Which Is Most Likely To Happen In An Egalitarian Culture


What is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture?

  1. An egalitarian culture is most likely to produce the following outcomes: Which of the following characteristics characterizes societies with a high level of uncertainty avoidance? In this quizlet, you will learn about the characteristics of cultures with poor performance orientation. What is the distinguishing attribute of egalitarian societies
  2. What is a characteristic of a culture with a high future orientation
  3. What is a characteristic of a culture with high cultural intelligence
  4. What is your future orientation
  5. And what is your future orientation. In what way does human orientation differ from other animals? What exactly does the phrase “achievement orientated” mean? Why it is necessary to have an accomplishment orientation
  6. What is the polar opposite of being goal-oriented and focused on achievement? Individuals that strive for success have certain characteristics, which are as follows: What do you call a person that is focused on achieving their objectives

What is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture?

Which of the following is most likely to occur in an egalitarian culture? Employees will be given equity in the firm so that they may become part of the ownership. Which of the following characteristics is characteristic of hierarchical cultures? Because of their position of power, leaders expect their people to follow their decisions.

Which of the following is a feature of cultures that are high in uncertainty avoidance?

People who live in high-uncertainty-avoidance societies reduce stress by maintaining orderliness and regularity, even if this means forsaking creativity and experimentation. People who live in low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures are at ease with uncertainty, and they may even flourish in uncertain environments, according to research.

Which of the following is a feature of cultures with low performance orientation quizlet?

Which of the following is a characteristic of cultures that place a low value on performance? Expressions of loyalty and sympathy are highly treasured by the organization. In low-gender equality societies, men and women are expected to play separate roles in society, according to the beliefs of the culture.

What is a characteristic of egalitarian cultures?

An egalitarian believes that everyone should receive the same treatment, or that they should be treated the same, or that they should be regarded as equals in some way. In general, egalitarian beliefs are predicated on the premise that all human beings are equal in terms of basic value or moral standing.

What is a feature of culture with high future orientation?

STRONG VISION FOR THE FUTURE Societies are characterized by qualities such as The proclivity to put money aside today for the future. Make a point of striving toward long-term success. Organizations have a tendency to be adaptable and flexible.

What is a characteristic of high cultural intelligence?

STRONG OBJECTIVITY FORWARD Some features of societies are as follows: Saving money now for the future is a habit that many people have. Long-term success should be the primary goal. Businesses are known for being adaptable and flexible.

What is your future orientation?

Future orientation is widely described in psychology and related sciences as the amount to which an individual thinks about the future, predicts future implications, and plans forward before taking a decision or doing action. In order to characterize the numerous elements that interact to influence future direction, a number of models have been constructed.

What is human orientation?

According to the definition, “humane orientation” is “the degree to which an organization or society supports and rewards individuals for acting in a fair and altruistic manner toward others, as well as being nice, giving, caring, and kind to others” (House et al, 2004,p. 569).

What is the meaning of achievement oriented?

Achievement orientation refers to how a person understands and reacts to tasks, which results in distinct patterns of cognition, mood, and behavior in different situations. Individuals’ academic accomplishment, adaptability, and well-being have all been found to be correlated with their achievement orientations in the past.

Why achievement orientation is important?

As their careers grow, people’s ability to achieve their goals becomes increasingly important, and this has a significant impact on the overall performance of an individual contributor.

However, once a person achieves the position of leader, theAchievement Orientationcompetency must be used in conjunction with the other skills.

What is the opposite of achievement oriented?

What is the polar opposite of a goal-oriented attitude?

aimless pointless
adrift casual
futile insignificant
irrelevant unproductive
without rhyme or reason

What are the qualities of achievement oriented individuals?


  • They have a tendency to be leaders. They prefer to get things done
  • They take responsibility for their actions. If they make a mistake, they accept responsibility for it
  • They hold themselves to high standards. A good attitude
  • They are continuously learning in order to be the best they can be
  • They are looking for better methods to be more productive
  • They are hardworking
  • They are dedicated

What do you call a goal oriented person?

Energetic, passionate, earnest, determined, aggressive, resourceful, anxious, ardent, ambitious, avid, come on, planning, desirous, driving, eager, eager beaver, enterprising, optimistic, hungry, and hardworking are just a few of the adjectives that describe me.

Which is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture The company will award

Which of the following is most likely to occur in an egalitarian culture? Steve, the founder and CEO of Sweet Splash, a chocolate manufacturing firm, has plans to extend his company’s operations throughout Asia. In order to make this growth possible, he plans to move one of his more experienced managers to the target nation in question. He is looking for a manager that has a high level of cultural intelligence. In order to meet this requirement, which of the following managers is most appropriate?

