high level of humane orientation would be expected to be supportive and empowering. Contributions to the organization and to individuals inside the company would be a motivating factor for people to work in the organization. Leaders in cultures with a low level of compassionate orientation would be expected to be explicit in their expectations. People would be driven by their earnings and benefits, and they would oppose anything that jeopardized their well-being or way of life. Gender equality may also play a role in this situation. Female leadership would not be automatically recognized in low gender equitable countries, and women would have to exert their power
  • They would be in charge of the household. Power distance and assertiveness have an impact on the ability of organizations to be governed successfully. Managers in nations with a high level of assertiveness would be directive and dictatorial. They would exercise control over the situation by closely monitoring and punishing the situation. Managers in a low-assertiveness country would be expected to be more tolerant of their employees and to exert control over them through encouragement and discipline. It is expected that authoritarian and directive managers will be more effective than participatory managers in nations with significant power distance.

Key Points

Companies that choose to do business on a worldwide scale are exposed to a variety of risks and dangers.

The advantages of globalization may be realized, however, when businesses conduct thorough study into the environment and plan and prepare for cultural differences. In the next part, we will discuss ways that managers might employ to deal with cultural differences.


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