Which Factor Contributed To The Growth Of Youth Culture In The United States During The 1950s

Childhood in Postwar America

The word “teenager” was originally introduced to the general public in the United States in the 1940s, when advertising professionals sought to market their wares to a younger demographic. Youth culture had begun to emerge as a separate notion in the 1920s, but young Americans were expected to put aside any frivolous hobbies or wasteful expenditures during the Great Depression and World War II for the sake of their country’s well-being during those years. The 1950s were highlighted by the creation of an unique teen culture that lasted for several decades.

These choices were made possible by innovative marketing methods that targeted their audience.

During this period, the majority of youths attended schools that were either segregated or almost segregated, and inter-racial interaction was uncommon.

The music of African American performers such as Little Richard, Fats Domino, and Chuck Berry was popular with white youths; on the other hand, African American teenagers preferred the music of white rock and rollers such as Elvis.

The Culture of the 1950s < Postwar America < History 1994 < American History From Revolution To Reconstruction and beyond

Throughout American culture in the 1950s, there was a strong feeling of homogeneity. Conformity was frequent, since both young and elderly people obeyed group standards rather than pursuing their own interests or forming their own groups. Despite the fact that men and women were driven into new job patterns during World War II, conventional roles were strengthened once the war ended. Men were supposed to be the breadwinners, and women, even when they worked, were expected to take their due position in the family.

  • He referred to this new society as “other-directed,” and he asserted that such societies promote both stability and uniformity in its members.
  • However, not all Americans adhered to such cultural expectations.
  • They emphasized spontaneity and spirituality, asserting that intuition should take precedence over reason and Eastern mysticism should take precedence over Western institutionalized religion.
  • Their literary work highlighted their sense of individuality.
  • The book, which lacked conventional punctuation and paragraph structure, extolled the virtues of living a free life.
  • When the police claimed it was indecent and seized the published version, Ginsberg received national renown for his legal fight, which was ultimately victorious in court.
  • With his ducktail hairdo and undulating hips, Tennessee singer Elvis Presley popularized black music in the guise of rock and roll, and he stunned morestaid Americans with his appearance.
  • Painters like as JacksonPollock abandoned easels in favor of laying down massive canvases on the floor, on which they put paint, sand, and other materials in wildly contrasting colors.

All of these artists and authors, regardless of their medium, served as role models for the broader and more deeply felt social change that occurred in the United States throughout the 1960s.

1950s Parents Had No Idea What Their Kids Wanted to Do at Parties

Using historical “found video” of all kinds—newsreels, instructional films, and even cartoons—History Flashback gives us a glimpse into how much things have changed and how much has remained the same throughout history. In the 1950s, perfectly behaved youths in the United States hosted game evenings that were well arranged and strictly adhered to the rules. Or at least that’s what the grownups of the time would have you think. Educative film firm Coronet Films, founded by the same couple who created Esquiremagazine, published a video in 1950 that was intended to teach high school students in the United States how to properly arrange a home party.

  • ), and when to offer refreshments (at the very end, after which your guests should disperse).
  • Propaganda for social change in the name of education During the years following World War II, as American society struggled to return to some semblance of normalcy, it became increasingly important for all individuals to assume their rightful duties and adhere to appropriate social behavior.
  • Americans wanted their children to play by a set of rules that they could easily understand.
  • For three decades, youths were subjected to D-list actors and propaganda-like messages in the guise of social training in these instructional movies, which were produced by a company called Learning Resources.
  • Teenage social standards in the 1950s were unquestionably different from those in today’s society.
  • It didn’t imply, however, that everything revolved around hot chocolate and hat-making competitions, despite what the grownups of the day desired.
  • In the 1950s, this generation began to come into its own, supported by their growing buying power, the widespread availability of automobiles, and the growth of high school as a distinct world in its own right.

As a result of the efforts of renegades like Elvis Presley and the Beatles, rock and roll was officially established during this decade, and the music culture began to drastically alter the culture of American youth.

