When We Try To Understand A Culture On Its Own Terms, We Are Practicing Cultural Relativism

Cultural Relativism

The concept of a cross-cultural connection is based on the premise that individuals from various cultures may form relationships in which they recognise, respect, and come to comprehend one other’s unique lifestyles. People from diverse backgrounds can assist one another in seeing opportunities that they may have previously overlooked due to the constraints or cultural proscriptions imposed by their own traditions or cultural norms. In certain civilizations, traditional behaviors might stifle opportunities because they are deemed “bad” by one or more unique cultures.

This cross-cultural contact inspires optimism that new opportunities will be uncovered, but it also poses a threat at the same time.

It is the capacity to comprehend a culture on its own terms rather than making judgements based on the norms of one’s own culture that is referred to as cultural relativism.

According to cultural relativism, no one culture is more superior than another when it comes to systems of morality, law, politics, and other aspects of society and culture in general.

Because there is no absolute standard of good or evil, and because every decision and judgment of what is right and bad is made on an individual basis in each culture, this is also a philosophical position.

In general, there is no ethical system that is right or bad.

It is possible to categorize cultural relativism into two main categories: The absolute rule is that everything that occurs within a culture must and should not be questioned by those outside of that culture The Nazi party’s point of view on the Holocaust, which was used to justify the Holocaust, would be the most severe example of ultimate cultural relativism.

  • Critical cultural relativism acknowledges the existence of power interactions as well.
  • It is used to refer to the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia or the infliction of any other damage to the female reproductive/genital organs during a surgical surgery.
  • FGC is performed primarily as a result of cultural, religious, and traditional factors.
  • A Chinese woman walks around with her feet untied.
  • Originally, the purpose of foot binding was to prevent feet from growing and to make them smaller.
  • To force the toes to go beneath the foot, a bandage would be put around the foot for 10 feet around it.
  • Small feet were considered lovely and a mark of social prestige in ancient China.
  • Despite the fact that this technique was outlawed in 1912 due to the fact that males only desired women with little feet, women continued to engage in it.

Although the concept of foot binding may appear cruel to Western cultures, in Chinese culture it was seen as a sign of beauty that had been deeply engrained in the society for hundreds of years prior. The concept of beauty vary from one culture to the next.

~

  1. “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
  2. “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture”
  3. “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
  4. “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture” Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
  5. Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
  6. Jump Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007 (see “American commemoration of Cinco de Mayo began in California,” accessed October 30, 2007)
  7. Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007. (pdf) Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons”
  8. Jump up “Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City is a collection of essays about urban life. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL
  9. Jump up Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
  10. Jump up frame=top
  11. Jump up Barton Wright, Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
  12. Jump up Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda are co-authors of Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.’s Jump up to: Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
  13. Jump up Philosophy Home, 2009
  14. Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
  15. Jump up Zmago mit In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán (eds. ), The New York Times. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology, 1995
  16. Jump up American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race,” May 17, 1998
  1. The Sociological Imagination, by C. Wright Mills, was published by Oxford University Press in 1961 and has the ISBN 0195133730. Other resources include: Louisa Lim, Painful Memories for China’s Footbinding Survivors
  2. James A. Crites Chinese Foot Binding
  3. Justin Marozzi, The Son of the Father of History, 2007
  4. James A Introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900
  5. Introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900
  6. Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda collaborated on this project. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition Oxford University Press, New York, 7th ed.
  7. s^ ‘RACE – The Influence of a Deception.’ “What Exactly Is Race |.” PBS, aired on March 8, 2009
  8. Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
  9. Miller, Barabra. Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
  10. Judith Lorber’s “Night to His Day”: The Social Construction of Gender is available online. Text and Reader for the Transition from Inquiry to Academic Writing 617-30
  11. Bourgois, Philippe, “Workaday World, Crack Economy.” Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. 617-30
  12. In The Nation (1995), pages 706-11,

External links

  • What is the discipline of Anthropology? American Anthropological Association information
  • SLA – Society for Linguistic Anthropology information
  1. Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda authored this article. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Page 79 of the 2009 edition of Oxford University Press.
  1. Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda wrote the book. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Species Page 79 of the 2009 edition of the Oxford University Press
You might be interested:  When There Is Culture Change, A Group's Usually Changes First

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism – Culture and Psychology

Ethnocentrism is defined as the propensity to view the world largely through the lens of one’s own cultural tradition. The notion that one’s own racial, ethnic, or cultural group is the most significant, or that some or all parts of one’s own culture are superior to those of other groups, is considered ethnocentrism in some circles. Some individuals will simply refer to it as “culture illiteracy.” As a result of your own conventions, values, and beliefs, you may make inaccurate assumptions about others’ conduct.

