Which Female Devoted Her Life To Educating Immigrants In The Ways Of American Culture

Which female devoted her life to educating immigrants in the ways of American culture? Jane Addams Harriet Beecher Stowe Frances Kellor Ida Tarbell

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In what profession did a woman devote her life to teaching immigrants in the customs of American culture?

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Which female devoted her life to educating immigrants in the ways of american culture? she was also one of the first american women to get a law degree

Define and explain the beliefs of the federalists. How did they feel about the ratification of the United States Constitution? Answers are as follows: 1 Compare and contrast the roles played by the three nations that make up the central powers. Answers are as follows: 2 The use of violence or the threat of violence for political goals is referred to asa) glasnost b) terrorism, respectively. c) perestroika d) stagflation are all possible outcomes. Answers are as follows: 1 List three historical problems that have been used to discuss the various interpretations of the Constitution over the course of history.

Make use of the text of the constitution, your notes, your own interpretation, the resources listed below, and any further research to explain how the issue supports either loose constructionism or originalism in a four- to five-paragraph essay.

In what profession did a woman devote her life to teaching immigrants in the customs of American culture?

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Assimilation in the United States: Nineteenth Century

These reciprocal transformations were also taking place, but not as a result of Jewish women’s rejection of the female sphere as defined by the dominant model of gender roles, but rather as a result of a quiet alteration of accepted understandings as they extended women’s domestic responsibility for the preservation of Jewishness in the home and the family into the synagogue, as was the case in the nineteenth century.

The fact that it was precisely the Americanizationof the synagogue that, by allowing women to participate actively in its religious activities, contributed to the preservation of Jewish tradition in America is an excellent illustration of how ethnicization must accommodate both change and continuity.

The most visible changes in women’s position and activities occurred in three areas: (1) the rapid urban-industrial growth of the United States and technological advances, which resulted in greater material affluence and new life-styles for the American middle class; (2) the progressive “feminization of religion” in middle-class Protestant and German Jewish-American societies; and (3) further specialization and, particularly, professiona lization.

Women in the middle class in the United States gained more free time during this period because of an overall increase in economic prosperity, the mechanization of many household chores, and the proliferation of commercial entertainment, such as vaudeville theaters, dance halls, amusement parks, and the first moving pictures.

An especially notable and significant American innovation in the lifestyles of second-generation German Jewish families, which was both a result of and a cause of increased economic affluence and significantly increased women’s free time, was a significant reduction in the number of children they bore on average (two to three) when compared to middle-class Protestant American women.

Jews, particularly women, were reportedly particularly preoccupied with clothes as a mark of middle-class status in the United States during this time period.

When the piano was installed in Jewish homes, it served as an ethnic expression of both German Jewish tradition and American middle-class membership.

Innovations such as the use of Jewish-American cookbooks for confirmation receptions, invitation dinners, and the celebration of the deliverance of tzedakah (the liberation of the Jews from the Romans) were made possible by increased middle-class affluence and new developments in household and entertainment technologies that had been introduced and managed by women.

Americanization can be seen in two ways in the active involvement of middle-class German Jewish women in settlement houses in the education of newly arrived Eastern European Jewish immigrant women in the American way of life.

German Jewish sisters had learnt the customs of middle-class American women, and they were in turn passing them on to their fellow ethnic gender-mates in the United States.

Reform rabbis, echoing the American (Protestant) notion of womanhood as the natural wellspring of spirituality, called on Jewish women, who were “more responsive,” in the words of Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler, the main architect of the Reform movement’s Pittsburgh Platform (1885), “to the tender appeals of religious duty,” to become “the saviors of Jewish religion” and “the saviors of Jewish civilization.” Normative images of women as the keepers of Jewish tradition had come from the women themselves at their organizational meetings, in Jewish-American periodicals, and in literary works, all of which were influenced by the women themselves.

Declaring women to be the saviors of Judaism was a significant reversal of conventional Jewish gender roles, which had been described at best as men’s helpmates since the early 1800s.

Throughout the home, middle-class German Jewish women—most of whom were second generation and had received far more formal Judaic education than their immigrant mothers—had taken over control of their children’s religious education, supervised their confirmation studies, and recommended interesting readings on Jewish religion to their children.