America at Leisure

Workers in the United States began to have greater free time during the period from 1894 to 1915, a period that lasted from 1894 to 1915. It is possible that one explanation for this is that industrial firms began to reduce working hours and adopt a Saturday half-day vacation, which provided workers with more free time for recreational activities. (Other sorts of jobs would follow suit in due course). Vacations began to be provided to employees on a regular basis, but they were largely unpaid at the time.

As employees’ health and well-being gained greater attention as a result of the Progressive movement, leisure time became more valuable to them as a result of the movement.

Eggs are being rolled by babies.

New sorts of amusements that could be enjoyed by people of all social groups and both sexes came into being and spread fast throughout the entire country.

Urban Entertainment

When people lived in cities, they would go to see vaudeville performances, which would feature a variety of performers. Shows were frequently presented in a continuous format, allowing audience members to come and leave as they wished. Vaudeville concerts bridged economic and ethnic borders since the audience included of people from a variety of various socioeconomic groupings. Besides circuses and Wild West performances, other prominent shows of the period were William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show, which was the most well-known of the latter.

Initially, the films were novelty items for kinetoscope viewers, but as time went on, they developed into performances in their own right on the vaudeville circuit.

Further Afield

Celebratory parades and county fairs, the latter of which included agricultural goods, machinery, competitions, and rides, continued to be popular among those who enjoyed spending time outside. A Sneak Peek at the Exposition in San Diego People wanted to travel further afield and get away from the city for their holidays, thus they left the city. Many people with little financial resources visited the countryside or the seaside. In the later half of the nineteenth century, resorts began to spring up on the edges of cities, such as the beach community of Asbury Park in New Jersey, which was built in 1870 and is still in operation today.

To conserve nature, the federal government established national parks.

For instance, Yellowstone Park, where visitors tented or stayed in the hotels that were erected there in the late 1880s, was one such example.

The fairs honored development by showcasing science and technology displays, foreign villages, performances, rides, and merchants, among other things.

The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876 was the first significant one, and it was followed by fairs in Chicago (1893), Atlanta (1895), Nashville (1897), Omaha (1898), Buffalo (1901), and St. Louis (1903), among other cities (1904).

Sports

Celebratory parades and county fairs, the latter of which included agricultural goods, machinery, competitions, and rides, continued to be popular among those who enjoyed spending time in the great outdoors. Expo in San Diego: A Glimpse of the Event Vacations for some individuals meant venturing further afield and away from the metropolis. People on a tight budget took advantage of opportunities to travel to rural areas or to the coast. A number of resorts, such as Asbury Park in New Jersey, which was created in 1870 and is now a popular tourist destination, sprung up on the fringes of cities in the later half of the nineteenth century.

  1. It included rides, fun houses, vignettes from foreign life, and the newest technology advances, including motion movies.
  2. The Yellowstone National Park, where tourists tented or stayed in the hotels established there in the late 1880s, was one such example.
  3. Science and technology exhibitions, foreign villages, entertainment, rides and merchants were all part of the celebration of progress at the fairs.
  4. Louis (1903), all of which were held in the United States (1904).

Topics for Leisure

  • Children playing in the waves at Coney Island
  • The adventures of Rube and Mandy in Coney Island
  • Chutes are being shot at
  • The Chutes, Luna Park, and Coney Island were the locations for this shoot.
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Autmobile Racing

  • ‘Corbett and Courtney’ in front of the Kinetograph
  • Fight between Leonard and Cushing Competition for the Heavyweight Championship between Squires and Burns on an international level

Boat Racing

  • The Hudson River Auto Boat Race
  • The Boat Race
  • The “Columbia” winning the Cup
  • The Hudson River Auto Boat Race