  • If a group of persons believes that another culture is evil or immoral, they may attempt to convert the group to their own ways of life by coercing or otherwise coercing them to conform to their own beliefs.
  • There are various conditions in which ethnocentrism may not be averted.
  • We must all strive to be more culturally relatable in order to prevent conflict over cultural customs and beliefs, and we must do it together.
  • Attempting to fight ethnocentrism by fostering knowledge of cultural behaviors that are alien to other cultures, such as eating insects, genocides, or genital cutting, cultural relativism seeks to dispel ethnocentrism.
  • This is a regular occurrence and an indicator of the closeness that exists between two individuals.

These are merely two distinct interpretations of the meaning of the expression “holding hands.” Some people, especially those who do not subscribe to a relativistic viewpoint, may be inclined to believe that their own interpretation of this action is superior and that the foreign practice is immoral.

  1. Even if particular cultural behaviors are awful or damaging, cultural relativism offers no opportunity for criticism of other cultures when taken to its logical conclusion.
  2. According to thefamahidanafuneral ritual of Madagascar, once every seven years, the remains are exhumed from graves and wrapped in linen before being carried about by dancers.
  3. A heated discussion is currently raging about the ritual cutting of female genitals that occurs in various Middle Eastern and African societies.
  4. When it comes to problematic cultural customs, it can be condescending to cite cultural relativism as an excuse to avoid having a discussion about them.
  5. It is the idea that individuals from various cultures may form relationships in which they accept, respect, and learn to comprehend one other’s unique lifestyles that is known as the concept of cross-cultural connection.
  6. People who are exposed to new ideas will alter as a result of their being aware of these new possibilities.

In that it offers the possibility of new prospects being uncovered, this cross-cultural interaction may be both encouraging and dangerous. The danger is that, once a link has been established, it will be impossible to assert that any particular culture is the only true one.

1.6: Cultural Relativism

The concept of a cross-cultural connection is based on the premise that individuals from various cultures may form relationships in which they recognise, respect, and come to comprehend one other’s unique lifestyles. People from diverse backgrounds can assist one another in seeing opportunities that they may have previously overlooked due to the constraints or cultural proscriptions imposed by their own traditions or cultural norms. In certain civilizations, traditional behaviors might stifle opportunities because they are deemed “bad” by one or more unique cultures.

  • This cross-cultural contact inspires optimism that new opportunities will be uncovered, but it also poses a threat at the same time.
  • It is the capacity to comprehend a culture on its own terms rather than making judgements based on the norms of one’s own culture that is referred to as cultural relativism.
  • According to cultural relativism, no one culture is more superior than another when it comes to systems of morality, law, politics, and other aspects of society and culture in general.
  • Because there is no absolute standard of good or evil, and because every decision and judgment of what is right and bad is made on an individual basis in each culture, this is also a philosophical position.
  • In general, there is no ethical system that is right or bad.

It is possible to categorize cultural relativism into two main categories: The absolute rule is that everything that occurs within a culture must and should not be questioned by those outside of that culture The Nazi party’s point of view on the Holocaust, which was used to justify the Holocaust, would be the most severe example of ultimate cultural relativism.

  • Critical cultural relativism acknowledges the existence of power interactions as well.
  • It is used to refer to the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia or the infliction of any other damage to the female reproductive/genital organs during a surgical surgery.
  • FGC is performed primarily as a result of cultural, religious, and traditional factors.
  • PageIndex – A Chinese woman with her feet untied in Figure (PageIndex).
  • – A Chinese Golden Lily Foot by Lai Afong, ca.
  • Chinese culture and the procedure of foot binding serve as an example of cultural relativism to illustrate this point.
  • The process usually begins when a child is between the ages of four and seven.
  • It caused the big toe to be closer to the heel, which resulted in the foot bending slightly.
  • The women desired to have their feet adorned with “three-inch golden lotuses.” It was also the only way to get married into a wealthy family.