What themes are suitable for discourse in both China and Russia, and why are they so?

Which subject should you avoid bringing up in both Brazil and India, and why?

deal with the many levels of independence and reliance that people in a society have and encourage them to have in their lives is a measure of your ability to collaborate with and adapt to individuals from a variety of different cultural backgrounds.

Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect

  • Define cultural difference in terms of its aspects
  • Identify the implications of cultural differences on global business

Cultural Differences and Global Business

Managers who are considering expanding their operations into foreign markets must be aware that the circumstances they are accustomed to in their own country may be different in other nations. For example, Wal-first Mart’s worldwide growth was into Mexico, which was its first international expansion. Wal-Mart stores in Mexico were designed in the same manner as those in the United States, with a stand-alone store surrounded by enormous parking lots as the model. However, it quickly discovered that there was an issue.

  • Customers had to walk through the parking lot to get to the store, and they could only purchase items that they could carry back to the bus stop on their own.
  • Problems such as those experienced by Wal-Mart are easy to detect, and in many cases, they are also simple to resolve.
  • Understanding cultural differences is particularly crucial for managers, who must be able to relate to and encourage their people in order to effectively lead and motivate them.
  • He conducted his investigation among more than 100,000 employees of a multinational firm spread over 40 different nations.
  • In these investigations, nine dimensions were established that characterize distinctions between national cultures.

Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, assertiveness, future orientation, humane orientation, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, and gender equality are some of the factors to consider. Let’s take a closer look at each of them.

  1. Distance between two points of power. The degree to which individuals tolerate an unequal allocation of power and status privileges is referred to as power distance (or power distance gap). The rule of law is more respected in nations with a high power distance, and people are expected to follow the laws. There is also more tolerance for concentrated power in countries with a high power gap. The electricity gap between India, Mexico, and the Philippines is very large. United States, Australia, and Israel have low power distance, which is also known as Uncertainty Aversion. Uncertainty avoidance is a term used to describe the degree to which people are uncomfortable with risk, change, and ambiguity. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, there is a greater focus placed on norms, structure, order, and predictability. France, Japan, and Costa Rica, for example, are countries that place a high value on avoiding ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is low in the United States, India, and Sweden, whereas performance orientation is high in these countries. The degree to which innovation, high standards, and exceptional performance are fostered and rewarded is referred to as performance orientation. Countries with a high level of performance orientation place a high emphasis on materialism and competition, and they intend to spend in training to help their citizens improve their performance. Assertiveness is strong in the United States and European nations
  2. Argentina, Russia, and Greece have low assertiveness
  3. And performance orientations are high in Argentina, Russia, and Greece. In contrast to being cooperative and compassionate, assertiveness is defined as the degree to which individuals are strong, confrontational, and aggressive in their behavior. Communication is straightforward and plain in nations with a high level of assertiveness, such as the United States, Germany, and Mexico. In this environment, individuals are encouraged to take the initiative, and relationships are likely to be competitive. Switzerland and New Zealand are among the countries with the lowest levels of assertiveness. Managers in these nations are more inclined to seek agreement and cooperative decision-making
  4. They are also more likely to be future-oriented. Future orientation refers to the degree to which delayed gratification and long-term planning are prioritized over immediate satisfaction and short-term advantages. Countries with a high degree of future orientation favor long-term investments above short-term consumption in order to maximize future returns. It is analogous to the ability of humans to postpone satisfaction when faced with a choice. Higher levels of future orientation are found in Canada, Switzerland, and Malaysia
  5. Lower levels of future orientation may be found in Poland, Argentina, and Russia
  6. Humane Orientation. An indicator of a country’s humane orientation is the extent to which justice, selflessness, generosity, and compassion are fostered and rewarded. Individuals are responsible for promoting the well-being of others in countries with a strong humane orientation, as opposed to the state providing social and economic support. The Philippines, Ireland, and Egypt have a high humane orientation, whilst France, Germany, and Singapore have a low humane orientation. Institutional Collectivism is a type of collectivism that exists within an institution. Individual integration into groups and organizations is measured by the degree to which organizational and social institutions promote people to become members of those groups and organizations. In nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, the distribution of resources and the taking of collective action are promoted. Group loyalty is promoted, even if it means sacrificing one’s ability to pursue one’s own objectives. Sweden, Japan, and Singapore are examples of nations that have strong institutional collectivism
  7. Germany, Argentina, and Italy have low institutional collectivism. In the United States, low institutional collectivism has led in discussions about optimal work-life balance
  8. s In-Group Collectivism. In-group collectivism is the degree to which individuals show pride, loyalty, and togetherness in their organizations or families. In nations with significant institutional collectivism, individuals identify with their families or organizations and duties and obligations drive behaviour. Individuals who are members of a group are distinguished from those who are not members of the organization. India, Egypt, and China are examples of nations with strong institutional collectivism
  9. Sweden, New Zealand, and Finland are examples of countries with low institutional collectivism
  10. Gender Egalitarianism is another important factor to consider. Gender egalitarianism refers to the extent to which male and female equality is realized in a given society. Countries with a high level of gender equality give greater chances for women and have a higher proportion of women in positions of authority. Sweden, Poland, and Costa Rica are among the countries with the highest levels of gender equality. Japan, Italy, and Egypt are among the countries with the lowest levels of gender equality. Women often have a lesser social and economic standing in these nations, as well as in the culture.
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Germany and Poland have cultural features that are comparable to one another, as seen in the following chart. A comparison of cultural traits between Germany and Poland using data from the GLOBE 2004 research is presented.

Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business

When businesses wish to grow globally, they must be cognizant of the cultural variations that exist. Managers must be sensitive to the cultural context in which they operate in order to be effective. There have been several instances of advertising that had imagery or statements that were considered to be objectionable to some cultures. For example, when Pepsi altered the color of its vending machines from dark “Ice” blue to light “Ice,” the company saw its leading market dominance in Southeast Asia eroded by Coke.

  • Managers must also take into consideration various modes of communication.
  • Giving a superior the news that he has made a mistake is, for example, seen as insulting in many cultures.
  • In the United States, an appointment is defined as the time at which someone is anticipated to come at a location.
  • The importance of cultural variations must be recognized and accommodated by global management.
  • The impact of cultural variations on the fundamental functions of management, on the other hand, is less clear.
  • Yes and no are the correct answers.
  • What managers do in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Brazil is precisely the same as it is in any other country.
  • Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the four fundamental management functions that we have identified and described.
  • Planning. The ability to prepare for the future and the ability to avoid uncertainty have a big influence on how firms plan. The current state of the organization is analyzed, and adjustments necessary to achieve future goals are planned for in cultures with a high level of future orientated thinking and behavior. In a culture with a low future orientation, the past of the organization is taken into consideration, and planning is centered on conserving traditions while going forward in the organization. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, planning will be extremely careful, and only plans with a low chance of failure and a high degree of assurance of outcomes will be taken into consideration. Planning will be considerably more flexible in nations with a low level of uncertainty avoidance. The plans will acknowledge that the future is unpredictable and will anticipate that problems will be addressed as they arise
  • The process of organizing Firms’ organizational structures are influenced by two factors: performance focus and institutional collectivism. Organizations focused on teams and collective efforts would most likely be the most effective in nations with a high degree of institutional collectivism. In nations with low levels of institutional collectivism, hierarchical organizations with clearly defined lines of power and well defined roles are more likely to be effective than decentralized arrangements. Organizations in high-performance orientated cultures would be built on the successes of individual employees. Individual objectives would be established, and success would not be evaluated solely on the basis of reaching predetermined objectives, but rather on how well one does in comparison to others. In nations with a low performance focus, cooperation and collaboration would be prioritized above competition. Organizational outcomes-based goals would be more successful
  • This is the case in leadership. When it comes to leadership, power distance and a humanitarian approach are crucial concerns. People would expect leaders in high power distance nations to be more directive, and they would want laws and processes to be well established. For example, in nations with a short power distance, leadership would have to be more collaborative, and people would challenge norms and procedures that they did not believe were fair or appropriate. Motivation would be influenced by a more humane approach to life. Leaders in cultures with a high level of humane orientation would be expected to be supportive and empowering. Contributions to the organization and to individuals inside the company would be a motivating factor for people to work in the organization. Leaders in cultures with a low level of compassionate orientation would be expected to be explicit in their expectations. People would be driven by their earnings and benefits, and they would oppose anything that jeopardized their well-being or way of life. Gender equality may also play a role in this situation. Female leadership would not be automatically recognized in low gender equitable countries, and women would have to exert their power
  • They would be in charge of the household. Power distance and assertiveness have an impact on the ability of organizations to be governed successfully. Managers in nations with a high level of assertiveness would be directive and dictatorial. They would exercise control over the situation by closely monitoring and punishing the situation. Managers in a low-assertiveness country would be expected to be more tolerant of their employees and to exert control over them through encouragement and discipline. It is expected that authoritarian and directive managers will be more effective than participatory managers in nations with significant power distance.