Canoeing

  • Esquimax Games: Snap-the-Whip and Leap-Frog
  • Asia in America, Exposition in St. Louis
  • Circular Panorama of the Electric Tower
  • Esquimax Game of Snap-the-Whip
  • Esquimax Leap-Frog
  • Esquimax Village is a neighborhood in Esquimax, California. Japanese Village
  • A Glimpse of the San Diego Exposition
  • Horse Parade at the Pan-American Exposition, among other things Middle of the Charleston Exposition
  • Opening Ceremonies of the St. Louis Exposition
  • Opening of the Pan-American Exposition
  • Pan-American Exposition at Night
  • Middle of the Charleston Exposition Panorama of the Esplanade taken at night. Panoramic view of the Charleston International Exposition
  • Observation of the Electric Tower from the Sky in a Balloon The St. Louis Exposition’s Parade of Floats
  • The Pan-American Exposition’s Sham Battle
  • The Pan-American Exposition’s Spanish Dancers
  • And a Tour of the Pan-American Exposition.

* For additional information on the Pan-American Exposition, please see The Last Days of a President: Films of McKinley and the Pan-American Exposition, 1901 at the Library of Congress.

Fishing

  • The football games between Chicago and Michigan, Princeton and Yale, and others are scheduled.

Hockey

  • The Brooklyn Handicap (1904), a free-for-all race at Charter Oak Park, and racing at Sheepshead Bay are all scheduled.

Ice Skating

  • Annual Baby Parade, Asbury Park, N.J.
  • Annual Parade, New York Fire Department
  • Atlantic City Floral Parade
  • Buffalo Police on Parade
  • Parade of Floats, St. Louis Exposition
  • Procession of Floats
  • St. Patrick’s Day Parade, Lowell, Mass
  • St. Patrick’s Day Parade,

Resort holidays

  • Boys Diving on the Beach in Honolulu
  • Children in the Surf on Coney Island
  • Kanakas Diving for Money, No.2
  • Lurline Baths
  • Sutro Baths
  • Sutro Baths, No.1
  • Swimming Pool at Palm Beach
  • Women of the Ghetto Bathing

Touring national parks

  • Coaches arriving at Mammoth Hot Springs
  • Tourists seeing Yellowstone National Park
  • And more.

Wild West shows

Following World War II, the United States saw unprecedented economic success for many white Americans, which coincided with the intensification of the battle for civil rights and economic fairness among black Americans.

Learning Objectives

Explain the changes that occurred in American society in the years following World War II.

Key Takeaways

  • Since 1945, the United States has emerged as one of the world’s two dominant superpowers, shifting away from its traditional isolationism and toward greater international involvement. The United States has become a global player in economic, political, military, cultural (including film and television), and technological (including space exploration). A result of the unprecedented growth of the United States economy was widespread prosperity, which enabled many millions of office and factory workers to be lifted into a growing middle class that moved to the suburbs and became increasingly reliant on consumer goods. The role of women in American society became a topic of particular interest in the post-war years, with marriage and feminine domesticity depicted as the primary goal for the American woman. Despite the fact that the post-World War II baby boom recognized the role of women as caregivers and homemakers, the post-World War II wealth did not spread to all of society. Many Americans, particularly elderly individuals and African Americans, continued to live in poverty throughout the 1950s. Through the 1950s, voting rights discrimination was still prevalent in the southern United States. Despite the fact that both political parties promised improvement in 1948, the only significant achievement prior to 1954 was the integration of the military
  • Throughout the early years of the Civil Rights Movement, litigation and lobbying were the primary means of achieving integration. A shift in tactics resulted after the Supreme Court judgments in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) and other significant cases, and from 1955 to 1965, “direct action” was the preferred technique, consisting mostly of school bus boycotts, sit-ins and freedom rides, and social movements.

