Which Best Explains How Ancient Greek Culture Influenced Emperor Justinian I

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Which best explains how ancient greek culture influenced emperor justinian i?

Home»History Which of the following best describes how ancient Greek culture affected Emperor Justinian I? Ancient Greek language and education are being studied in depth. A “new rome” is being built by the justinian. Ancient Greek law and religion are studied in depth. The justinian code is created by the justinian. Greek language and military techniques in antiquity are being studied. Justinian seizes control of the situation. Ancient Greek law and education are being studied in depth. Women’s rights are promoted through the justice system.

Answers

Pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis pinis A is the most appropriate response. Explanation: The appropriate response is Justinian’s creation of a “New Rome” was made possible by his study of ancient Greek language and education. It was so because, by the time Justinian was Emperor of the Easter Roman Empire, the empire had already established a distinct religion and culture, as well as a distinct power in the western hemisphere.

which best explains how ancient greek culture influenced emperor justinian i?

He ruled until 565 and left behind an impressive list of accomplishments, which included the codification of ancient Roman law, the construction of the Hagia Sophia, and a spirited attempt to reclaim imperial lands in the western Roman Empire. Justinian was the last Emperor to use Latin and ruled until 565. After thirty years of battle, he finally defeated the savage Saxons. He built a magnificent palace in the city of Aachen. He enacted sound legislation and appointed judges to ensure that the legislation was upheld.

Theodora, a Byzantine empress who was married to Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century, is regarded as one of the most powerful women in Byzantine history and is commemorated as such.

The first monarch to acknowledge the rights of women was her father, who was one of the first to do so.

What impact did the Justinian Code have on religion?

In addition to numerous provisions aimed at securing Christianity’s status as the state religion of the empire, uniting church and state, and declaring anyone who was not affiliated with a Christian church as a non-citizen, many of the laws contained in the Codex were aimed at regulating religious practice in general.

In what way has Roman culture influenced Western civilization?

Rome’s contribution to Western civilisation may be summed up as follows:the Roman alphabet, division of the year into twelve months (which became our calendar), the success of Christianity, the establishment of a democratic republic, and the codification of a legal system.

What happened to the Roman Empire after the fall of Rome in 476 quizlet?

What happened to the Eastern Roman Empire following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire is a fascinating question. The Eastern Roman Empire was renamed the Byzantine Empire after Constantine the Great.

Which best explains why the Church was powerful?

Which of the following best explains why the Church was so influential? The pope had the ability to excommunicate anybody who violated his or her rules. It helped to establish the Church as a political power in society.

What best summarizes what the pope is saying quizlet?

Which one better captures the essence of what the Pope is saying? Those who free Jerusalem will get a recompense from God.

What was likely the main reason for the decline knowledge of Latin after the fall of the Roman Empire?

What was most likely the primary explanation for the drop in Latin knowledge that occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire was determined? Languages, such as Spanish and French, have exacerbated the divisions within Europe.

What was Justinian I priority?

The terms in this collection (10) When it came to Justinian I, the Patriarch and the Pope thought they were in total control, and this was his first goal.

What was the major effect of the Great Schism?

The most significant consequence of the Great Schism was the establishment of two different churches: the Eastern Orthodox Church, which was based in Constantinople, and the Western Catholic Church, which was based in Rome. What was the relationship between the two popes during the Great Schism?

What events sparked the Great Schism and how was it resolved?

Eventually, the schism was settled when the Pisan Pope John XXIII convened the Council of Constance (1414–1418), which brought an end to the division. The Council arranged for the abdication of both the Roman pope Gregory XII and the Pisan pope John XXIII, excommunicated the Avignon pope Benedict XIII, and elected Martin V as the next pope who would rule from the city of Rome, among other actions.

What was the biggest influence of Byzantine Greek culture on Russia?

Russia was the country where the Byzantine Empire had the most effect. Missionaries from the Byzantine Empire brought the Orthodox Christian Church to Russia, as well as an adaptation of the Greek alphabet that provided the Slavic speaking peoples with a written language known as Cyrillic, named after the monk Cyril who was instrumental in its development.

How did Byzantine culture influence Europe?