Key Points

Companies that choose to do business on a worldwide scale are exposed to a variety of risks and dangers.

The advantages of globalization may be realized, however, when businesses conduct thorough study into the environment and plan and prepare for cultural differences. In the next part, we will discuss ways that managers might employ to deal with cultural differences.


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It is possible to gain an excellent overview, while looking at Canadian culture via the lens of the 6-D Model, of the deep factors that drive Canadian culture in comparison to other world civilizations.

Power Distance

That all persons in societies are not equal – this dimension deals with the reality that we are not all equal – and it displays the attitude of the culture towards these discrepancies amongst us. According to the definition, power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country assume and accept that power is unequally allocated within the country. It has everything to do with the reality that inequality in a society is approved by the followers just as much as it is endorsed by the leaders.

This is also evident in the absence of overt social distinctions based on social rank and/or class in contemporary culture.

It is common for managers and employees to consult with one another and to openly exchange information with one another.


The primary question addressed by this dimension is the degree to which a society’s members are reliant on one another in order to function. It has everything to do with whether or not people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We.” Individualist cultures are characterized by the expectation that people will look after themselves and their immediate family solely. In collectivist cultures, people are members of ‘in groups’ that look after them in exchange for their devotion to the collective.

This results into a loosely-knit community, similar to its southern neighbor in the United States, in which people are expected to look after themselves and their close relatives.

In addition, in the exchange-based world of work, choices on hiring and promotion are made on the basis of merit or proof of what one has done or can accomplish in the past.


The primary question addressed by this dimension is the degree to which a society’s members are reliant on one another for their survival. It all comes down to whether or not people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We.” It is expected that individuals in individualist society will look after themselves and their immediate family. In collective societies, people are members of ‘in groups’ that look after them in exchange for their devotion to the collective. On this dimension, Canada receives an 80, which is the highest possible score, and may be described as an Individualist culture.

Similarly, in the corporate sector, employees are expected to be self-sufficient and to take the initiative to complete tasks.

Aside from that, in the exchange-based world of work, merit or proof of what one has done or can accomplish is taken into consideration when making hiring and promotion choices. (See also:

Uncertainty Avoidance

Specifically, the dimension Uncertainty Avoidance is concerned with how a society deals with the reality that the future can never be predicted: should we attempt to control the future or should we simply allow it to unfold? Fear arises as a result of this uncertainty, and various cultures have developed different strategies for dealing with this anxiety. On the Uncertainty Avoidance Scale, the level to which individuals of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unclear events, and the extent to which they have constructed beliefs and institutions to try to avoid these situations, is represented in the score on this scale.

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Canadians are also tolerant of ideas or viewpoints expressed by anyone, and they respect the right to freedom of speech.

Long Term Orientation

This dimension illustrates how every society must preserve some ties to its own history while also confronting the problems of the present and the future, and how various cultures prioritize these two existential aims in different ways, as described above. As an example, civilizations with low normative scores, such as conservative societies, seek to retain long-standing traditions and conventions while viewing societal change with distrust. On the other side, those that have a high-scoring culture adopt a more realistic approach: they stress thrift and diligence in contemporary schooling as a means of preparing for the future.

Those who live in such civilizations are intensely concerned with establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thought processes.


The degree to which young children are socialized is an issue that mankind has faced in the past and continues to face in the present. We do not become “human” until we have undergone socialization. This dimension is described as the amount to which people attempt to regulate their urges and impulses as a result of the way they were raised in their upbringing. “Indulgence” is a term used to describe control that is relatively weak, whereas “Restraint” is used to describe control that is relatively strong.

As a result of the high score of 68 in this area, Canadian culture is characterized as Indulgent in nature.

They have a good outlook on life and a proclivity to be optimistic. Aside from that, they place a greater emphasis on leisure time, are free to act as they choose, and may spend their money however they wish.

NOTE: While the above descriptions apply to Canadian culture overall, one will likely find subtle differences between Anglophone Canadians and Francophone Canadians (the Province of Quebec.) Compared with their Anglophone counterparts, French-Canadians can be more formal, hierarchical, moderately relationship focused, and more emotionally expressive. The scores for Quebec are as follows: pdi 54; idv 73; mas 45; uai 60

Describe the influence on society of faiths and communal rituals centered on morality and decency on the world. Individuals who are not linked to one another are more sympathetic and considerate of one another in groups.