Key Terms

  • Social movements in the United States with the aim of ending racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans, as well as securing legal acknowledgment and government protection of the citizenship rights specified in the Constitution and federal law
  • Civil Rights Movement A time characterized by a significantly elevated fertility rate is referred to as a “baby boom.” Most of the time, this demographic phenomena is restricted to a certain geographic area or region. This phenomena was particularly prominent in the United States during the post-World War II era. The Space Race was a battle between two Cold War competitors, the Soviet Union and the United States, for superiority in spaceflight capabilities throughout the twentieth century. Its beginnings may be traced back to the post-World War II missile-based nuclear weapons race between the two countries, which was made possible by the acquisition of German rocket technology and people. Having the technological advantage required for such dominance was viewed as essential for national security and as a representation of ideological superiority. There were pioneering initiatives to launch artificial satellites, unmanned space missions to the Moon, Venus and Mars as well as human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon as a result of this development. Residents in suburbia may live in residential or mixed-use regions that are either integrated into or separate from a city or urban area, or they may live in an independent residential community that is located within driving distance of the city. These locations are characterized in contrast to central or inner-city areas in the majority of English-speaking countries and regions. There was a significant contribution to the post-World War II economic boom in the United States due to their quick expansion.

Political Background

Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two major superpowers, along with the Soviet Union, and consolidated its position as the world’s leading economy. By unanimous consent, the United States Senate authorized the United States’ participation in the United Nations (UN), signaling a shift away from the country’s historic isolationism and toward greater international involvement in the international community. With the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949, the United States broke with its long-standing policy of not forming military alliances during peacetime and established a military alliance that has survived to the present day.

The Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear bomb test in August 1949, increasing the likelihood of a nuclear conflict.

Cold War fears over Communist influence in the United States arose throughout the country during this period.

The concern about the shortcomings of the United States’ educational system resulted in significant federal funding for scientific instruction and research.

Economic Prosperity

For more than half a century following World War II, the United States exerted a significant worldwide impact in the realms of economics, politics, military, culture, and technology. Middle-class society began to become preoccupied with commercial goods in the 1950s and has continued to this day. A growing number of employees were able to enjoy higher incomes, larger homes, better schools, as well as more automobiles and domestic technology. Following World War II, the economy of the United States surged at a rapid pace, increasing at an annual rate of 3.5 percent.

  1. According to academic Deone Zell, assembly line employment was well compensated, and unionized manufacturing jobs functioned as “stepping-stones to the middle class.” As of the end of the 1950s, 87 percent of all U.S.
  2. By 1960, blue-collar employees had surpassed professionals as the largest purchasers of numerous high-end products and services.
  3. By 1960, the 40-hour workweek mandated by the Fair Labor Standards Act in covered sectors had become the standard work schedule in the vast majority of companies.
  4. Photograph by Evert F.
  5. As of the end of the 1950s, 87 percent of all U.S.
  6. The depiction of rich white middle-class families in their suburban houses represented the popular narrative of economic security and traditional family values in this time period.
  7. At the most advanced levels, the United States’ contributions to science, engineering, and medicine were world-renowned.
  8. With the significant exception of agricultural and domestic workers, Social Security provided coverage to practically all members of the working force.
  9. Many city people left their cramped urban residences for a suburban lifestyle that was oriented on children and housewives, with the male breadwinner traveling to his place of employment.
  10. Aside from postwar affluence, the expansion of suburbs was facilitated by improvements in the single-family housing market, including low interest rates on 20- and 30-year mortgages and low down payment requirements, which were especially beneficial to veterans.

Meanwhile, the suburban population grew dramatically as a result of the baby boom, which occurred between 1942 and 1957 and was characterized by a tremendous rise in fertility.

Women

After World War II, the position of women in American culture became a topic of great concern, with marriage and feminine domesticity represented as the fundamental goals of the American woman. After males returned from military duty pulled many women out of the workforce, many women resented the societal expectations of being a stay-at-home housewife who did nothing but cook, clean, shop, and care for their children while their husbands were away at war. The number of marriages increased dramatically in the 1940s, reaching all-time highs.

Women were becoming subjected to enormous pressure to marry by the time they reached the age of 20.

(Mrs.) degree became the subject of a popular stereotype throughout time.

The book was a strong critique of the role of women during the postwar years and was a bestseller and a major catalyst for the new wave of women’s liberation movement.

Baby Boom

After World War II, the status of women in American culture became a topic of great attention, with marriage and feminine domesticity represented as the major goals of the American woman. After males returned from military duty pulled many women out of the workforce, many women resented the societal expectations of being a stay-at-home housewife who did nothing but cook, clean, shop, and care for their children while their husbands worked outside the home. A significant increase in the number of married couples occurred throughout the 1940s, reaching all-time records.