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Women had adopted a wide range of responsibilities as officers of religious school boards, as well as via fund-raising, communal, educational, and sociocultural activities on the part of temple sisterhoods, in their role as “saviors of the Jewish faith.” They were created as a local federation in the 1880s and 1890s, and then as a national federation in 1913.

Although it was not legally established until 1972, unordained woman preachers (Ray Frank being the most well-known) held services in Jewish communities on the West Coast where there were no rabbis at the turn of the century, notably in the more open Western regions of the country.

In the first place, the Americanization of women’s responsibilities entailed both radical shifts in the scope and content of their endeavors as well as deliberate efforts to keep Jewish heritage alive.

Evocations of biblical images of the “Mothers of Israel,” following in the footsteps ofJochebed, Miriam, and Deborah, the representations of women’s expanding presence and responsibilities in the forum of Jewish public religion instilled a sense of continuity in observers and participants alike of the continuity of Jewish tradition in the forum of Jewish public religion.

As an outspokenly moral campaign aimed at eradicating urban poverty and crime and (re)instituting social justice after it had fallen victim to predatory capitalism, the Progressive reform movement naturally appealed to women, as their gender role model moral vocation occupied central place in the movement.

Inevitably, the attention of German Jewish women educators and social workers was drawn to recent Jewish emigrants from Russia and Austria-Hungary who had settled in densely populated immigrant sections of New York and other major cities in the Eastern and Midwestern United States.

The programs of settlement homes, which were run by German Jewish women, combined elements of American and Jewish culture.

Later on, Eastern European immigrant girls learned the ways of proper Jewish womanhood from their Jewish mothers, which included the modern term for ritually uncontaminated food that adhered to the laws ofKashrut (Jewish dietary laws).

Kosherkitchen, adherence of Jewish festivals, morality, and acceptable Jewish gender views are all important aspects of Jewish life.

Education Reform in Antebellum America

When it comes to significant reform efforts, education reform is frequently at the forefront. By the 1820s, Americans were witnessing both exciting and disturbing social and economic transformations. Throughout the northern hemisphere, the traditional rural and agrarian existence was gradually being revolutionized by the advent of factories, the establishment of a market economy, and the expansion of towns and cities. The government—primarily state governments—as well as private persons were putting money into roads, turnpikes, bridges, canals, and railroads, which were being built to connect the various areas of the rapidly growing republic together.

  • Young men and women were leaving the fields to work in factories, transforming conventional family structures for the foreseeable future.
  • The rise of manufacturing and the expansion of cities and towns brought about new social problems, including deterioration of working and living conditions, the rise of poverty and indebtedness, and an increase in the wealth and poverty gap.
  • This rising socioeconomic situation alarmed the Protestant governing class, who feared it would result in prostitution, gangs, alcoholism, crime, and other indications of societal decay and chaos.
  • Political changes occurred simultaneously with economic and social developments.
  • Because of the expansion in paid work and the rising social stratification, this increased political engagement resulted in labor unrest and labor organization as a result of the increased political activity.
  • A desire to reform and expand education accompanied and informed many of the political, social, and economic upheavals of the time.
  • At the heart of this movement was the belief that free common schooling dedicated to good citizenship and moral education would ensure the alleviation of problems facing the new republic.

It was founded in the United States in the late nineteenth century.

It was the primary goal of the common school movement to establish a more centralized and efficient educational system, one that would assimilate, train, and discipline the emerging working classes and prepare them for a successful life in an industrial society.

His political theory was built on a strong sense of Protestant Republicanism that was anchored in a secular, non-sectarian morality, as expressed by Mann himself.

Mann argued for state-controlled boards of education, a more standard curriculum, and increased state engagement in teacher training in order to achieve educational reform.

can serve as a stabilizing and equalizing force in American society.” In Mann’s words, “education is the great equalizer of men’s conditions—the balance-wheel of the social machinery.” Mann and the common school movement faced opposition both then and now.

Reforms in whites-only schools and school districts could only be achieved via the efforts of African American parents and their political supporters to bring about partial but not long-lasting change.

Catholics established their own system of parochial schools because they were concerned about religious and anti-immigrant prejudice.

To the contrary, the common school movement, according to Katz and others, was a deliberate attempt by the Protestant elite to maintain control over the lower classes, force assimilation of immigrants and non-Protestants, and prepare working-class children to acquire the “virtues” necessary for factory life—in particular, respect for authority.