What role did Byzantine culture have in the development of European civilization? There were numerous Greek concepts and cultures that were adopted into the Byzantine Empire. The Hagia Sophia is credited with introducing European civilization to the Byzantine Empire. The Hagia Sophia was the major Christian cathedral built by Justinian, and it served as an inspiration for the development of churches throughout Europe.

What were the cultural contributions of the Byzantine Empire?

The Byzantine culture developed as a result of the merging of Greek and Christian civilization. Furthermore, the Byzantine Empire was affected by the civilizations of the Roman, Coptic, Armenian, and Persian empires. Later on, it was also impacted by Islamic civilizations, particularly in the Middle East. Constantinople was a metropolis with a wide range of cultures.

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Ancient Greece Government…in five minutes or less

Which of the following best illustrates how Constantinople’s geographic position influenced economic prosperity in Byzantine times: leaders of both the eastern and western churches? A contribution made by Justininian I to the Byzantine Empire was which organization was the greatest dangerous threat to the Byzantine Empire in 1050? In contrast to the battles in Egypt and Syria, the struggle in the byzantine realm of Anatolia was fought over how Constantinople responded to many invasion attempts prior to 1453.

Which of the following best explains why Constantinople was not destroyed until 1453? a notion that the western church has jurisdiction over the eastern church because of the pope See more entries in the FAQ category.

Which Best Explains How Ancient Greek Culture Influenced Emperor Justinian I?

Which of the following best describes how ancient Greek culture affected Emperor Justinian I? Rome came into contact with Greek culture once more after a long absence. As scholars looked to Ancient Greece for inspiration, Greek culture came to dominate the Empire and eventually dominated the world. Justinian’s conquest of power was aided by his mastery of ancient Greek language and military techniques. – 22131392 – 22131392 addissonmcculley79 addissonmcculley79 addissonmcculley79 addissonmcculley79 a couple of hours ago History College is a place where you may study history.

  1. Ancient culture was the source of inspiration for both art and architecture in the Byzantine Empire.
  2. It brought an end to the practice of slavery and served as a model for contemporary warfare.
  3. India was considered Greek by the Ancient Greeks.
  4. What two institutions were under the leadership of the Emperor of Byzantine?
  5. He traveled to Constantinople, where his uncle held a position of high military command, when he was still a young man.
  6. Which of the following words best captures the main idea of the following statement from a Venetian merchant?
  7. Using ancient Greek language and education to guide him through the process of building a New Rome was beneficial to Justinian.
  8. Fill in the blanks with your answer to earn points.
  9. It was in this way that Italian tribes came into contact with and were influenced by Greek culture at a very early stage.

What awesome things did Justinian do? – JanetPanic.com

Justinian, the last Roman emperor to rule in Latin, reigned from 527 to 565 and left a remarkable legacy that included the codify of ancient Roman law, the construction of the Hagia Sophia, and a tenacious campaign to recapture imperial territory in the west.

What year did Justinian die?

The date was November 14, 565 AD.

Why is Justinian a bad ruler?

A long cry from being a kind and enlightened ruler, Justinian was a paranoid and ruthless autocrat who oppressed his subjects.

For him, nothing was too great an effort: not in pursuit of whatever ambitions he may or might not have had, but in order to maintain an iron hold on the authority he was so scared of losing.

How did Justinian gain power?

Justinian’s ascension to imperial authority began in 527 with his appointment as co-emperor to Justin I, his uncle, who died later that year. Justinian’s rise to imperial power was accelerated by his appointment as co-emperor to Justin I, his uncle, who died later that year. It was during his one-and-only reign that he made significant attempts to consolidate the empire and restore the realm to its previous ancient splendour.

Which best describes why Constantinople did not fall until 1453?

The city was well-defended, and invaders were unable to take advantage of its defenses. The city was located far away from Byzantine territory and had only been assaulted once before. To thwart the majority of invasions, the city formed partnerships with invading forces.

What contributions did Justinian make in law?

Justinian’s most well-known accomplishments were as a codifier and legislator. He avidly encouraged legal studies, and in 528 he established a commission to compile a new code of imperial enactments or constitutions, known as the Codex Constitutionum, to be used as a guide for future generations.

Which best explains how Constantinople’s location?