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Women were under rising and intense pressure to marry by the time they were twenty.

(Mrs.) degree became the subject of a popular stereotype.

The book was a strong critique of the role of women during the postwar years and was a bestseller and a major catalyst for the emergence of a new wave of feminist activism.

Poverty and Disenfranchisement

The prosperity that after the end of World War II did not benefit everyone. Many Americans continued to live in poverty during the 1950s, particularly elderly people and African Americans, the latter of whom continued to earn far less than their white counterparts on average throughout this period. Immediately following the war, 12 million returning veterans were in desperate need of employment, and in many cases, they were unable to get it. Apart from that, labor strikes wreaked havoc across the country, in some cases made worse by racial tensions as a result of African Americans having taken employment during the war and now finding themselves in the midst of furious returning veterans who demanded that they move aside.

  1. Numerous blue-collar employees were still living in poverty, with 30 percent of those engaged in the manufacturing business.
  2. The poverty line was determined as less than $3000 in 1968 by one research, and 60 percent of black families lived below that line in 1947, compared to only 23 percent of white households.
  3. Through the 1950s, voting rights discrimination was still prevalent in the southern United States.
  4. Despite the fact that all political parties promised improvement in 1948, the only significant advancement prior to 1954 was the merger of the military.
  5. Because of the Supreme Court’s decisions in Brown v.

When the Supreme Court decided Brown, it became a watershed moment in American history because it explicitly prohibited segregation of public education facilities for black and white students, reasoning that the doctrine of “separate but equal” public education could never truly provide black students with facilities that met the same standards as those available to white students.

  1. President Dwight Eisenhower nationalized state troops and dispatched the United States Army to enforce court decisions issued by federal courts.
  2. During the 1963 Birmingham Children’s Crusade, the city of Birmingham’s public safety commissioner, Eugene T.
  3. Sheriff Jim Clark of Dallas County, Alabama, unleashed his officers during the “Bloody Sunday” episode of the Selma to Montgomery march, wounding a large number of marchers and personally threatening other protestors.
  4. Civil rights activists were detained all throughout the southern United States on fabricated accusations.

In contrast to the general sense of optimism and joy that many white Americans felt as a result of the post-World War II economic boom, the fate of African Americans was less favorable.

Australia – The ascendance of Australian popular culture

End of World War II saw the beginning of the formation of an increasingly unique Australian popular culture. Beginning in 1941, the advent and stay of more than 100,000 United States forces in Australia had a significant influence on postwar culture and society. As a result of the United States’ alliance with Australia during World War II, tight relations developed between the two nations, and Australia began to rely on the United States for both military support and economic progress. Pre-war Australian society had been heavily impacted by conservative British culture, which was reflected in entertainment, music, and sports, as well as social views, and this continued after the war.

  • The United States had a significant cultural impact on other Western nations, particularly Australia, and this had a long and lasting effect.
  • American values and cultural goods, such as movies and music, spread fast throughout Australian culture, accompanied by a shift away from the old, restrictive ways of prewar living and toward a more emancipated and expressive way of existence.
  • In Australia, 151 million movie admissions were reported in in one year, in 1945 alone.
  • In the early 1950s, there was a severe scarcity of films produced in Australia.
  • This exposure had an unquestionable influence on impressionable teenagers, resulting in the emergence of a new youth culture in Australia as a result.
  • Television swiftly rose to become one of the most popular kinds of entertainment in the country, as well as one of the most prominent media platforms in the world.
  • In the early years following the introduction of television, not many Australians were able to buy the new technology.
  • Despite television’s immense popularity, a minority segment of society was hostile to it, primarily because the vast bulk of shows were produced in the United States.
  • This worry was addressed to some extent in the mid-1960s when the need for increased Australian content resulted in the broadcasting of more Australian shows, notably Australian dramatic series, on television.
  • By the early 1960s, Australia was producing more than 500,000 recordings every month, according to official figures.

