- 1 Crime In America CH 6&7 Review Flashcards
- 2 Anomie theory (Merton)
- 3 Main proponent
- 4 Theory
- 5 Implication for criminal policy
- 6 Critical appreciationrelevance
- 7 Literature
- 8 anomie
- 9 Anomie – Wikipedia
- 10 History
- 11 Etymology
- 12 Synnomie
- 13 In culture
- 14 See also
- 15 External links
- 16 Quiz 4
- 17 Chapter 6 Flashcards by Lynese Walcott
Crime In America CH 6&7 Review Flashcards
The uneven distribution of wealth results in the formation of social strata. While the upper elite in America is extraordinarily well-off, a significant number of individuals in the country live in poverty. In his book , Oscar Lewis contends that the oppressive lifestyle of lower-class neighborhoods causes that is passed down from one generation to another. For the purpose of explaining crime, which hypothesis focuses on urban factors such as high unemployment and high school dropout rates? The Theory of Social Disorganization Cultural deviance theory is a fusion of components from and social disorganization theories, among others.
According to strain theory, crime is a product of conflict between people’s aspirations and their ability to achieve them.
As a result of this situation, there is poverty.
Anger, irritation, and resentment are common emotions felt by members of the lower-class when they are unable to obtain symbols of success by conventional means.
- Which two components of culture interact with one another to create anomie and/or anomic circumstances?
- According to Walter Miller, the distinctive behavior of norms that constitute lower-class culture and that frequently conflict with conventional values have been established.
- Subcultural values are transmitted from one generation to the next through a process known as transmission.
- Theory is the term used to describe this point of view.
- According to Shaw and McKay, one of the most noteworthy discoveries was that crime rates are correlated with neighborhood architecture.
- Which of the following is a fundamental notion shared by all social process theories?
- According to social reaction theory, people become criminals when they are labeled as such by influential members of their community.
According to the author, which of the following statements is true about why problematic children gravitate toward delinquent peers?
A key principle of differential association is which of the following is not one of its major principles?
According to Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory, criminal conduct is taught in the same way that any other behavior is.
Criminals might sometimes justify their actions by claiming that the victim “deserved what happened to him or her.” Which of the following is an example of a neutralizing technique?
Which of the following would serve as an illustration of this strategy in practice?
Do crooks truly neutralize their targets?
Street offenders are not burdened by feelings of shame that necessitate neutralization.
In the given list, which of the following is NOT one of the elements?
What is the most contentious part of Hirschi’s conclusions, despite the fact that the data was robust and supportive?
The process of getting stigmatized as a result of criminal records is a collaborative effort.
Criminal activity, according to the social control hypothesis, arises when the forces that link people to society are weakened or disrupted.
Anomie theory (Merton)
The primary premise of Robert K. Merton’s anomie theory is that the vast majority of individuals attempt to accomplish culturally accepted objectives. When access to these aspirations is denied to entire groups of people or to individuals, a situation of anomie arises. As a result, aberrant behavior is shown in the form of rebellion, retreat, ritualism, innovation, and/or conformity, among other characteristics. The majority of crimes are the product of innovation.
Robert King Merton is a monk who lives in the United States.
Merton’s anomie theory was published in 1938, but because of the lack of societal interest in the topic at the time, it was referred to as a “sleep hypothesis.” Only the publishing of a revised edition in the year 1954 piqued the public’s curiosity. Merton expands on Durkheim’s observations by outlining the missing social rules that contribute to anomie and connecting them to the part of the value-medium gap that Durkheim identified in his work. It is no longer necessary to look for anomic circumstances in the gap between requirements and fulfillment, but rather in the disparity between objectives and means.
Criminality results from a misalignment between societal aspirations that are widely recognized as legitimate and the restricted availability of the resources necessary to attain these purposes.
Individuals get disoriented as a result of the discrepancy, which leads to psychological stress as well as social disputes.