  • The struggle for greater educational opportunities for women was clearly linked to the antebellum reform movement, and in particular the campaign for women’s suffrage.
  • While young women were accepted to public or common schools, the vast majority of women in the United States were denied educational opportunities at every level, from kindergarten to graduate school.
  • Similarly to how Horace Mann characterized the common school movement, Emma Willard (1787–1870), Catharine Beecher (1800–1878), and Mary Lyon (1797–1849) were three of the most influential figures in the progress of women’s education throughout the nineteenth century.
  • Emma Willard began teaching when she was seventeen years old, and in 1814 she founded the Troy Female Seminary, which was the first recognized institution for educating young women in the United States.
  • An advocate for a rigorous curriculum for girls, she spoke before the New York State assembly in 1819, in which she attacked Thomas Jefferson’s dismissive views on women’s mental abilities.
  • Beecher, like Mann, felt that women were natural instructors, and that teaching was just the extension of women’s domestic labor into the educational setting.
  • Beecher was not a feminist, and she opposed women’s suffrage.

Prudence Crandall (1803–1890), one of the most brave of these reformers, was the founder of the Canterbury (Connecticut) Female Boarding School, which opened its doors in 1831.

Within minutes, white parents began to demonstrate and remove their daughters from the institution.

The municipality replied by enacting discriminatory legislation and resorting to violence.

The battle for female education was also symbolized by the creation of Mt.

It was founded in 1837 by Mary Lyon, who also served as the organization’s first president.

The success of Mt.

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Feminists and educational reformers also fought for the integration of men and women in higher education.

Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, both colleges served as “stations” on the Underground Railroad and graduated generations of leading education reformers as well as social justice activists.

The institution of slavery acted as a barrier to the development of industry and urbanization, two variables that were crucial in the development of educational reform in the North.

In the North and South, as well as England, wealthy landowners sent their sons (and sometimes females) to private academies run by their own families.

Education for black slaves was strictly prohibited, especially after the rebellion.

As pioneers of this movement, Quakers were at the forefront of it, founding racially integrated schools in major cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston.

One notable endeavor to educate free blacks in the South was the work of John Chavis, a well-educated free African American who lived in the South at the time.

Despite the fact that Sunday Schools were established primarily to give literary, theological, and moral education to working class and destitute rural children, some slaves were taught in these institutions.

The effort to increase educational possibilities continued after the Civil War ended.

It is important to note that not all efforts were positive; for example, Indian schools such as Carlisle were racist attempts to destroy Native American cultures.

The questions of the aim of public education, as well as its accessibility and curriculum, which were first addressed by Mann, Crandall, Beecher, and Chavis, continue to be a topic of discussion in the United States.

Then there’s Dr.

Massachusetts Board of Education, Twelfth Annual Report of the Secretary (Boston, 1848).

She received her Ph.D.

Selected publications includeSylvia Pankhurst: Sexual Politics and Political Activism(1996) andClues in the Classroom: Teaching U.S.

She is the founder and director of the Shirley Chisholm Project of Brooklyn Women’s Activism, 1945 to the Present (chisholmproject.com), and she is currently working on a biography of Shirley Chisholm as well as a book about the Women’s Liberation Movement in Seattle, Washington.

Jane Addams, Hull House, and Immigration

  • Explain the many responses to immigration that have occurred throughout history
  • What reform movements responded to the growth of industrial capitalism during the Gilded Age and how did they differ?

Suggested Sequencing

Use this Narrative to help students gain a better knowledge of the Progressive movement and how progressives such as Jane Addams used their positions to assist incoming immigrants in their communities. Jane Addams utilized the Social Gospel to help bring about what she saw to be the restoration of democratic principles in the United States. As a young woman growing up in the decades following the Civil War, she was concerned that the expansion of urban, industrial society might jeopardize democratic equality.

In order to put her beliefs into action, she worked tirelessly to better the lives of working people and immigrants in rapidly developing American cities, like Chicago, by assisting in the establishment of Hull Home, a settlement house for immigrant families.

An intense devotion to the concept of a cooperative society that was consistent with social democracy lay at the heart of Addams’s philosophical ideas.

As a result, she fought relentlessly to ameliorate the suffering of newly arriving immigrants and to obtain the right of women to vote in elections.