Answer: Because of Constantinople’s geographic location, it served as a link between Europe and the East, attracting traders with valuable products. The reason for this is that Constantinople was in a highly advantageous geographic position, and it was a very vital crossing point between Europe and the East.

For which of these skills were early Bantu noted quizlet?

Farming, hunting, and iron works were among the abilities that early Bantu were known for.

Which best explains how Constantinople’s location affected economic growth in visiting?

Which of the following best illustrates how Constantinople’s geographic position influenced economic growth in Byzantine times? Because of Constantinople’s geographic location, numerous traders were able to go on excursions in quest of valuable products. Constantinople’s strategic location served as a link between the Eastern and Western Roman empires, as well as a conduit for commerce.

Which best explains how ancient Greek culture influenced Justinian I?

Which of the following best describes how ancient Greek culture affected Emperor Justinian I? Justinian’s creation of a “New Rome” was made possible by his study of ancient Greek language and education.

How did the role of priests affect the split?

Is it possible that the priestly function had an impact on the separation between the eastern and western churches? A disagreement arose among church authorities as to whether priests should be permitted to marry. Church officials couldn’t come to a consensus on whether priests should be allowed to raise questions about the existence of God.

How did the Justinian Code make the Byzantine Empire powerful?

Furthermore, all of the emperor’s reforms were focused towards restoring the greatness of the Roman Empire and making it as powerful as it had been in the past. As a result, the Justinian code increased the power of the Byzantine Empire by instituting legislative changes that reformed the administration.

What happened to Kiev when Yaroslav died in 1054 CE quizlet?

When Yaroslav the Wise died in 1054 CE, what happened to Kiev and its people? Yaroslav’s five sons were given equal share of the city of Kiev. What was the impact of the Mongol invasion on the city of Kiev? The invasion of Kiev resulted in the transfer of authority to Moscow.

What enabled Mongols to invade Kiev?

What provided the Mongols with the opportunity to assault Kiev?

The Russian authorities were unable to bring Kiev back together. Empire of the Byzantines. He supervised advancements during a time when the Empire’s history was at its zenith.

What did the Rus do that led?

What actions did the Russians take that eventually resulted in the Byzantine Empire exerting control over Russia? The Russians built a successful commercial connection with the Ottoman Empire. The Rus initially attacked Constantinople, then conquered and dominated the city, as well as the Slavs. The Rus pushed the entire population to convert to the Byzantine church, which they considered to be superior.

What was Ivan IV nickname?

It is due of his harshness that Ivan IV Vasilyevich (August 25, 1530 – March 18, 1584) is known as Ivan the Terrible (Ivan the Terrible). People assumed that he was nothing more than a dictator just because of his given name. Sometimes history labels people in such a way that it is hard to evaluate them on their own merits. It occurred to Ivan IV in a way or another.

Why did Ivan the Terrible kill his own son?

According to popular belief, his father, Ivan the Terrible, assassinated Ivan Ivanovich in his sleep. However, despite the fact that the elder Ivan accused his son of instigating a revolt, the younger Ivan remained firm in his belief that Pskov should be liberated from the Russians. Ivan’s father became enraged and smacked him in the head with his sceptre.

What is Ivan in English?

If you are looking for a Slavic male given name, Ivan (Cyrillic: вaн or ван) may be for you. It is related to the Greek name Iánnis (English: John), which comes from the Hebrew word Yônnn, which means “God is kind.”

Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire

Mr. Giotto’s Online Textbook»The Middle Ages»Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire was a powerful empire in the Middle Ages. The Byzantine Empire was another name for the eastern part of the Roman Empire that survived after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Previously, you learned that the barbarians conquered the western part of the Roman Empire, which included the city of Rome, as you read in the previous chapter. The emperor in Constantinople presided over the remnants of the Roman Empire that had survived the fall of the Roman Empire. Even after surviving for another 1,000 years, the Byzantine Empire was eventually defeated by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

  • Take note of the iron chain, known as a boom, that runs across the Golden Horn; it used to keep hostile ships from entering the region.
  • People spoke Greek and dressed in a Greek-inspired manner.
  • The Hellenistic civilization that arose as a result of Alexander the Great’s conquests had a profound impact on the Byzantine Empire.
  • The persecution of Christians came to an end under the reign of Emperor Constantine, and Christianity was established as the official state religion of the Roman Empire under Emperor Theodosius, as you learned in the previous chapter.
  • Beautiful mosaics depicting Christian themes adorned the walls of Byzantine churches.
  • The majority of the time, they may be located on the floor or ceiling.
  • Justinian I, for example, was a well-known Byzantine Emperor.

