When Child Culture Conflicts With Adult Morality, Children Will

Mid-Late Childhood Psychosocial Development: Chapter ppt download

The Psychosocial Development of Children in the Middle Childhood: Chapter 13 PowerPoint The slides were created by The following is an adaptation of slides created by Martin Wolfger and Michael James of Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington. Learning2 in Human Development All hail the Virgin Mary, who is brimming with grace! The Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the product of thy womb, Jesus; for the Lord is with thee. Please, Holy Mary, Mother of God, intercede for us sinners now and at the hour of our death.

Amen.

motherto get, and in exchange to provide HOPE a sensory maladjustment characterized by withdrawal 2nd and 3rd grades -toddler Shame and uncertainty are pitted against one another in the battle for autonomy.

responsibility Family/siblings to have fun with, to chase after PURPOSE(courage) ruthlessness—inhibition IV.

  1. In their attempts to learn numerous abilities, children develop a feeling of themselves as either resourceful or apathetic, competent or inept, depending on their age.
  2. At this age, children who are motivated and hardworking actively learn culturally valued talents and abilities (e.g.
  3. A person’s capacity to govern their emotions and actions via deliberate effort rather than just by natural tendency is referred to as “effortful control.” 7Freud on the Subject of Latency Emotional urges are calm, and unconscious sexual tensions are hidden throughout the latency period.
  4. The channeling of sexual energy into societal problems is a common occurrence.

For example, a 6-year-old may describe herself as “a quick runner who is also brilliant at sketching.” When asked about herself, an 11-year-old will say she is “quite intelligent, kind, and helpful to my friends.” Children learn about themselves as they get older, including their talents and limitations.

  • 9Conceptualization of Oneself Social comparison Considering one’s own characteristics in relation to those of others It assists youngsters in valuing themselves and moving away from the fictitious, rosy self-evaluation that toddlers have.
  • More in tune with one’s emotions.
  • increase between the ages of 6 to 11 Materialism is on the rise, while self-esteem is on the decline1112.
  • Important: Resilience is a dynamic trait; a person may be resilient at some times of the year but not at other times.
  • Resilient youngsters survive adversity that would overwhelm many of their classmates if it were not severe enough.
  • 15Social Support as well as Religious Belief Having a network of supporting relatives is preferable than having simply one close parent as a safety net.
  • Additionally, community institutions (such as churches and libraries) can serve as important providers of social support.

The impact of a non-shared environment (for example, friends or schools) grows.

It is not necessary for children raised in the same family by the same parents to grow up in the same environment as their peers.

The majority of parents have different responses to each of their children.

The manner in which a family works to satisfy the requirements of its members is referred to as family function.

In the context of a family, the legal and genetic ties among relatives who live in the same house are defined as follows: nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.

Two or more persons who are linked to one another are referred to be relatives (most common) a single person who lives alone Non-relatives who live in the same house A family household is defined as one in which at least one parent and at least one kid under the age of 18 live.

Families with two parents A nuclear family is a family that is made up of a father, a mother, and their biological children who are under the age of eighteen years.

Parental dedication to their children is common among biological parents.

23 Stepfamilies In order to have some engagement with the children, the stepparent must establish a position that is not as intimate as that of the original parents, but one that allows for some interaction with them.

Family that comprises children born to various families, such as biological children from the spouses’ previous marriages and biological children from the current relationship, is referred to as a “blend family.” Families with two parents tend to be wealthier than families with one parent.

It is possible to have feelings of jealousy, tension, and conflict.

24 Families with a single parent A single-parent family is defined as a family that consists of only one parent and his or her children under the age of 18 and no other members.

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Single-mother homes are frequently low-income and unstable, and they relocate more frequently than other households, which also includes the addition of additional people.

25 There are a lot of relatives at home.

26 Differences in Family Structure Across Cultures 27Family Dissension A family that is not able to sustain all of its members is described as a dysfunctional family.

28 Low-Income Individuals Model of family stress: the most important question to ask about every risk factor (for example, poverty, marriage dissolution, job loss, or homelessness) is whether it raises the stress on a family.

There is also a response to prosperity.

Moving to a new house, getting transferred to a new school, and changes in the family structure are all examples of upsetting transitions.

Making new acquaintances becomes more difficult when one’s self-awareness increases.

Adults may be unaware of the impact that these shifts have on pupils.

The likelihood of divorce, relocation, and other forms of disruption in the child’s life increases when parents dispute frequently.

(There is a link between social and cognitive functioning.) 31Harmony The children’s sentiments of self-blame or vulnerability were found to be a more significant predictor of their psychological and academic outcomes than the level of their parents’ marital conflict.

3233 Divorce Has a Range of Consequences Only half of children in the United States will grow up with both parents, each of whom has been married only once.

The age of ten is the point at which youngsters feel compelled to pick sides, taking the side of either their mother or their father.

Many youngsters will suffer only little long-term effects as a result of their actions.

It is possible for both children and parents to experience various sorts of psychological maladjustments lasting six months to two years.