What was the major criticism of the early 20th century three race theory that divided the world’s peoples into the categories of Caucasoid Mongoloid and Negroid?

Describe the influence on society of faiths and communal rituals centered on morality and decency on society. The compassion and kindness of persons who are not linked to one another is greater in groups.

What term refers to the health related beliefs knowledge and practices of a cultural group?

This is a general summary of ethnomedical practices. An important component of this endeavor is gaining an understanding of cultural beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge in relation to health.

What type of society is egalitarian?

Equilibrium is defined as the notion that all people are born equal and that all people have the right to equal opportunity. A society of this nature is frequently referred to as a society without classes.

What is an example of egalitarianism?

All persons were created equal, according to the concept of an egalitarian, and they thus ought to be treated as such. Equality is a value held by civil rights activists such as Martin Luther King Jr., who might be regarded as egalitarian. Equal rights advocates believe in the equality of all individuals and work to ensure that this equality is realized.

What are the 5 main inspirations for artists?

Photographs, personal experience, observation, imagination, and a need for order are some of the responses you could receive.

What is egalitarian society in history?

Humans have, as a species, lived in egalitarian communities for the most of their history, dating back 200,000 years to a time when sharing and collaboration were typical occurrences in society. When confronted with such cultures, the common sense view that all human societies are motivated by selfishness and greed must be reexamined and reformulated.

In which type of society are the gods most likely to take an active interest in the moral behavior of humans Group of answer choices?

Term When a student receives a Master’s degree, it can be claimed that he or she has achieved success. Definition A quality that has been reached Term According to which sort of civilization do the gods have the greatest chance of taking an active interest in human moral behavior, and why? Definition. a society characterized by unequal distribution of wealth

What characteristic do ghosts and ancestor spirits share?

What is the one thing that ghosts and ancestral spirits have in common? Humans are both the cause and the source of both.

Why are anthropologists interested in religion?

Exactly what trait do ghosts and ancestral spirits have in common? Humans are both the source of and the end result of these phenomena.

Which of the following artistic styles is most likely to occur in an egalitarian society?

What would be the most likely artistic style? Which of the following fashion trends is most likely to develop in an equitable society? Making use of the same simplistic designs again and over again.

Which early natural scientist divided the human species into four races americanus europaeus Asiaticus and Africanus quizlet?

A proposal by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus in his 1735 treatise on nature, Systema Naturae (1735), for the existence of four human races: Americanus (Native Americans / American Indian), Europaeus (Europeans), Asiaticus (East Asian), and others.

What do the authors argue is natural that is not culturally determined about the family quizlet?

According to the writers, a biological mother and a biological father are characterized as “natural,” as opposed to being determined by cultural conventions.

Because of the exchange of favors and goods in foraging communities, women’s job and pregnancy and delivery may coexist without creating a conflict between the two.

What do the chapter authors argue is the distinguishing feature of globalization group of answer choices?

We believe that the speed and scope of worldwide connections, rather than the span of global interactions, are the distinctive characteristics of globalization in the modern period. European colonial expansion into Africa, Asia, and the Americas was a watershed moment in the history of the globe, marking the most recent chapter in the development of globalization.

How did Franz Boas challenge the concept of race?

What kind of ace are you talking about? Boas conducted a study of immigration and discovered that racial categories changed over time. Boas proved, via the study of both parents and their offspring, that the phenotypic features associated with race may change over the course of a lifetime.

What is the dominant medical paradigm in Western culture?

Western civilizations place a high reliance on biomedicine as a primary medical system. A large number of people in poor nations seek treatment for their illnesses first and foremost through traditional medicine or ethnomedicine. As a result, they have a mutually beneficial cultural impact on one another.

Is the field of anthropology that tries to learn about how people in different cultures categorize things in the environment?

A cultural anthropologist may also be referred to as a sociocultural anthropologist or a social anthropologist. Anthropologists are attempting to better comprehend and interpret the intricacies of the culture they are researching by referring to the culture they are studying rather than their own.

How do anthropologists define media?

Multi-user content viewing technology is a collection of connections that allows more than one person to watch the same piece of material at the same time. Media studies, like other specialities within anthropology, are based on the concepts of long-term ethnographic research and cultural relativism, much as other specializations within anthropology are.

In which type of society are the gods most likely to take an active interest in the moral behavior of humans?

Term Upon receiving a Master’s degree, it could be said that a student had gained Definition An achieved Quality
Term In which type of society are the gods most likely to take an active interest in the moral behavior of humans? Definition. a society with inequality of wealth

What is an egalitarian social system?