The arrival of rock and roll in Australia is usually dated to the release of the filmBlackboard Jungle in 1955, which featured the hit single “Rock Around the Clock” by the American bandBill HaleyandHis Comets, whose Australian tour in 1957 was a sensation; the film was a critical and commercial success.

  • With the introduction of thrilling new music came the development of expressive new dancing techniques as well as the introduction of fashionable young attire.
  • They blamed rock & roll for the increase.
  • A moment of affluence and significant accomplishment for Australian sports occurred during the postwar period of the 1950s.
  • Following the war’s conclusion, Australians found themselves with more free time, and their enthusiasm for sports was renewed.
  • The coverage of the Melbourne Olympic Games on television served to bring Australians together in a shared sense of pride in the accomplishments of their athletes at the first Games to be held by their country.

Swimming and track and field competitions were among the highlights for Australian competitors, who also placed highly overall.

Domestic politics to 1975

In July 1945, following the death of John Curtin, another ALP stalwart, Joseph Benedict (Ben) Chifley, was appointed prime minister in his place. Influenced by Keynesian ideology, their governments kept tight control over the economy and even considered nationalization of private banks in the 1970s. Welfare measures were increased, as was the power of the commonwealth government over the states, while the latter continued to play an important role in the overall picture. In all of these levels, as well as at other places, it was clear how much larger and more knowledgeable the federal public service had grown.

  • Anxiety over the Communist Party was fueled by the disruptive methods used by sympathizers, particularly in labor unions.
  • In December 1949, he was elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
  • Menzies served as Prime Minister until 1966.
  • His governments continued to keep a close eye on the economy, which proved to be beneficial.
  • He proceeded to portray himself as a warrior against communism and to charge that Labor’s leaders had failed to restrain the spread of its nefarious tendencies.
  • The Australian Labor Party (ALP) suffered under the unpredictable leadership of Herbert Vere Evatt (1951–60); an anticommunist section, influenced in part by theCatholic Social Movement (see above), broke away to establish the Democratic Labor Party.
  • His longtime subordinate, Harold Holt, took over as Menzies’ successor, although he had little time to leave a lasting impression before his tragically in a car accident in December 1967.

Gorton’s popularity with the people and his parliamentary colleagues waned, and he was replaced by another Liberal, William McMahon, in the first months of 1971.

He symbolized the importance of an intellectual inside the party, which had been politicized in a minor degree by liberationist and countercultural forces of the day, as well as by more conventional left-wing sympathizers, at the time.

Whitlam’s governments were extraordinarily active, though not always effective, in their pursuit of their goals.

A greater feeling of Australian identity won the day, and certain imperial symbols were thrown out the window in the process.

For many, Whitlam looked to be guiding the nation toward a better and more prosperous future.

Some of its members did have a tendency to be irresponsible at times.

The administration lacked a majority in the Senate, which as a result withheld ratification of the revenue supply with the intention of forcing Whitlam to call an election in the near future.

The nomination (for the approval of the Queen) of Kerr had been made by Whitlam, but on November 11, 1975, Kerr ousted Whitlam and named Fraser as interim prime minister.

Kerr’s actions caused a flurry of excitement, as well as indignation among Whitlam’s fans. After a landslide win in the December election, Fraser was re-elected in the spring.

Brief History of Adolescence & Youth Development – Mass Cultural Council

An Overview of Adolescence’s History Development of Adolescents Since the 1990s, all of the partners on the Boston Youth Arts Evaluation Project have been working with youth in some capacity. Over the course of three years of meetings, we have had several interesting talks regarding what works well with teenagers and young adults and what does not work so well. Our programs have flourished because, rather than simply talking, we pay attention to the experts in the room—the youngsters. Understanding what consumers want, how they think programs should be constructed, and what we can do to make things better have all been a constant emphasis of ours over the years.

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During the course of the study, we looked at developmental theories, attempted to obtain a better knowledge of the brain, and investigated ways in which assisting adolescents in the arts may benefit in their development.