Justinian codified a collection of laws known as the JustinianCode.

The Justinian Code was the supreme law of the entire empire.

Justinian’s ambition was to bring the Roman Empire back together.

Justinian’s Roman legions were very successful, regaining control of large portions of Africa and the majority of Italy.

Belisarius was the general in charge of these troops during their effort to retake control of the former Western Roman Empire.

The Roman inhabitants were furious with Justinian because of the exorbitant taxes he levied to fund the war effort, and he was rapidly losing popularity.

“Who was this lady, who wielded such power over her husband’s decisions?” “What was her name?” They were thinking to themselves.

The Byzantines, like the ancient Romans in the West, took part in chariot races at the hippodrome, a vast oval stadium built specifically for the purpose of holding races.

The Byzantine chariot teams were known by their colors, which were the Blues, Reds, Greens, and Whites, among others.

While Justinian was in power, his two most powerful teams were the Blues and the Greens.

Upon witnessing how dissatisfied the populace was with him, Justinian made the decision to liberate these two individuals and stage a chariot race on January 13, 532.

Instead of shouting for their respective teams, fans of both the Greens and the Blues chantedNika, which means “win or conquer.” In the next moments, Justinian’s luxury box, which was attached to his palace grounds, was overrun by his supporters.

During the siege, the palace was under siege while the majority of the city, including the cathedral known as the Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom), was completely destroyed.

Just as he was about to depart, he turned behind him and saw his wife, Theodora, standing firm in her refusal.

” Justinian chose to stay because he admired his wife’s strength.

In the aftermath of theNikaRiot, Empress Theodora refused to leave Constantinople and instead chose to stay.

Justinian reconstructed the Hagia Sophia, which, upon its reconstruction, boasted the biggest dome in the world.

The Hagia Sophia, which was restored by Justinian, who may be seen in the inset with Theodora, and which has a magnificent dome.

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Eastern Orthodox Christianity is still practiced in several parts of the world today.

In the larger towns of the Empire, there were also persons who were known as bishops.

Despite the fact that both the Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic churches are Christian, they have had disagreements and even fights with one another.

Byzantine Emperor Constantine was never completely safe.

This was referred to as the ” Malady of the Purple,” because anybody who with sufficient authority might gain control of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantines introduced a new weapon in 672, which they termed Greek Fire.

Kallinikos, a Syrian who lived in the Byzantine Empire, is credited for inventing Greek Fire, which is still in use today.

The recipe for Greek Fire was a well guarded secret, and it is possible that even the emperors were unaware of its contents.

Greek Fire has been lost to history, and no one knows for certain how to produce it today’s version.

In 1453, the Ottomans were able to capture Constantinople with their guns.

It is depicted in this Middle Ages book that Greek Fire, sometimes known as Roman Fire, is being hurled at enemy ships.

In the next chapter, we will learn about Islam and its creator Muhammad, a religion and empire that came into war with the Byzantines in the East and the barbarian nations in the West. Islam and its founder Muhammad

  • Listen to the Byzantine Empire read aloud (WMA 6.67 MB) or listen to the Byzantine Empire read aloud in mp3 format (MP3 9.94 MB).

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Theodora

Frequently Asked Questions

Who were Theodora’s parents?

This Byzantineempress, wife of the EmperorJustinian I (reigned 527–565), was perhaps the most powerful woman inByzantine history when she died on June 28, 548 in Constantinople. She was born in 497ce and died on June 28, 548 in Constantinople. Her political skill and intellect made her Justinian’s most trusted advisor, and she was able to utilize the authority and influence she possessed as a result of her position to support religious and social reforms that benefited her own interests. Little is known about Theodora’s early childhood, but a mixture of the official narrative and the version contained in the highly colouredSecret HistoryofProcopius of Caesarea gives the most plausible explanation, according to scholars.