In order to be able to cope with this strain, individuals resort to one of the five behavioural patterns described in Merton’s typology of models of adaptation
- Conformity Acceptance of cultural goals and flexibility to social change are two important characteristics. Innovation Recognizability of cultural aims, but non-recognizability of legal means of achieving those goals Ritualism Lowering / abandoning cultural objectives but preserving legal tools to attain them Retreatism Rejection of cultural objectives as well as legal methods
- Rebellion Defeating the aims and tactics of bringing about social structural change
According to Merton, those from lower social strata are more likely than those from higher social strata to turn to such methods because they have fewer opportunity to fulfill cultural goals than those from higher social strata. According to the following table, the various adaption reactions and the approval/availability (+) or rejection (-) of cultural goals and institutionalized mechanisms may be shown.
|Mode of adaptation||Culture goals||Institutionalised means|
Implication for criminal policy
This theory of anomie alludes to the frequently cited relationship between social and criminal policy (e.g., “The best criminal policy is a good social policy,” as expressed by Franz von Liszt). Due to the fact that innovation (and even retreat and rebellion) are the product of social-structural disparities, it is the responsibility of criminal policy to address these inequities. Economically disadvantaged individuals must be given the opportunity to progress to higher social strata, or at the very least be assisted in achieving their objectives in an acceptable manner.
Consequently, the ultimate objective must be a true social and welfare state in which it is feasible for everyone to pursue cultural interests by lawful methods, with no exceptions.
Merton’s anomie hypothesis is mostly utilitarian in nature: individuals commit crimes because they have no other options available to them, according to Merton. For example, robbery and burglary are explained in this context, but murder and rape, which are not, are not explained in this context. It may be assumed that those from the middle and upper classes have access to lawful ways of achieving their objectives, hence Merton explains crime only in terms of the lower classes due to a lack of access to legitimate means of achieving objectives.
– In addition, Merton does not provide an explanation to the question of why individuals respond differently when they are under stress.
Furthermore, there is no explicit explanation of the terminologies used.
- R. K. Merton’s Social Structure and Anomie was published in 1938. American Sociological Review, Vol. 3, No. 5 (October 1938), pp. 672-682
- American Sociological Review, Vol. 3, No. 5 (October 1938), pp. 672-682
- Brown, S., Esbensen, F.-A., and Geis, G. (2010): Criminology. New York: Springer-Verlag. Defining Crime and Its Social Context. S. 240-244
- Vito, G./Maahs, J./Holmes, R. (2007): Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy (Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy). S. 154-156
- S. 154-156
6 trillion dollars in total assets are held by the world’s wealthiest 16000 households. Lower-class issues that need to be addressed A culture of poverty is created by a person’s way of life and is passed down from generation to generation. It is characterized by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, and mistrust of social institutions (schools, governments, and police). Gunnar Myrdal wrote about a worldwide underclass that was cut off from society and whose members lacked the education and skills needed to function successfully.
- In lower-class communities, there is insufficient housing and health care, which causes disruption in family lives, underemployment, and despair.
- Because the incentives for educational performance lie in the distant future, students may be less motivated to continue their studies.
- Poverty among children and youth in the United States is widespread.
- Another 22 percent live in households that would be considered “poor.” One in every 30 children is homeless.
It makes children less likely to succeed in school and more likely to have health problems and inadequate Latinos and blacks have median household incomes that are equal to whites23Minorities are two and a half times more likely than whites to live in povertyThe median household income for blacks is little under $34K, compared with over $56K for whites
Home Lifestyles Concerning Social Issues Sociology Societysociology Alternative titles include: anomy Anomie, often spelledanomy, is a state of instability that may occur in civilizations or people as a consequence of a breakdown of norms and values, or as a result of a lack of direction or aspirations. The word was coined by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his research of suicide in the early twentieth century. He argued that one sort of suicide (anomic suicide) originated from the disintegration of the societal standards that were required for controlling behavior in the first place.
- According to Durkheim, such a society creates psychological states in many of its members that are characterized by a sense of futility, a lack of purpose, as well as emotional emptiness and despair.
- Robert K.
- It is possible that goals may become so essential that, if the institutionalized means—that is, those methods that are acceptable according to the rules of the society—do not succeed, illegal methods will be employed.
- If, for example, a society compelled its members to accumulate riches while providing them with insufficient means to do so, the strain would force many individuals to break social standards and engage in criminal activity.