Egalitarian societies are those in which everyone receives equal treatment, is given equal opportunities, and is accorded equal rights. Such societies are made up of individuals who hold egalitarianism to be a core principle and who have come to terms with the fact that they would be living together as a collective.

What type of status is associated with egalitarian societies?

The absence of a hierarchical system of social ranks with coercive authority attached to them characterizes an egalitarian society. The potential to lead and contribute in egalitarian communities is within each individual, as leadership is a product of their own personal characteristics and behaviors.

What is the egalitarian principle?

There are many different sorts of egalitarianism. Legal equality is the notion that every individual is controlled by the law in the same manner. A unique legal protection is not provided to any particular group as a result of this. An advocate for political equality believes in the concept of democracy, which maintains that everyone has equal authority over the government, and supports it.

Do all societies have art?

Every society has some type of artistic expression. Art is more than simply a means of expressing oneself; it is also a cultural product in and of itself. It is common for numerous tribes to participate in these meetings, and there is always a diverse range of creative forms on display, such as drumming, dancing, and singing.

What is the term for a social status based on talents actions efforts choices and accomplishments?

The desired result has been obtained.

Big guy and convicted criminal are social statuses that are obtained via one’s abilities, actions, efforts, and successes, among other things. Pantrib’s sodality is represented by this symbol.

Why is the study of religious beliefs challenging for anthropologists quizlet?

We’ve reached the desired level of success. Big guy and convicted criminal are social statuses that are obtained via one’s abilities, activities, efforts, and successes, among other things. Specifically, it is the Pantribidaea sodality.

Which field of anthropology studies how religious beliefs affect?

The goal has been reached. Big guy and convicted criminal are social positions that are gained via one’s abilities, actions, efforts, and accomplishments. Pantrib’s sodality is referred to as this.

What does the chapter author Garcia say sparked his interest in cultural anthropology?

Garcia, the chapter’s author, claims that it was his father who sparked his interest in anthropology in the first place. People have formed a variety of assumptions regarding his racial and ethnic heritage during the course of his life. It is possible that some skin colors are more prevalent in particular locations than in others, but the hues of skin that are prevalent continue to vary throughout time.

What do the chapter authors argue is the distinguishing feature of globalization quizlet?

He claims his father inspired him to pursue an interest in anthropology, which led him to write the chapter in which you may read more about him. People have formed a variety of assumptions regarding his racial and ethnic heritage during the course of his career. Particular skin tones may be more prevalent in certain locations than in others, but the shades of skin that are present continue to evolve with time.

What is one of the changes that occurs with the transition to intensive agriculture?

When agriculture is transformed into intensive agriculture, which is a transformation characteristic of Marxism, the surpluses created by peasant labor are transferred to a small elite, resulting in a class divide.

What is an intensive agricultural society?

For communities with a large population, agriculture is the primary mode of sustenance provision. In compared to other subsistence strategies, it generates a greater amount and higher quality of food per acre of land than the others. Farmers in wealthier countries were forced to industrialize their businesses as a result of this.

What is meant by intensive subsistence agriculture?

Farming that is intensive for the purpose of sustenance is defined as agriculture in which farmers must devote a disproportionately great amount of work in order to produce the maximum yield attainable.

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What are the types of intensive agriculture?

Intensive agriculture may be divided into two categories: non-industrial agriculture and industrial agriculture. Humans and draft animals are employed in the former case, whereas machines are employed in the later case. Despite this, there are significant similarities between the two kinds.

Why do anthropologists think agriculture arose nearly simultaneously in different regions of the world?

According to archaeological evidence, it took a considerable amount of time, spanning many generations, for the shift from animal husbandry to agriculture to be accomplished. So, what was it that prompted so many cultures all across the world to adopt agriculture almost simultaneously? The end of the previous ice age resulted in a significant change in climate, and this might be the solution.

Leading Across Cultures (Hierarchical vs. Egalitarian Leadership)

MyGrowing Your Cultural Awareness in Businessseries will continue today, relying on the insights gained from Erin Meyer’sThe Culture Map. There are eight parts to this series, and this piece will focus on the Leadership Scale, which is part of the Culture Map (egalitarian vs. hierarchical).

Power DistanceLeading

A concept created by Geert Hofstede in the 1970s, the phrase ” power distance ” refers to the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept and expect that power is allocated unequally. According to the Leading Scale, the concept of power distance is taken from politics and applied to the business world, with the two extremes of the spectrum representing egalitarian leadership and hierarchical leadership, respectively.