She urged social elites to take a greater interest in the plight of the working class, urged powerful corporations to abandon their efforts to stymie legislation aimed at improving the economic conditions of workers, and expressed support for labor unions working to put an end to the practice of child labor in the United States and elsewhere.

Progressivists tended to be middle-class and college-educated persons who were worried about the challenges caused by fast economic and urban development.

They were influenced by the notion of the Social Gospel, which was the inspiration for many reformers.

During that time period, immigration was highly contentious due to the influx of large numbers of newcomers, particularly from Southern and Eastern Europe, who created crowded and unsanitary conditions in many city neighborhoods while also constituting a voting bloc that was frequently exploited by political bosses who were well-known for their dishonesty.

Hull House, a dilapidated home that Addams rented in a mainly immigrant district of Chicago, would become the focal point of her social reform efforts in the city.

As such, he invited highly educated, middle-class male and female reformers to live in Hull House as residents and to develop meaningful relationships with their immigrant neighbors.

Her hope was that such connections would help to reduce the social divisions that were so evident in industrial cities and allow reformers like herself and her Hull House co-founder Ellen Starr Gates to bring various forms of improvement and assistance to the lives of newcomers.

The inspiration for Hull House came from a trip Addams took to the United Kingdom, where she visited Toynbee Hall, a benevolent project in the East End of London in which college-age men from the city offered classes in topics such as literature and economics to impoverished residents in the hope that the young men would get to know the poor residents better and improve the quality of their lives.

  1. The settlement house concept quickly caught the interest of other progressives, and by 1900, there were more than 100 settlement houses operating throughout the United States.
  2. She wandered the streets, which were freshly occupied by Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, and others, in an attempt to learn as much as she could about them in order to assist them in adjusting to their new reality.
  3. It was possible to take art and music classes while also benefiting from child care and a kindergarten.
  4. Addams always urged immigrants to observe their own national holidays and to keep many of their cultural traditions alive and well.

The author of the autobiographical book Twenty Years at Hull House with Autobiographical Notes (1910) recalled not only listening to stories immigrants told her about their lives in foreign lands, but also telling them the story of President Abraham Lincoln’s defense of the ideal of human equality during his time as the sixteenth president.

  • He was committed not just to the goal of socioeconomic equality, but also to the concept of “Americanization,” which held out the promise that people from different origins may come to understand and respect the same fundamental ideals.
  • These initiatives were created in order to help immigrants become productive members of society.
  • After moving to Hull House in 1892 with Florence Kelley, a progressive who had been active in the labor movement, Addams began to support attempts to improve working conditions for women and children.
  • They also called on local lawmakers to stop the flow of untreated sewage into the city’s streets and sewer systems.
  • When this act was passed, the goal was to stem the influx of newcomers from Eastern and Southern Europe, whose wretched conditions had denied them the opportunity to obtain even the most basic of educations.
  • The Naturalization Act of 1906 did, in the end, prohibit Japanese laborers from becoming citizens, although literacy requirements were eliminated from the final form.
  • For Russian immigrants incarcerated for their Socialist ideas during the wartime Red Scare in 1919, Addams assisted them in raising bail money because they felt their civil rights had been infringed.
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The next year, she became a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Progressives such as Jane Addams believed that granting women the right to vote would help to improve the moral tone of a society that was riven by corruption and bigotry.

Among the suffragists in this 1913 photograph are Jane Addams (center) and Julia Lathrop (left), as well as Mary McDowell (far right) (right).

Jane Addams viewed World War I as a threat to her vision of a cooperative and humane world, which she had developed over the years.

When the United States was considering entering the war in Europe in 1915, she was instrumental in the formation of the Women’s Peace Party.

Addams was a reformer during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era who was concerned about the challenges of contemporary industrial society, and he represented reformers during these periods.

Hull House made an effort to assist immigrants in assimilating into American society and “Americanizing” them. During the Progressive Era and the New Deal, many of the social democratic changes proposed by Addams were put into effect at the state and national levels.

Review Questions

1. In her 1902 book Democracy and Social Ethics, Jane Addams’s major thesis was that democracy should be accepted by all people.