Phobias35 Recognizing and appreciating the status quo After 18 months to 2 years, the majority of children recover to their psychological adjustment levels from before the divorce.

For some children, growing up in a family with an unhappy marriage and a high level of conflict has more harmful implications than growing up in a divorced home.

The way children react to a divorce is influenced by a number of things.

In many circumstances, divorce results in a decrease in the level of life for both parents involved.

36 The Peer Group is a group of people who have similar interests.

FashionLanguage37 Friendship Personal friendships are more important to school-age children than peer approval.

Girls are more open and willing to share their secrets.

Friendships promote psychosocial development and act as a protective barrier against psychopathology.

Friendships should be changed less frequently.

Finding it difficult to establish new friends?

39Friendship During middle childhood, the avoidance of opposite sex becomes quite noticeable.

When sexes engage, it is referred to as “border work.” Border labor is frequently romantic in nature and serves to underline the stark distinctions between the sexes.

ifferences in social status within a group are typically obvious, with an accepted leader and a hierarchical structure of participants.

Keeping group members’ hostility to a minimum Make an effort to maintain and improve one’s position in the hierarchy.

The attempt to preserve and increase one’s position in a hierarchical structure results in a kind of play known as restricted play, in which interactions are halted when one’s status is threatened.

Conflicts are resolved by a combination of compromise, ignoring the problem, and giving in; the objective is to preserve equal-status relationships with no hierarchy of power.

The language used by girls is less hostile and forthright than that of guys.

It begins to grow from birth and continues to develop throughout early life.

Children that have poor social cognition are more likely to be rejected by their peers.

Children who are despised by their classmates because of their shy, withdrawn, and worried demeanor are referred to as withdrawn-rejected children.

44 Bullying THE BULLIES AT SCHOOL Every day, 160,000 kids in the United States stay home from school because they are terrified of being bullied.

Bullying appears to have its origins in a mix of nature and nurture.

2745 Bullies and their prey Bullying is defined as “repeated, systematic attempts to inflict harm on a weaker individual by physical, verbal, or social attack on a person who is weaker than the bully.” Bully-victim: Someone who bullies others while also being bullied themselves A provocative victim is someone who engages in behaviors that inspire bullying, such as snatching a bully’s pencil, and is labeled as such.

  1. 46 Bullying Elimination Efforts That Have Been Successful The entire school, not just the bullies who have been identified, must be involved.
  2. It is vital to evaluate the outcomes.
  3. There was one medication that the physicians believed had a chance of saving her life.
  4. However, even though the medicine was expensive to create, the druggist was charging 10 times the amount it cost him to generate it.
  5. Heinz, the sick woman’s husband, went around to everyone he knew to borrow money, but he was only able to get together approximately $1,000, which was only half of what it would have cost.
  6. The druggist, on the other hand, stated, “No, I found the drug and I intend to earn money from it.” As a result, Heinz became desperate and broke into the man’s store in order to steal the medication for his wife.
  7. What is the reason for this or why is it not?
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Preconventional moral reasoning: Places an emphasis on rewards and punishments rather than incentives.

Postconventional moral reasoning is characterized by the emphasis placed on moral principles.

Kohlberg was unconcerned about culture or gender.

The term “family” does not appear in any of the categories.

51 What Children Place a High Value on Children create their own morals, guided by their classmates, their parents, and their cultural environment.

Concrete operational cognition encourages them to consider morality and to make an effort to live ethically. When child culture and adult morality are at odds, children frequently identify themselves with their peers to avoid conflict.

When child culture conflicts with adult morality, children will: ?

Social Studies, Tuesday, June 22nd, 09:30 What factors contributed to the rise of sectionalism in the United States following the end of the Mexican-American War? Answers are as follows: 1 Social Studies, 22nd of June, 15:40 hrs. Individuals who have been hurt by a product are covered by product liability laws. Answers are as follows: 1 Social Studies, 22nd of June, 2019 at 20:20 What are the limitations of the establishment clause on government? Answers are as follows: 1 11:30 am, Wednesday, June 23rd, Social Studies Amidst the raging argument about informing Americans about the damage to national unity, Thomas Jefferson was worried by the intensity of the debate.

4.) Slaves who have fled from slavery Answers are as follows: 1 Do you know what the correct answer is?

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Mathematics, 18.08.2019 23:00Mathematics, 18.08.2019 23:00Mathematics, 18.08.2019 23:00

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

To explain the moral development of children, Lawrence Kohlberg built on the earlier work of cognitive theorist Jean Piaget, which he had previously published. Similarly to cognitive development, Kohlberg felt that moral growth proceeds via a succession of phases. The concept of moral dilemmas—stories that convey opposing notions about two moral standards—was utilized to educate boys between the ages of 10 and 16 about morality, morals, and ethics. Heinz’s dilemma is the most well-known of Kohlberg’s creations, and it examines the issue of upholding the law against saving a life as it relates to law enforcement.