- As a result, social behavior would become more unpredictable.
- Anomie is frequently accompanied by delinquency, criminality, and even suicide.
- Anomie is defined as the state of mind of a person who has no norms, no feeling of continuity, no sense of duty, and who has rejected all social relationships in this psychological context.
Also possible is a sense of futility and the idea that companions are not trustworthy providers of support and encouragement. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Brian Duignan was the author of the most current revision and update to this article.
Anomie – Wikipedia
Anomie() is a societal situation described by the uprooting or disintegration of any moral principles, norms, or guidelines for individuals to follow, as defined in sociology and psychology. Anomie can develop as a result of a clash of belief systems, and it can result in the disintegration of social relationships that exist between a person and the society (both economic and primarysocialization). For example, alienation in a person might evolve into a dysfunctional inability to integrate within normative settings of their social environment, such as finding a job or finding success in relationships, among other things.
Protestants, according to Émile Durkheim, demonstrated a larger degree of anomie than Catholics, according to his research.
In his writings, Durkheim never used the phrase “normlessness,” but instead portrayed anomie as “derangement” and “an insatiable urge.” Durkheim used the phrase “the sickness of the infinite” to describe the fact that desire that has no bounds can never be satisfied; instead, it just grows more severe.
This is an artificially induced condition: A common association between Durkheim and the phrase is that it describes the manner in which an individual’s activities are coordinated with, or integrated with, a social system of rules and practices.
In this way, a society with excessive rigidity and little individual discretion might potentially promote a state of anomie.
As early as 1893, Durkheim developed the idea of anomie to characterize the mismatch between collectiveguildlabor and increasing society requirements when the guild’s constituency was homogenous in composition. He linked homogenous (redundant) talents to mechanical solidarity, whose inertia made it difficult to adjust to changing circumstances. He compared this with the self-regulating behavior of adivision of labor based on variations in constituency, which he linked to organic solidarity, because of its lack of inertia, which allowed it to be responsive to necessary shifts in the environment.
It is difficult to live in anomie when solidarity is organic; this is because sensitivity to mutual needs fosters growth in the division of labor: 368–9 Because producers are in close proximity to customers, they can simply estimate the scope of the demands that must be met.
As a result of a breakdown in organic solidarity following the shift to mechanical solidarity, Durkheim described the situation of anomie as follows: 368–9 However, if an opaque environment is introduced, relationships become infrequent, are not replicated frequently enough, and are too intermittent.
The manufacturer can no longer embrace the market at a look, or even in thinking, since the market has become too complex.
The result is that output becomes uncontrolled and unregulated.
More precisely, its reluctance to change generates disruptive cycles of collective behavior (e.g., economics) since it necessitates the accumulation of sufficient force or momentum over a lengthy period of time in order to overcome the inertia that exists.
But such anomie, or normlessness or norm rigidity, was caused by a lack of differential adaptation, which would have allowed norms to evolve naturally as a result of self-regulation, either to develop norms where none existed or to change norms that had become rigid and out of date in the first place.
Merton, in 1938, anomie and deviance were related, and he argued that the discontinuity between culture and structure had the dysfunctional consequence of resulting in deviation in society.
According to his classification, there are five forms of deviation based on the acceptance or rejection of societal goals and the institutionalized ways of accomplishing them.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the termanomie— “are borrowed with the French spelling ofanomy”—comes from the Greek wordnoma(o, ‘lawlessness’), which includes the privative alphaprefix(a-, ‘without’), andnomos(os, ‘law’). There was a distinction made by the Greeks between nomos and arché(,’starting rule, axiom, principle’). Even if a amonarch is a solitary king, he may still be subject to, and not immune from the rules of law, which is known as nomos (rule of law). Because it was a rule-based, customary system, themajority rule was a component of arché in the first city state democracy, which may or may not have been able to pass laws (i.e., nomos).
Because of the present English interpretation of the wordanomie, it is possible to use the term ” norm ” with greater freedom, and some people have utilized the concept of normlessness to describe a condition that is comparable to the concept of anarchy.
The termanomie was coined by the nineteenth-century French pioneer sociologist Émile Durkheim, who took it from the French philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau.