  1. Corporate and commercial support for measures to enhance the working conditions of employees
  2. Tougher limits on immigrants entering the United States
  3. The necessity for women to fulfill their household responsibilities
  4. And a reduction in government control of companies

2. Hull House, founded by Jane Addams, was a social experiment intended to

  1. Maintaining the social standing and political influence of native-born Americans
  2. Controlling the inflow of immigrants into congested cities
  3. Exposing the threat that immigrants posed to traditional values
  4. To alleviate social tensions by forging a coalition of persons from middle- and working-class backgrounds

3. Jane Addams was a supporter of a number of political causes, including the abolition of slavery.

  1. Immigrants entering the United States must meet certain literacy criteria, and they must also learn English. United States participation in World War I to promote the spread of democracy
  2. Legislation limiting the workweek to eight hours and granting women the right to vote
  3. Tax advantages for major firms to encourage the creation of new employment.

4. Jane Addams’ personal philosophy was built on the principles of the

  1. Reforming conventional female roles
  2. Implementing Social Darwinism to assist the poor
  3. Upholding Abraham Lincoln’s ideas of equality and democracy
  4. And many other issues. improved working circumstances for youngsters who are already in the workforce

5. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Jane Addams was widely regarded as the personification of the working class.

  1. The Enlightenment, the Progressive Movement, Social Darwinist views, and contemporary nativism are all examples of ideas that have influenced history.

6. Jane Addams’ reputation as “the most dangerous woman in America” among her political opponents in the early twentieth century was based on her strong belief in the need of education.

  1. Women’s suffrage, assimilation of Eastern and Southern European immigrants into American society, pacifism, and keeping the United States out of World War I were all important achievements in the twentieth century. establishing Hull House

Free Response Questions

  1. Describe how Jane Addams applied her notion of American democracy to the issues of immigration and racism in the United States. Explain Jane Addams’ objection to war and how she connected her opposition to exploitation of immigrants with her opposition to war.

AP Practice Questions

In spite of the fact that America is committed to the democratic ideal, it is clear that the country’s perspective on democracy has been limited, and that its most significant success to date has been pushed along the line of the franchise.” In the realm of social issues, democracy has made only sporadic attempts to impose itself. We have refused to advance beyond the perspective of its eighteenth-century leaders, who felt that only political equality could ensure the well-being of all human beings in the long run.

We rush to provide the immigrant the right to vote out of a feeling of fairness and a belief that he should have it, while we defame him with epithets demeaning his previous life or current work and feel no need to accept him into our homes.

We’re on the verge of abandoning it as our ideal for social interaction.” The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements, by Jane Addams, was published in 1892.


  1. The elimination of gender-based work discrimination
  2. The right of women to vote
  3. Integration and acceptance of new immigrants
  4. Political changes, including the abolition of child labor

The following groups would be more likely to disagree with the attitudes conveyed in the extract. 2.

  1. Nativists in the 1850s
  2. Jacksonian Democrats
  3. Progressives in the early twentieth century
  4. Antebellum reformers in support of public education

Which of the following factors, in addition to an increase in immigration from Europe, was responsible for the events detailed in the excerpt?

  1. Rapid industrialisation and the consequent need for low-skilled labor
  2. It is the transformation of an agriculture-based economy into a service-based economy. Making the switch from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy
  3. Technological advancements that have resulted in more leisure time for the general public

Primary Sources

Jane Addams’ Democracy and Social Ethics is a book that she wrote. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1913. Jane Addams is a fictional character created by American author Jane Addams. Hull House: Twenty Years in the Making, with Autobiographical Notes Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1912. Chapter 2, “The Influence of Lincoln,” on pages 23-42, and Chapter 11, “Immigrants and their Children,” on pages 231-258, are particularly noteworthy in this regard.

Suggested Resources

Davis, Allen F., “American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams,” in American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams. The Oxford University Press, New York, published this book in 1973. Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy: A Biography is a biography of Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy. Basic Books published in New York in 2002. Jane Addams and the Spirit of Action, by Louise W. Knight and Louise W. Knight The W. W. Norton Company published a book in New York in 2010.

Platt, Harold L., “Jane Addams and the Ward Boss Revisited,” Environmental History 5 (2000): 194-222. “Jane Addams and the Ward Boss Revisited.” Robert H. Wiebe’s The Search for Order, 1877-1920 is available online. Hill and Wang published their first edition in 1966 in New York.

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