As a result of the breadth of our study, we were able to establish a foundation of common knowledge that was essential in developing the BYAEP Framework.

As a result of these discussions, it becomes clear that we must consider the special requirements of adolescents in our work and that youth arts development programs are particularly well adapted to meeting these needs.

Early Studies of Adolescence

Although the term “adolescence” was first used in the 15th century and derived from the Latin word “adolescere,” which meant “to grow up or to mature,” it wasn’t until 1904 that G. Stanley Hall, the first president of the American Psychological Association, was credited with discovering the concept of adolescence. (LernerSteinberg, 2009, p.1) (Henig, 2010, p. 4). In his paper titled “Adolescence,” he detailed this new developmental period that emerged as a result of societal changes at the start of the twentieth century, which he called “adolescence.” The effect of Child Labor Laws and universal education provided kids with more time throughout their adolescent years, during which the duties of adulthood were not thrust upon them as early as they had been in previous generations.

  1. In this era, Hall did not have a very positive outlook, and he felt that society needed to “burn away the remnants of evil in their nature” in order to progress (G.
  2. The era of “storm and stress” that overtook young people during their adolescence served as a time of learning to control one’s beast-like urges (LernerIsraeloff, 2005, p.
  3. Mood disturbances, disagreement with parents, and dangerous conduct were recognized as the three most important features of this stage, according to him.
  4. When we started BYAEP, we were particularly interested in how Erik Erikson’s work linked to our own and how it stated what we already understood.
  5. 251-263), social experiences have an influence on individuals throughout their lives.
  6. For our age range of 13-23 year-olds, we found that the following three stages were particularly difficult for them: 5 to 11 years of age, Psychosocial Stage 4: Industry vs.
  7. The most important question is whether I am successful or not.

The BYAEP is focused on competence.

The most important question is: who am I and where am I going?

A person’s identity can take a long time to create, and this might result in a “Identity Crisis.” The BYAEP is centered on the concept of identity.

Isolation, between the ages of 20 and 35 years.

What is the best option for me: to live with someone or by myself?

The BYAEP’s primary focus is on connections.

In 1962, Peter Blos released a book titled On Adolescence, which became a best-seller.

Adolescence” by his peers and colleagues.

He promoted the idea that there were two stages of individuation in the course of a person’s growth.

Because attaining a certain level of independence is necessary for reaching adulthood, it is during adolescence that the “self” is formed. The objective is to be self-sufficient while also discovering and celebrating one’s individual characteristics as one pursues one’s individual potential.

Cultural and Gender Studies Expanding the Western View of Adolescence

Although the term “adolescence” first appeared in the 15th century and was derived from the Latin word “adolescere,” which meant “to grow up or to mature,” it wasn’t until 1904 that G. Stanley Hall, the first president of the American Psychological Association, was credited with discovering the concept of adolescence (Henig, 2010, p. 4). At the start of the twentieth century, societal developments brought to the emergence of a new developmental period, which he documented in his work “Adolescence.” Child labor laws and universal education provided kids with more time throughout their adolescent years, during which the duties of adulthood were not thrust upon them as fast as they had been previously.

  1. Stanley Hall, 2010).
  2. 4).
  3. Adolescence emerged as a subject of study as a result of other studies published in Europe and America from the late 1950s to the 1970s (important earlier work by Freud, Piaget, Maslow, and Kohlberg also addressed stages of development).
  4. According to Erikson (1959, pp.
  5. According to Erikson, there are eight phases to the human experience.
  6. Inferiority The most important question is whether I am successful or not.
  7. THE PRIORITIES OF BYAEP: COMPETENCE 12-19 years old, Psychosocial Stage 5: Identity against Confusion.

Children are exploring their freedom and building a sense of self during their adolescent years.

Between the ages of 20 and 35, people go through Psychosocial Stage 6 — Intimacy vs Isolation.

Should I live with someone or should I live on my own?

The BYAEP’s primary focus is on making contacts.

On Adolescence, a book written by Peter Blos, was released in 1962.