When the surrounding society has experienced significant changes in its economic fortunes, whether for the better or for the worse as well as, more generally, when there is a significant disparity between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and what is actually achievable in everyday life, he believes that anomie is likely to occur.
- Traditional faiths, in Durkheim’s opinion, frequently served as the foundation for the common ideals that the anomic individual had.
- Robert King Merton also used the concept of anomie to further expand his theory of strain, which he defined as the disparity between common social goals and the lawful methods of achieving those objectives.
- This would lead to the individual exhibiting aberrant conduct as a result of the situation.
- University students’ anomie and academic dishonesty, according to one academic study, was supported by psychometric testing, suggesting that institutions needed to create codes of ethics among students in order to reduce the problem.
An earlier version, according to the 1913Webster’s Dictionary, is anomie, which is defined as “disregard or disobedience of the law.” It should be noted that anomie as a social disorder should not be confused with anarchy: anarchists assert that anarchy does not inevitably lead to anomie and that hierarchical authority actually encourages lawlessness.
Freda Adler invented the term “synnomie” to describe the polar opposite of “anomie.” Adler defined synnomie as “a congruence of standards to the point of harmonic accommodation,” drawing on Emile Durkheim’s concepts of social solidarity and collective awareness as his starting point. Society in a synnomie condition, according to Adler, is “marked by norm conformance, cohesiveness, intact social controls, and norm integration,” among other characteristics. Social institutions such as the family, church, and communities play an important role in maintaining an asynnomic society by serving as sources of norms and social regulation.
Meursault, the bored and alienated protagonist of Albert Camus’s sexistentialist book The Stranger, attempts to establish an own system of values as a response to the extinction of the old. As seen by the disinterest expressed in the first words, he lives in a state of anomie for the most part: “Maman is no longer alive as of today. “I don’t know if it was today or not, but my mother passed away.” I’m not sure if it was yesterday or today “If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me at [email protected].
The Grand Inquisitor observes that, in the absence of God and eternal life, everything would be permissible according to the law.
- Gerber, John J. Macionis, Linda M. Gerber, John J. Macionis, Linda M. (2010). Sociology is the study of people (7th Canadian ed.). ISBN 978-0-13-700161-3
- “anomie.” Toronto, Canada: Pearson Canada, p. 97.ISBN 978-0-13-700161-3
- Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
- Jeanne Nickell Knutson and Nickell Knutson (1972). The Human Foundations of Politics: A Psychological Investigation of Political Leaders Treatises on social psychology written by Aldine. Atherton, Aldine et al. (p.146). ISBN 9780202240404. Retrieved on the 27th of October, 2019. According to de Grazia and Merton, such anomie is not caused by a lack of laws, but rather by a clash between the commands of two opposing belief systems
- Terry Long and Terry Robertson are two of the most well-known members of the Terry Long and Terry Robertson family (24 January 2019). “Youth Development and Therapeutic Recreation” is the title of this article. Foundations of Therapeutic Recreation: Perceptions, Philosophies, and Practices is a book published by the American Psychological Association. Human Kinetics, ISBN 978-1-4925-4367-1, published online 6 December 2019. Dean, Dwight G.
- Reeves, Jon A.