Power distance is associated with questions such as the following:

  • When it comes to an authority person (and their viewpoint), how much respect or deference is provided is important. Is it appropriate in your organization to skip layers? For example, if you want to interact with someone who is two levels above or below you, should you travel through the entire hierarchical chain? When you are in charge, what gives you an air of authority is your position.

The Leading Scale: Hierarchical vs. Egalitarian

  • The optimal distance between a leader and his or her subordinates is large. The finest boss is a powerful director who takes the initiative and leads from the front
  • Position is vital
  • Structures of organizations are both multilayered and permanent in place. Communication is organized along established hierarchical lines. Leaders distinguish themselves from individuals at lower levels of the organizational hierarchy in order to demonstrate their authority and leadership qualities.

Egalitarian Leadership (Low Power-distance):

  • The optimal distance between a boss and his or her subordinate is little. One of the most effective bosses is a facilitator among equals. Organizational hierarchies are flat
  • This is a good thing. Communication frequently occurs outside of hierarchical structures
  • When it comes to leadership, it is more about “behaving like a member of the team” (rather than isolating yourself from your subordinates)

SPS’s Offices on the Leading Scale:

Egalitarian- GeographicalNote: The following countries are represented: UA = Ukraine, AU = Australia, CA = Canada, US = United States. These are the areas with which I have the most direct contact, while we have team members in other parts of the world as well as these.

General Traits of these Cultures

  • In the event of a disagreement with the boss, a concerted attempt is made to defer to his or her viewpoint, particularly in public
  • People are more inclined to take action if they have the approval of their superiors
  • However, this is not always the case. It is necessary to correspond to hierarchical levels: If you send your boss, they will send their boss, and so on and so forth. If your boss cancels, it is possible that their boss may cancel as well. “Level skipping” is prohibited since communication must adhere to the hierarchical structure.

Egalitarian Cultures:

  • In the event of a disagreement with the boss, a concerted effort is made to defer to the employer’s opinion, particularly in public. Obtaining approval from superiors: People are more inclined to seek approval from their superiors before proceeding with a project. Need to match hierarchical levels in order to function effectively: Send your boss, and they will send their boss in response. Your boss’s boss may also cancel if you don’t show up for work. In order to avoid “level skipping,” all communication must follow the hierarchy.

Avoiding Confusion

  • If you do not involve your team members in decision-making, it is possible that confusion or unpleasant emotions will arise. Consider soliciting opinion from your team members if you’re dealing with egalitarians (you can do this while still maintaining control over the ultimate decision
  • See the’strategies for success’ section below)
  • If team members disagree, it is not a show of disrespect
  • Rather, it is a necessary element of the process by which egalitarian societies reach consensus. Providing a plan without first soliciting your input or thoughts is not an indication of disrespect by a hierarchical team member
  • Rather, it is more usual in their culture.

Take note that in hierarchical societies, the leader’s role for caring for and teaching his subordinates is just as important as the follower’s responsibility to defer and obey orders. There are no “underlings” under this system since it is built on reciprocating duties rather than merely the commitments of “the underlings.”

Egalitarian→ Hierarchical Teams

  • If you are “skipping levels” in the organizational structure, it is possible to cause confusion or hurt emotions. If you’re a manager, talk with your colleagues about concerns or ideas you’re thinking about. At a bare least, inquire as to whether or not it is OK to discuss difficulties or ideas with their team members. In the case of an egalitarian, skipping hierarchical levels is not a show of contempt
  • Rather, it is just ordinary practice in their society.

Strategies for Success

  • How to communicate with ‘the source’ or with your boss: Communicate with the other person on an equal footing. You must go via a boss of comparable rank or obtain express permission to go up a level (otherwise, you face the danger of upsetting your peer). If you are the boss, you must go through another boss of equivalent status or obtain explicit permission to move up a level. Including supervisors in emails is a good idea: If you send an email to someone who is lower in the organizational hierarchy than you are, include their manager as a recipient. “Level Skipping” is defined as follows: If you need to approach your boss’s boss or your subordinate’s subordinate, you must first obtain permission from the person who is one level above or below your boss or subordinate.

Strategies for Working with Egalitarian Cultures

  • How to communicate with ‘the source’ or with your boss: Go directly to the source of the problem
  • There’s no need to worry the boss about anything. Including supervisors in emails is a good idea: Think twice before including the boss’s email address in your correspondence. The recipient may see this as a sign that you don’t trust them or that you are attempting to get them into trouble. “Level Skipping” is defined as follows: Generally speaking, skipping hierarchical levels is acceptable.