Adolescence.” One of his hypotheses emphasized the difficulties that adolescents have between wanting to be independent and wanting to stay reliant on their parents or guardians.

Infancy and childhood are the two stages of development; adolescence is the stage in which one is ultimately ready to break free from familial ties.

The development of the “self” occurs during adolescence, because maturity is dependent on obtaining a certain level of independence. While developing one’s own potential, the objective is to be self-sufficient and to recognize and cherish one’s individual characteristics.

What is Going on in the Brains of Youth and Why the Arts Can Help

Formerly, it was widely believed that the brain stopped growing shortly after puberty, but recent research has revealed that it continues to mature well into the twenties, as both the limbic system (where emotions originate) and the cortex (which regulates those emotions) are still in the process of developing. The limbic system of teenagers is therefore extremely active throughout puberty, and the prefrontal cortex continues to mature for another 10 years after that! It is simple to understand how emotions may overwhelm reason and a teen’s general ability to control their emotions in this situation.

  • Linda Mayes of the Yale University School of Medicine studies the development of the brain, stress, adolescence, and addiction in children and adolescents.
  • When we question ourselves, “Is this right or wrong?,” and make judgments by evaluating rewards and consequences, the prefrontal cortex (the front of the brain that includes the executive control function) serves as the command center for our actions.
  • This is due to the fact that this part of the brain continues to grow and develop well into adulthood.
  • The promise of prospective benefit frequently outweighs any concerns about perceived hazards that may be involved.
  • Furthermore, whereas sensation seeking can result in risky actions, it can also result in beneficial ones” (p.
  • Researchers have also shown that stress causes the normal adolescent brain, which is already developmentally “imbalanced,” to become much more challenged.
  • They reach adulthood at a young age and are confronted with adult responsibilities.

This percentage reached as high as 50% in one program, which is more than three times the national average (Borowsky, Ireland,Resnick, 2009, p.

Part of this might be explained by the fact that, in several of our BYAEP programs, more than 60% of kids questioned had witnessed one or more friends or family members die as a result of violence, drug overdose, or other unnatural causes.

However, when adolescents are stressed, they face a significant risk of addiction to substances like drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and fattening foods, which call out to them with the promise of relief from their negative emotional state.

“I was on the verge of collapsing before getting here.

Mayes conducted a sixteen-year longitudinal study on prenatal cocaine exposure in which she investigated stress in toddlers and potential intervention techniques for minimizing the impacts of drugs and poverty on children.

This is the one that Mayes refers to as “someone who keeps you in mind when you go home from school” (2008).

‘Champions of Change: The Influence of the Arts on Learning’ was a 1999 program sponsored by the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities that offered seven pieces of research showing the impact of arts learning on young people and the nature of that experience.

Youth who participate in the arts take a larger variety, degree, and frequency of risks than those who participate in community service or athletic activities.

Young people benefit from the experience of exploring, finding, and presenting in the arts alongside others.

Because positive risk-taking might be at an all-time high throughout adolescence, it is an ideal moment for the arts to intervene because kids are most receptive to new possibilities and new opportunities for change at this period.

In conclusion, adolescence is a period of enormous danger as well as tremendous promise.

Reed Larson, a psychologist, addressed the subject adequately in his 2010 lecture, “Positive Development in a Disordered World,” in which he argued that “the developmental obstacles of adolescence—of coming of age in a disorderly world—are significant.” More attention and research are needed to address these issues.

We, as a field, have a critical role to play in better understanding these potentials, how they develop, and how to best promote their growth’ (Larson, p.

Larson and colleagues have begun to uncover the critically important function that youth programs play in the development of adolescents.

“Before coming here, I would squander my time doing things that weren’t necessary or useful, and I would always be the one who stood back and watched others accomplish things that I wished I could do myself.

I’ve advanced to the position of leader, and I’m no longer the one who stands back and watches people accomplish stuff. I am the one who is making a difference and is actively participating. “I have grown into a better, stronger, and more determined individual.” — Danielle, a 17-year-old student

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