- Dean, Dwight G. (1962). “Anomie: A Comparison of a Catholic and a Protestant Sample” is a research paper published in the journal Anomie. Sociometry, volume 25, number 2, pages 209–212. Metrovi, Stjepan Gabriel
- Doi: 10.2307/2785951.JSTOR2785951
- Metrovi, Stjepan Gabriel (1988). Emile Durkheim and the Reformation of Sociology is a book written by Emile Durkheim. ‘G’ stands for the Reference, Information, and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. ISBN 9780847678679. Published by Rowman & Littlefield in 1993. Page 60. ISBN 9780847678679. Retrieved on the 27th of October, 2019. Parsons (1937) and Merton (1938) were the first to articulate a modern understanding of Durkheim’s idea of anomie as ‘normlessness’ (1957). However, Durkheim never used the term ‘normlesness’ in his writings. Stjepan Mestrovic is the author of this work (1993). It is possible to purchase Emile Durkheim and the Reformation of Sociology (ISBN 9780847678679) on Amazon. Roger Cotterrell is the author of this work (1999). Emile Durkheim’s Law in a Moral Domain is a fascinating read. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, p. 19.ISBN0804738238.OCLC43421884
- P. 19.ISBN0804738238.OCLC43421884
- Susan Leigh Star, Geoffrey C. Bowker, and Laura J. Neumann collaborated on this project (2003). “Transparency at Different Scales: Convergence between Information Artifacts and Social Worlds” is the title of the paper. The Use of Digital Libraries: Social Practice in the Design and Evaluation Process. MIT Press, ISBN 9780262025447
- Abc.com Durkheim, Émile. “The Division of Labor in Society,” published in 1964. a free and independent press
- “Social Structure and Anomie,” by Robert K. Merton, published in 1938. American Sociological Review.3(5): 672–82.doi: 10.2307/2084686.JSTOR2084686
- Harper, Douglas. “anomie.” Online Etymology Dictionary
- Harper, Douglas. “anomy.” Online Etymology Dictionary
- Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott. 1940. ” o.” Online Etymology Dictionary
- Lidde HS Jones and R. McKenzie edited A Greek–English Lexicon, which is available online. Ewing, Michael T., and Albert Caruana, of the Perseus Project
- Ramaseshan, B
- And Ramaseshan, B. (2000). Anomie’s impact on academic dishonesty among university students is the subject of this study. In: International Journal of Educational Management, Volume 14, Numbers 23–30 (doi: 10.1108/09513540010310378)
- Graham M. S. Dann (March–April 1977)
- Graham M. S. Dann (March–April 1977). “Anomie, ego-enhancement, and tourism” are three words that come to mind. Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 184–194, doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(77)90037-8. Travel offers the benefit of allowing the traveler to behave in a manner that would otherwise be prohibited by social convention. The tourist can overstep the bounds of fashion, tell a few stories that would normally be considered inappropriate or inappropriate, dress in flashy clothes, eat exotic food, get drunk, become more sexually permissive, alter his schedule and stay up half the night listening to loud local music, and so on
- In short, he can indulge in the kinds of behavior that would normally be considered inappropriate or improper in his home environment. A. H. Roberts and M. Rokeach published a paper in 1956 titled It is possible to replicate anomie, authoritarianism, and bigotry. American Journal of Sociology
- AbNivette, Amy E. American Journal of Sociology (2011). In “Old Ideas and New Techniques: Evaluating Freda Adler’s Theory of Low Crime and Its Implications for Criminology,” the author examines the relationship between old theories and new approaches. Journal of Theoretical Criminology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 83–99, doi: 10.1177/1362480610380103, ISSN1362-4806, S2CID145111901
- AbFrank Adler and Freda Adler (1983). Nations that are not preoccupied about crime. F.B. Rothman, ISBN 978-0-8377-0216-2
- Robert N. Wilson, ISBN 978-0-8377-0216-2 (1963). “15, Albert Camus: Personality as a Creative Struggle” is the title of the essay. According to Robert W. White (ed.). The Study of Lives: Essays on Personality in Honor of Henry A. Murray is a collection of essays on personality written in honor of Henry A. Murray (First ed.). The Atherton Prentice-Hall Company, pp. 352–359
- Michael Cromartie, Christopher Hitchens, and Peter Hitchens are all well-known writers (12 October 2010). “Can Civilization Survive in the Absence of God? Christopher and Peter Hitchens participate in a discussion” (transcript). Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan research organization. 7th of July, 2013 – retrieved According to the Brothers Karamazov, if there is no God, then everything is certainly feasible – even thinkable. Unfortunately, these are issues that affect human society as well as the human psyche — or, as some would say, the human soul — regardless of our attitude toward humanity or the transcendent.