Although the concept of foot binding may appear cruel to Western cultures, in Chinese culture it was seen as a sign of beauty that had been deeply engrained in the society for hundreds of years prior. The concept of beauty vary from one culture to the next.

References

  1. “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
  2. “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture”
  3. “African People’s Culture – Ashanti” Southern California Quarterly is edited by Ian Condry. “Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937” is a book on the history of the holiday in California. “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed June 2009
  4. “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons”
  5. Condry, Ian, 2001, “Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture,” accessed October 30, 2007. “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed June 2009. Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City is a collection of essays about urban life. George Gmelch and Walter Zenner are the editors of this volume. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, Illinois
  6. Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
  7. Courses.wwu.edu/webapps/porta.82 1 frame=top
  8. Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008. Barton Wright is a writer who lives in the United States. Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.
  9. Schultz, Emily A., and Robert H. Lavenda. Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.
  10. Schultz, Emily A., and Robert H. Lavenda. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
  11. Philosophy Home, 2009
  12. Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The anthropological tradition in Slovenia,” in Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The anthropological tradition in Slovenia.” In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán (eds. ), The New York Times. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology, 1995
  13. American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race,” May 17, 1998
  14. American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race,” May
  1. Among the works cited are Peter L. Berger’s Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective (Anchor, 1963), ISBN 0385065299
  2. C. Wright Mills’ The Sociological Imagination (Oxford University Press, 1961), ISBN 0195133730
  3. Louisa Lim’s Painful Memories for China’s Footbinding Survivors (NPR), Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition 7th ed., revised and updated Oxford University Press, New York. The Power of an Illusion”
  4. “RACE – The Power of an Illusion.” “What Exactly Is Race |.” Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
  5. Lorber, Judith, “Night to His Day”: The Social Construction of Gender.” PBS, March 8, 2009. Miller, Barabra, Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007. Text and Reader for the Transition from Inquiry to Academic Writing Philippe Bourgois’s “Workaday World and Crack Economy” was published by Bedford/St. Martin’s in Boston in 2008 and may be found on page 617 of the book. In The Nation (1995), pages 706-11,
You might be interested:  What Is A Rape Culture

External Links

  • What is the discipline of Anthropology? – Information from the American Anthropological Association
  • SLA–Society for Linguistic Anthropology
  • – Information from the Society for Linguistic Anthropology
  1. Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition, edited by Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda, is available online. Page 79 of the Oxford University Press, Incorporated’s 2009 book. Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition, edited by Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda, is available online. pgs. 332-333 in New York: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009.

Cultural Relativism Explains Why Breakfast Differs Around the World

Cultural relativism is the concept that people’s beliefs, knowledge, and conduct must be interpreted in the perspective of their own cultural setting. In sociology, this is one of the most essential notions, because it acknowledges and reinforces the links that exist between a larger societal structure and trends, as well as the everyday lives of individual individuals.

Origins and Overview

Franz Boas, a German-American anthropologist who worked in the early twentieth century, introduced the notion of cultural relativism as we know and use it today as an analytical tool for social analysis. In the context of early social science, cultural relativism emerged as a powerful tool for combating ethnocentrism, which was prevalent in research at the time, which was primarily conducted by white, wealthy, Western men and frequently focused on people of color, indigenous populations from other countries, and people from lower socioeconomic classes than the researchers.

From this perspective, we may characterize foreign cultures as strange, exotic, exciting, or even as issues that need to be resolved, among other things.

Examples

Cultural relativism explains why, for example, what makes a proper breakfast differs greatly from one location to another, as seen above. Breakfast in Turkey, as represented in the image above, differs significantly from breakfast in the United States or Japan. Despite the fact that eating fish soup or stewed vegetables for breakfast in the United States may appear weird, in other countries, this is quite typical. Other cultures, on the other hand, would find our fondness for sugary cereals and milk, as well as our preference for egg sandwiches stuffed with bacon and cheese, to be completely odd.

In the United States, we have a tendency to think of nudity as an inherently sexual phenomenon, and thus when individuals are naked in public, they may be seen as sending a sexual signal.

While being naked or partially nude is not presented as sexual behavior in many instances, it is framed instead as the right physiological state for participating in a particular activity.

In large part as a result of ethnocentrism, this has become a highly political and controversial activity in today’s globalized society.