Tips for managing teams in different cultures

You can attempt the following if you are in charge of a group that defers to your authority/opinion but you want them to contribute feedback so that you can make informed decisions:

  • You can attempt the following if you are in charge of a group that defers to your authority or viewpoint, but you want them to contribute feedback so that you can make informed judgments.

Managing Egalitarian Cultures

You can attempt the following if you are in charge of a group that defers to your authority or viewpoint, but you want them to contribute feedback so that you can make informed decisions:

  • Introduction of management by objectives begins with a discussion with each employee about the team’s vision for the upcoming year, followed by a request for them to submit their best personal yearly objectives, which are subject to negotiation and ultimate agreement with you. Rather of acting as a supervisor, you might take on the role of facilitator while still maintaining control over the project’s progress and outcomes. Make certain that the objectives are explicit and concrete, and explore how to relate them to incentives and recognition. Check in on the development on a regular basis (for a year-long project, maybe once a month so as to not be seen as micro-managing). If development is good, you may offer your team member greater autonomy in managing his or her own time
  • If progress is sluggish, you can get more actively involved. It’s usually beneficial to set goals and expectations for how something will function up front, so don’t be afraid to do so.

It is always acceptable and reasonable when working with multi-cultural teams to establish ‘what is usual’ for your team up-front so that there is no misunderstanding between offices. For the sake of clarity, some of the information in this section is either taken straight from or is a synopsis of Chapter 4 of The Culture Map, with my own examples and perspective added for emphasis.

Want to Read More?

Nota Bene: When working with multi-cultural teams, it is always acceptable and fair to clarify ‘what is usual’ for your team up-front in order to avoid confusion between offices. For the sake of clarity, some of the information in this section has been taken either from or summarized from Chapter 4 of The Culture Map, with my own examples and perspective added for emphasis.

  • Providing (Negative) Feedback Across Cultures
  • PersuasionReasoning
  • The Advantages of Global Diversity
  • Communicating Effectively Across Cultures
  • Communicating Effectively Across Cultures Please keep a watch out for other articles on the remaining four scales of the Culture Map that I will be writing in the coming months.

Jon Beattie is a British actor who has appeared in a number of films and television shows.

Human sacrifice may have helped societies become more complex

The role of religion as a force for moral good in the world is frequently emphasized—but religion also has a malevolent side, as seen by brutal ceremonies like human sacrifice. New study reveals that even this dark side may have played a crucial role in the evolution of mankind. Although some experts are skeptical, scientists have discovered that these ritual killings, which were designed to placate gods, may have aided the formation of complex civilizations in maritime Southeast Asia and the South Pacific.

  1. The gruesome ceremonies were mainly carried out by strong chiefs or priests on the islands of the Indian and Pacific seas, respectively.
  2. Despite their heinous nature, these atrocities may have had some unanticipated consequences, at least for certain sections of society.
  3. “There is anecdotal evidence from other parts of the world,” he adds.
  4. Watts and his colleagues conducted an investigation on 93 traditional Austronesian cultures in order to close the gap.
  5. They speak a similar ancestral language and have a long history of migration.
  6. They also categorised the amount of social stratification in each civilization as “egalitarian,” “moderately stratified,” or “highly stratified,” depending on the level of social stratification.
  7. Moderately stratified cultures allowed for the inheritance of social position, but did not have well defined social classes.
  8. The scientists constructed family trees based on linguistic indications to indicate how the Austronesian cultures are believed to have evolved and how they are linked to one another.
  9. They were able to determine if human sacrifice and social stratification developed in the same locations, and whether ritualized killings were responsible for shifts in class boundaries based on the family trees.
  10. Both human sacrifice and societal hierarchy have evolved in tandem, according to the family trees.
  11. “People frequently assert that religion is the foundation of morality,” Watts argues.

“It demonstrates how religion can be used to the advantage of social elites for their own gain.” However, according to human evolutionary anthropologist Joseph Henrich of Harvard University, using language trees to analyze cultural behaviors is a risky proposition, and he cautions against jumping to conclusions.

For example, when one culture defeated another, this may have occurred.

He goes on to say that the only method to confirm this link would be to investigate a test case—a behavior with a known evolution.

Experts, on the other hand, are pleased with the introduction of advanced statistical approaches into study on religion and culture.

“This has resulted in a lack of strong quantitative tests of these ideas.” “These procedures are effective, and they represent a significant advancement in our ability to assess ideas.

Is it possible that they are the final piece of the puzzle? No.” Despite this, he says, “at the very least, the dialogue can begin here, and it can begin in a methodical fashion that has never been done before.”

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