- Durkheim, Émile, 1893, The Division of Labour in Society
- Marra, Realino, 1987, The Division of Labour in Society Suicidal ideation, legal right, and anomia Western civilization’s images of voluntary death are depicted in this work. The Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane publishing house in Napoli published a book in 1989 called Anomiebegriffe: Geschichte und Gegenwartsproblematik der Bezeichnung Orru, Marco. 1983. Zeitschrift für Rechtssoziologie 11(1):67–80
- Zeitschrift für Rechtssoziologie 11(1):67–80
- Orru, Marco. 1983. “The Ethics of Anomie: Jean Marie Guyau and Émile Durkheim,” in “The Ethics of Anomie: Jean Marie Guyau and Émile Durkheim.” Riba, Jordi, and Jordi Riba, British Journal of Sociology, vol. 34, no. 4, 1999, pp. 499–518. Jean-Marie Guyau’s Morale Anomique is a fictional character created by Jean-Marie Guyau. L’Harmattan.ISBN978-2-7384-7772-9
|Look upanomiein Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Mathieu Deflem’s essay “Anomie” was published in 2019. Core Concepts in Sociology, edited by J. Michael Ryan, is on pages 8 and 9 of the book. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey
- Deflem, Mathieu. 2015. “Anomie: A Conceptual History.” “Anomie: An Introduction.” Pages 718-721 of the International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition (Volume 1), edited by James D. Wright, are devoted to social and behavioral sciences. ‘Anomie’ is explored in the Émile Durkheim Archive, according to Featherstone, Richard, and Mathieu Deflem, in their 2003 book published by Elsevier in Oxford, United Kingdom. “Anomie and Strain: The Context and Consequences of Merton’s Two Theories.” “Anomie and Strain: The Context and Consequences of Merton’s Two Theories.” Sociological Inquiry, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 471-489, 2003.
There are questions in this quiz that come from Chapters 6 and 7. There is no time restriction on this offer. It is permissible to use resources. Choose the most appropriate responses to the questions below. If you have the ability to print, please print this page and mark the answers on the AnswerSheet, which may be found at the conclusion of this quizze. This quiz can be obtained from your teacher, ESO, or Learning Coordinator if you do not have access to a computer. Choose the most appropriate response.
Children who grow up in low-income homes are less likely to achieve academically and are less likely to graduate from high school than children who do not grow up in low-income homes, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.
True or false?
According to Merton, conformity is the social adaptation that is most closely connected with criminal activity out of the five possible adaptations.
The strain theory, the social disorganization theory, the cultural deviance theory, and the general strain theory are all examples of theories.
Strain Theory contends that criminal activity results from unequal distribution of income.
High levels of social control and social integration in cohesive communities, as well as the development of interpersonal bonds, are all factors that contribute to the development of high levels of civility in these communities.
d.a attitude of being under siege.
a.informal social control and public social control are two types of social control.
community cohesion and collective efficacy c.culturally defined objectives and socially acceptable ways of achieving them d.community cohesiveness and collective efficacy 8.
status dissatisfaction b.deprivation of youth c.juvenile constants d.anomie in adolescence In your opinion, what are the norms by which authority persons evaluate lower-class children and often prejudge them negatively?
a.principal considerations b.measuring rods of a middle-class kind c.
the absence of order; the absence of opportunity; the absence of chance; the absence of opportunity d.
True or false?
Religious engagement appears to be a more substantial deterrent to crime than just holding religious views and ideals, according to research.
True or false?
All social process theories are based on the same fundamental notion.
People are fundamentally decent in general, regardless of color, social position, or sexual orientation.
In all races, classes, and genders, criminal conduct is genetically determined.
Adolescents who did not get affection from their parents during their childhood are located in this section.
As adolescents get older, they are more prone to utilize illicit substances and become more violent.
As adolescents get older, they are more prone to become involved in violent crime.
b.Criminal conduct may be learnt in the same way that any other behavior can be.
Media exposure has an effect on criminal conduct, as seen in d.
Neutralization theory asserts thata.criminal behavior may be learnt in the same manner that conformity can be learned, and as this is true.
c.criminality is a result of having a negative self-concept and having low self-esteem.
Laboratory hypothesis acknowledges that crime is an illness or that it is a pathological behavior.
Individuals and their conduct are shaped by their relationships with others, according to labeling theory.
Labeling theorists believe that parents are to fault for the development of criminal professions.
a.friends b.grandparents c.parents d.other relatives d.teachers Answers on a sheet Course Name _Student Name _Last four digits of Social Security Number ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###