Following the presentation of several moral problems to participants, Kohlberg evaluated their replies and classified them according to their level of moral reasoning.

Each level of morality is divided into two phases, which serve as the foundation for moral development in a variety of situations.

Kohlberg’s stages of moral development

In order to understand the moral development of children, Lawrence Kohlberg built on the earlier work of cognitive theorist Jean Piaget. Similarly to cognitive development, Kohlberg felt that moral growth progresses via a number of phases. Moral dilemmas—stories that provide opposing notions about two moral principles—were utilized to teach morals and values to boys aged 10 to 16 years old, according to the author. The “Heinz” dilemma, which explores the notion of following the law against saving a life, is the most well-known of Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas.

Following the presentation of several moral problems to participants, Kohlberg evaluated their replies and classified them into distinct phases of moral thinking.

Each level of morality is comprised of two phases, which serve as the foundation for moral development in a variety of situations and circumstances.

Stage 1:Obedience -and- PunishmentOrientation

During Stage 1, the emphasis is on the child’s desire to follow rules and avoid being disciplined. In certain cases, an action is viewed as morally wrong because the perpetrator has been punished; the greater the penalty for the crime is perceived as, the more “bad” the deed is perceived as being.

Stage 2: Instrumental Orientation

Stage 2 represents the “what’s in it for me?” point of view, in which correct behavior is determined by whatever the individual feels is in their best interest at the time of the action. In stage two thinking, there is only a limited concern for the needs of others, save to the extent that it may benefit the individual’s own interests. This has resulted in a lack of care for others that is not founded on loyalty or inherent respect, but rather on the principle of reciprocity: “you scratch my back, and I’ll scratch yours.” A good example would be when a youngster is requested by his or her parents to help with a household job.

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Throughout the traditional level, a child’s sense of morality is linked to his or her connections with other people and with society.

Rules and traditions are followed with considerable rigor during these stages, and the propriety or fairness of a rule is rarely called into question at this time.

Stage 3: Good Boy, Nice Girl Orientation

Children in stage 3 desire the approval of others and behave in ways that would prevent them from receiving it. The importance of good behavior and individuals being “kind” to one another is emphasized.

Stage 4: Law-and-Order Orientation

When a kid reaches stage 4, he or she accepts norms and conventions without question since they are critical to the operation of a society. According to this perspective, rules are universally applicable, and following rules by doing what one is “supposed” to do is regarded as worthwhile and significant. In stage four, moral thinking takes precedence over the demand for individual acceptance that was demonstrated in stage three. If one individual breaches a law, it is likely that everyone will do so as well; as a result, there is an obligation and a responsibility to respect laws and norms.

Throughout the postconventional level, a person’s sense of morality is defined in terms of more abstract principles and values rather than concrete rules and regulations.

This stage is characterized by a growing recognition that people are distinct from society and that individuals have the authority to violate norms that are conflicting with their own ideals.

The fact that post-conventional persons prioritize their own moral appraisal of a situation over societal conventions causes their conduct, particularly at stage six, to be mistaken for that of those at the pre-conventional level in specific situations.

Some theories believe that many people will never be able to attain this degree of abstract moral thinking in their lives.

Stage 5: Social-Contract Orientation

In stage 5, the world is perceived to be divided into factions with differing viewpoints, rights, and ideals. Such points of view should be acknowledged by both parties since they are unique to each individual or group. Laws are viewed more as social contracts than as harsh edicts in today’s society. It is vital to alter those who do not support the public welfare when it is necessary in order to achieve the greatest benefit for the largest number of people. This is accomplished through the use of a majority vote and the eventual compromise.

Stage 6: Universal-Ethical-Principal Orientation

In stage 6, moral thinking is based on abstract reasoning and universal ethical concepts, which are used throughout the stage. In general, the principles adopted are abstract rather than specific, and they are based on concepts such as equality, decency, and respect, among others. Justice-based laws are lawful only to the extent that they are based on justice, and a commitment to justice entails the need to disobey unjust laws. People pick the ethical standards that they wish to adhere to, and if they do not adhere to those ideals, they are guilty of their actions.

Despite Kohlberg’s insistence that stage six existed, he found it impossible to discover persons who consistently worked at that level of sophistication and sophistication.

Carol Gilligan (1982), a former research assistant of Kohlberg, expressed her dissatisfaction with her former mentor’s thesis since it was based only on research conducted on white, upper-class men and boys.

Because Kohlberg’s theory places an emphasis on justice to the exclusion of other values, it has been criticized for failing to fully answer the arguments of those who place a high importance on other moral elements of acts.

This is prejudiced towards those who live in non-Western civilizations that place a lower value on individuality than Western societies.

A common example is when people face moral dilemmas involving drinking and driving or when they face business situations where they have been shown to reason at a lower developmental stage, typically using more self-interest driven reasoning (i.e., stage two) rather than authority and social order obedience driven reasoning (i.e., stage four).

As a result, opponents of Kohlberg’s theory claim that his theory is unable to account for such contradictions.

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