Why Recognizing Cultural Relativism Matters

Through the acceptance of cultural relativism, we may acknowledge that our culture impacts our perceptions of what we perceive to be beautiful or ugly; what we find attractive or revolting; what we deem virtuous, hilarious, or abhorrent. It influences our perceptions of what constitutes excellent and terrible art, music, and movies, as well as our perceptions of what constitutes tasteful and garish consumer items. The work of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu contains extensive exploration of these occurrences, as well as the repercussions of these events.

Cultural relativism and its limits

We may understand that our culture impacts our perceptions of what is beautiful, ugly, attractive, nasty, virtuous, hilarious, and revolting by accepting cultural relativism. It influences our perceptions of what constitutes excellent and terrible art, music, and movies, as well as our perceptions of what constitutes tasteful and garish consumer products and merchandise. Pierre Bourdieu’s work contains extensive exploration of these occurrences as well as its ramifications for society. Among other things, this differs not just across national cultures but also within a big civilization like the United States, as well as between cultures and subcultures structured by class, race, sexual orientation, geographic location, religious affiliation, and ethnicity.

It’s All Good? Some Thoughts on Cultural Relativism

Photo courtesy of Ben White through Unsplash. It’s no surprise that some of the most often asked concerns about anthropology from people outside the study concern cultural relativism, which is a legitimate concern. Despite the fact that it is taught as one of the fundamental concepts of the field of anthropology, anthropologists, social scientists, and philosophers continue to disagree over how to apply it. Because the discussion around cultural relativism is multi-layered and nuanced, a concise summary in a single blog post is not possible.

Cultural Relativism in Anthropology

Franz Boas is credited with developing the notion of cultural relativism in anthropology (also known as the father of American anthropology). According to what I understand, Boas’ original goal in developing this notion was to challenge ethnocentrism, which is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to other civilizations in terms of importance. He hoped to instill in others the belief that no group of people is fundamentally better or more “civilized” than another by teaching them to approach civilizations other than their own with the perspective that they are all equal.

Put another way, Boas was interested in understanding why specific groups of individuals behaved in a particular manner, rather than making judgemental comparisons with other groups of people.

The Relationship Between Cultural Relativism and Moral Relativism

At some point (I’m not sure when, it may have been from the beginning), the notion of cultural relativism began to be interwoven with the concept of moral relativism as a whole. I see why, because these two things might be said to be connected to one another from a philosophical perspective. As a philosophical position, moral relativism holds that there is no universally accepted definition of what is morally right and what is morally wrong. Instead, what is judged good and wrong is always dependent on the cultural, social, and/or historical context in which it is observed and practiced.

As far as I know, I’ve never met or heard of someone who has this opinion; instead, I’ve only heard about the potential of holding this belief as a justification for opposing cultural and/or moral relativism.

This gets me to the second point I want to make.

Cultural Relativism ≠ Moral Relativism

I believe that the issue of moral and cultural relativism being included together is a matter of word choice and terminology rather than a substantive one.

You might be interested:  What Is A Data Driven Culture

This is the definition of cultural relativism that I personally believe in:

) (In order to avoid making the misleading claim that I came up with this definition on my own, I’m giving a couple of links below to some sites with similar definitions to this one that this one is based on–here andhere). What this implies to me is that you are not have to appreciate, promote, approve of, accept, or engage in any parts of other cultures if you do not like to. You are free to do so. What matters most is how you approach the subject of other cultures, regardless of whether you have a negative or good attitude toward them.

If you want to comprehend, you demonstrate respect for your fellow human beings, even if you do not agree with what they are saying or doing.

Lastly, I believe it is appropriate to cast moral judgment on particular cultural or societal behaviors (especially from a human rights viewpoint) provided you first endeavor to understand as much as you possibly can about that practice and culture in order to make an informed decision.

It is simply biased to cite a particular cultural practice as a rationale for labeling an entire group of people as terrible or lesser human beings because of that behavior.

Practicing Cultural Relativism in Anthropology

To put it another way, I believe that the study of anthropology is about discovering the ways in which culture influences the values and morals that individuals uphold in their everyday activities. In my opinion, one of the ways in which cultural relativism (in the sense that I stated it earlier) is important to anthropology is through the anthropological idea that civilizations are not static, but rather are always evolving. Cultural practices change as a result of changes in the context in which they are practiced.