  1. In the words of Procopius, she began her career as an actress and prostitute while still in her adolescence, leading an unusual life that included the birth of at least one child outside of marriage.
  2. Her conversion to miaphysitism, a nonorthodox ideology, had taken place by the time Justinian met her.
  3. Given her tarnished reputation, special legislation was required before she and her husband could be married.
  4. When Justinian ascended to the throne in 527, she was formally recognized as the Augusta.
  5. Her name appears in practically every piece of legislation enacted during that time period.
  6. As seen by the Nika insurrection of January 532, she had significant power in political matters.
  7. Despite the advice of his counsellors, Justinian chose to remain and rescue his empire, prompting Justinian’s commander, Belisarius, to herd the rioters into the Hippodrome and chop them to pieces with a sword.
  8. She devoted a significant portion of her reign attempting to amend the laws prohibiting the practice of miaphysitism.
  9. The mosaic picture of Theodora in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, is the most well-known image of her.
  10. The fact that just a little amount of major legislation originates from the era between her death and that of Justinian I demonstrates her prominence in Byzantine political life (565).

Scala/Art Resource is based in New York. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Michael Ray has made several revisions and updates to this article in the most recent version.

Byzantine Empire

Founded in 330 A.D. on the site of the old Greek colony of Byzantium, the Byzantine Empire grew to be a huge and powerful civilisation. Its beginnings may be traced back to the Roman emperor Constantine I, who erected a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Despite the fact that the western half of the Roman Empire disintegrated and dissolved in 476 A.D., the eastern half of the empire endured for another 1,000 years, generating a rich history of art, literature, and scholarship, as well as serving as a military barrier between Europe and Asia.

Byzantium

The term “Byzantine” comes from the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium, which was established by a man named Byzas. Byzantium was strategically placed on the European side of the Bosporus (the strait that connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean), making it an excellent transit and trading hub between Europe and Asia during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. In 330 A.D., the Roman EmperorConstantine I picked Byzantium as the location for a “New Rome” with a capital city named Constantinople as its capital.

The residents of Constantinople and the remainder of the Eastern Roman Empire were firmly identified as Romans and Christians, despite the fact that many of them spoke Greek rather than Latin as their first language.

Emperor Valentinian I split the empire once more in 364, this time dividing it into western and eastern portions, with himself in charge of the western section and his brother Valens in charge of the eastern section.

Continuous invasions by German invaders such as the Visigoths shattered the crumbling Roman Empire in the west, destroying it piece by piece until Italy was the only province still under Roman control.

Byzantine Empire Flourishes

Because of its geographical position, the eastern half of the Roman Empire proved to be less vulnerable to foreign invasion than the western half. Moreover, because Constantinople was strategically placed on a narrow waterway, it was exceedingly difficult to breach the city’s defensive lines; in addition, the eastern empire had a far smaller common border with Europe than the western empire. Furthermore, as compared to other nations of the early medieval era, it profited immensely from a stronger administrative center and internal political stability, as well as from a great deal of riches.

Because of this, the Eastern Emperors were able to exert more control over the empire’s economic resources and more efficiently marshal sufficient people to repel invasions.

Eastern Roman Empire

It was primarily because of these advantages that the Eastern Roman Empire, also known alternatively as the Byzantine Empire or Byzantium, was able to persist for centuries following the fall of Rome. Despite the fact that Byzantium was dominated by Roman law and Roman political institutions, and that Latin was the official language, Greek was also widely spoken, and students were taught about Greek history, literature, and culture in addition to Latin. In terms of religion, the Council of Chalcedon in 451 officially confirmed the partition of the Christian world into several patriarchates, which included Rome (where the patriarch would subsequently be known as the Pope), Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, among others.

Justinian I

Taking power in 527 and reigning until his death in 565, Justinian I was the first great ruler of the Byzantine Empire. He was also the first great ruler of the Western Roman Empire. During Justinian’s tenure, the empire encompassed the majority of the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, as his soldiers captured a portion of the ancient Western Roman Empire, which included North Africa. Justinian would commission other monumental structures throughout the empire, notably the stunning domed Church of Holy Wisdom, often known as Hagia Sophia.

  • The Byzantine Empire was the largest and most powerful state in Europe at the time of Justinian’s death, and it ruled supreme as a result.
  • Furthermore, the imperial army was overstretched and would strive in vain to hold onto the land it had gained during Justinian’s reign.
  • In the guise of Islam, which was founded by the prophet Muhammad in Mecca in 622, a new and much more deadly threat emerged.
  • Islamist armies would take control of Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt, and North Africa (among other regions) before the end of the century, bringing Byzantium to her knees.

Iconoclasm

Starting with Leo III in 730 and continuing through the eighth and early ninth centuries, Byzantine emperors (beginning with Leo III in 730) led a movement that rejected the sanctity of religious images and forbade their worship and devotion.

The movement known as Iconoclasm (meaning “the smashing of pictures”) rose and fell in popularity under a variety of emperors, but it did not come to a stop completely until 843, when a Church council convened by Emperor Michael III decided in favor of the public exhibition of sacred symbols.

Byzantine Art

During the late 10th and early 11th centuries, the Byzantine Empire had a period of prosperity under the administration of the Macedonian dynasty, which was formed by Michael III’s successor, Basil. Despite the fact that it occupied a smaller geographical area, Byzantium possessed greater control over commerce, accumulated greater money, and enjoyed greater worldwide renown than Justinian. The powerful imperial government supported Byzantine art, which included the creation of the now-famous Byzantine mosaics.

A vibrant monastic culture based on Mount Athos in northern Greece helped Greek become the official language of the state, and Greek became the official language of the state.

The Crusades

The Crusades, a series of holy wars undertaken by European Christians against Muslims in the Near East from 1095 to 1291, began at the end of the 11th century and lasted until the end of the 13th. Having fled his capital city as the Seijuk Turks of central Asia closed in on him, Emperor Alexius I appealed to the West for assistance, which resulted in the proclamation of “holy war” by Pope Urban II in Clermont, France, which marked the beginning of the First Crusade. Alexander attempted to coerce the leaders of the soldiers from France, Germany, and Italy to take an oath of allegiance to him in order to ensure that the area reclaimed from the Turks would be returned to his empire as soon as possible.

During the successive Crusades, hatred between Byzantium and the West continued to grow, culminating in the invasion and pillage of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, which marked the end of the Middle Ages.

Nicaea served as a haven for many refugees fleeing Constantinople, which eventually became the home of a Byzantine government-in-exile that would regain the capital and topple Latin authority in 1261.

Fall of Constantinople

After being crippled under the administration of the Palaiologan emperors, beginning with Michael VIII in 1261, the economy of the once-mighty Byzantine state was never reestablished and never recovered its previous prominence. In 1369, Emperor John V unsuccessfully attempted to secure financial assistance from the West in order to counter the rising Turkish threat, but he was jailed in Venice as an insolvent debtor. The princes of Serbia and the king of Bulgaria were compelled to submit to the great Turks four years after he was forced to submit to the mighty Turks.

John’s descendants had periodic relief from Ottoman persecution, but the ascension of Murad II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire in 1421 signaled an end to this final period of ease.

Mehmed visited the Hagia Sophia triumphantly on May 29, 1453, following an Ottoman army’s conquest of Constantinople.

The fall of Constantinople signaled the end of a period of glory for the Byzantine Empire, which had lasted over 1,000 years. This was the day when Emperor Constantine XI was killed in combat, and the Byzantine Empire fell, paving the way for the lengthy rule of the Ottoman Empire.

Legacy of the Byzantine Empire

Under the reign of the Palaiologan emperors, beginning with Michael VIII in 1261, the economy of the once-mighty Byzantine kingdom was devastated, and it never recovered its previous prominence. While trying in vain to get financial assistance from the West in order to counter the mounting Turkish threat, Emperor John V was jailed in Venice for being an unpaid debtor. The princes of Serbia and the king of Bulgaria were compelled to submit to the great Turks four years after he had been forced to submit.

John’s descendants had periodic relief from Ottoman persecution, but the ascension of Murad II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire in 1421 signaled an end to this final reprieve.

Mehmed visited the Hagia Sophia triumphantly on May 29, 1453, following an Ottoman army’s conquest of Constantinople.

It was the fall of Constantinople that brought the Byzantine Empire to its knees, bringing an end to a golden age.

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