Practices change in response to shifts in morals and ideals, and vice versa.

If you wish to fight for human rights, anthropology can provide you with a plethora of philosophical and scientific concepts to use in your battle.

When you learn of a human rights violation, it is important to understand the cultural, societal, and historical circumstances that led to the occurrence.

In Conclusion…Does Anthropology Need a New Tag Line?

It is not the concept of cultural relativism that indicates that there is no such thing as good and wrong, but rather the one that is acceptable to me. However, it appears that practically wherever I go, there is a widespread belief that moral relativism is a component of cultural relativism, which is not the case. Okay, that’s OK with me. Anyone who feels this is erroneous, in my opinion, is not wrong. In the same way that culture changes over time, terms and meanings change as well. If this is the widespread public agreement on the phrase “cultural relativism,” then I am prepared to reject the word and replace it with one that is more in keeping with my convictions about humans and the human condition.

Perhaps “cultural contextualization” would be a better term.

Now I’m interested in hearing yours!

Society and Culture The Interaction of Cultures Summary & Analysis

It is inevitable that misunderstandings, prejudices, and judgements would arise when people from many different cultures live together in one community. However, it is also possible to have fair evaluations, relationships, and learning experiences. Cultures cannot exist in complete isolation from one another, no matter how disparate they are, and the consequent consequences are numerous and diverse.

Ethnocentrism

One’s predisposition to assess another culture by the standards of one’s own culture is referred to as ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is typically associated with the belief that one’s own culture is better to that of everyone else. As an illustration, scientific development, industrialisation, and the growth of money are highly valued by Americans. It is possible for an American to perceive a culture as “primitive” or “uncivilized” if he or she applies their own standards to one that does not respect such things.

Individuals from other cultures, such as certain European civilizations, also view American culture through the prism of their own ethnocentrism, which is a common occurrence.

Foreigners may perceive Americans as materialistic, aggressive, or arrogant, with little intellectual nuance or spirituality. This is especially true of people from different cultures. Many people in the United States would disagree with such judgment.

Cultural Relativism

In contrast to ethnocentrism, cultural relativism is the evaluation of a cultural attribute in the context of a particular cultural grouping or group of people. Cultural relativists attempt to comprehend and appreciate foreign values and conventions without condemning them or applying the standards of their own culture to the situation. For example, in India, the notions of dating, love, and marriage are distinct from those found in the United States of America. Parents chose their children’s partners based on similarities in educational levels, faiths, castes, and family origins, despite the fact that love is a significant consideration.

From an ethnocentric American point of view, arranging weddings looks to be a tradition that restricts the independence of the individual.

Culture Shock

Cultural relativism is the polar opposite of ethnocentrism; it is the evaluation of a cultural attribute in the context of a particular society. They attempt to comprehend and appreciate foreign values and conventions without condemning them or applying the standards of their own culture to them. For example, the conceptions of dating, love, and marriage in India are distinct from those in the United States. Parents chose their children’s partners based on similarities in educational levels, faiths, castes, and family origins, despite the fact that love is a significant factor.

Marriage arrangements appear to be a norm that inhibits individual freedom when seen from an ethnocentric American point of view.

Culture Lag

The phrase “cultural lag” was invented by the sociologist William Ogburn in 1922. It is the propensity for changes in material and nonmaterial culture to develop at different speeds that is referred to as “culture lag.” Based on his research, Ogburn asserted that changes in nonmaterial culture tend to lag behind changes in material culture, including technical advancements in general. Technology advances at a breakneck pace, but our attitudes and ideas about it, which are a component of our nonmaterial culture, lag far behind our understanding of how to bring about technical transformation.

The answers to many critical concerns are still up in the air, including: how long should individuals converse on the internet before meeting in person?

What is the optimal amount of time between emails to respond to each other? A new generation of technological advances has brought with it new problems and doubts.

Cultural Diffusion

It is the process through which a component of culture spreads throughout a society or from one culture to another that is known as cultural diffusion. To give an example, in the United States in the early 1990s, mobile phones were only carried by those who needed to be available in an emergency, such as physicians. Every member of a family may now have his or her own mobile phone, which is becoming increasingly common. Cell phones have been enthusiastically welcomed in some developing countries where standard telephone lines and other communications infrastructures are unreliable or nonexistent.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *