- 1 Culture definition
- 2 what elements make up culture
- 3 What are the elements of culture in world geography?
- 4 What are the components of cultural diversity?
- 5 What is the example of material culture?
- 6 What is culture and its components?
- 7 What makes a good culture?
- 8 What elements contribute to a person’s cultural identity?
- 9 What are the elements of culture Slideshare?
- 10 What are the 2 types of culture?
- 11 How do you create a culture?
- 12 What elements contribute to the overall culture of an organization?
- 13 What kind of culture is there?
- 14 What are the elements of society?
- 15 What is symbol in elements of culture?
- 16 Which of the following is a common component of culture?
- 17 What are the key elements of corporate culture?
- 18 What five components make up culture and which do you think is the most important in defining culture Why quizlet?
- 19 Why is the element of culture important?
- 20 What are the elements of culture ap human geography?
- 21 What are the two geographic elements in defining culture?
- 22 Major Elements that Define Culture
- 23 What Makes Up Your Company Culture?
- 24 What Makes Up Your Culture?
- 25 How Do You See Culture
- 26 Enculturation: Helping New Employees
- 27 Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists
- 28 How Sociologists Define Culture
- 29 Why Culture Matters to Sociologists
- 30 Examples of Culture
- 31 Culture Linked to Geography
- 32 Identifying Examples of Cultures Around You
- 33 Recognizing Examples of Culture
- 34 Culture Shock
- 35 Understanding Culture
- 36 Chapter 8: The Characteristics of Culture
- Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the cultural influence of gender on identity, because one’s own impression and attitudes toward her gender have a significant impact on the construction of one’s own identity, which is in turn greatly influenced by, and therefore related to, one’s culture. As a thank you to my classmate Victoria Brown for her contribution to the research that was used in this paper, I would like to express my gratitude to her. American citizens’ sense of independence and autonomy has had an impact on the construction of their cultural identities, resulting in Americans being ambitious and success-oriented as a result. ‘The American Woman’ magazine ran from 1992 to 1993. According to RiesStone (1993), “women have been making their way onto the stage from their traditional positions in the audience or in the wings as sweaty stagehands.” Female supporting roles and cameos in public drama will become less common in the coming years, while female principal roles will become more prevalent. The presence of university students among American women is commonplace, and their presence is typically associated with aspiration and social prominence. The role of mother is traditionally (and automatically) assigned to American women because they bear children. This influences the type of work a woman does and her position in the community. In 1972, Anne Oakeley introduced the concept of sex and gender, which has since become a useful analytical tool for clarifying ideas, and which has now been adopted nearly universally. As a result of this distinction, sex is associated with biology, whereas the gender identities of men and women in any given society are determined by social and psychological factors (which includes historical and cultural factors). Sexe is determined by biological and physical factors such as the presence or absence of chromosomes, external and internal genitalia, hormonal status or the presence of secondary sex characteristics. However, in order to determine gender, it is necessary to take into account social and cultural perceptions of masculine and feminine traits and roles. A significant, but not complete, correlation exists between female sex and feminine gender, and a correlation exists between male sex and masculine gender. Similarly, Gender is learned through a process of socialization as well as through the culture of the particular society in which one is born. Boy’s toys (guns for boys, dolls for girls), parental discipline, the kinds of jobs or careers to which they might aspire, and the portrayal of men and women in the media are all examples of how many cultures encourage boys to engage in acts considered to display male characteristics (and girls vice versa). It is at birth that children discover their gender. In order to be perceived as either masculine or feminine by others and themselves, they learn how to act and behave in certain situations. Throughout their lives, parents, teachers, peers, their culture, and society serve to reinforce this belief. Although every society recognizes biological sex as one criterion for defining gender, no two cultures would completely agree on what distinguishes one gender from the other after that basic starting point has been established. As a result, gender roles differ significantly from one culture to the next. Although the division of labor between the sexes is best explained by gender, societies use the fact that reproduction is based on a universal biological difference between the male and female sex as a basis for allocating other tasks. They are assigned according to the convenience and precedents of the particular culture, and they determine the masculine and feminine roles in the workplace: ‘ 224 societies (most of them preliterate) were studied by Professor George Murdock, who discovered that there is a strong tendency to segregate economic activities in one way or another based on sex. He proposes that some activities are more often associated with men than with women, based on a list of 46 different activities. Cooking is an exclusively feminine activity in 158 societies and an exclusively masculine activity in 5. Lumbering, on the other hand, is an exclusively masculine activity in 104 societies and an exclusively feminine activity in 6 societies. Hunting, fishing, weapon-making, boat-building, and mining are all considered masculine activities, whereas grinding grain and transporting water are considered feminine activities, respectively. Preparing the soil, planting, tending, and harvesting the crops, ‘burden bearing,’ and body mutilation are examples of activities that are less consistently assigned to one sex. The year is 1972 and Oakley is the author of the following work: It is common to find women engaged in productive as well as reproductive activities across a wide range of sectors of society. There is no doubt about the fact that women play an important role in biological reproduction, childbirth, and nursing. Although it is a false stereotype that because it is “in the biological nature” of women to bear children, it is a natural “biological” outcome for their lifetimes that women should be required to do all of the housekeeping and domestic activities, this is not the case. Sexual division of labor is practiced in all households, and it includes both reproductive and productive activities. However, the workload associated with domestic activities that “reproduce” or “maintain” daily life is primarily assigned to women, whereas the workload associated with more extroverted and distant income-generating activities is primarily assigned to males. There is no doubt that the distribution of labor and the rights to dispose of the income generated by that labor is a social rather than a biological phenomenon (Ostergaard, 1992). Similarly, in some societies men play an important role in childrearing as well: ‘The Arapesh, for example, believe that the business of bearing and rearing a child belongs to both the father and the mother equally, and that this disqualifies them from other roles in the same manner. Baby-making and baby-having are terms that are used to refer to both men and women, and the phrase “to bear a child” can refer to either. According to popular belief, childbearing is just as physically and mentally draining on men as it is on women. As soon as the kid is born, the father is referred to as being “bearing a baby.” They are notorious for their ignorance about the biological function of the father in reproduction, but they insist on the need of the father sharing all responsibilities associated with raising children with his wife. The year is 1972 and Oakley is the author of the following work: As a result, we can observe that tasks and the division of labor are not related to the sex of the persons involved, and as a result, they are not universally applicable to one sex across cultures, but are rather distinctive to each society. As a result, gender is influenced by cultural differences. Women’s and men’s roles differ not just from one culture to another, but they also differ through time within civilizations
- Culture is not static, but rather evolves. Men and women’s roles in increasingly complex society are shaped not just by cultural traditions, but also by socio-political and economic considerations. The year is 1991, and Brett is the author of the following article: Women’s responsibilities vary from culture to society, and their condition is influenced by factors such as law, religious standards, economic standing or class, cultural values, ethnicity, and the forms of productive activity carried out in a country, a community, or a family. Cooking, supplying food, and other home activities are often performed by women. They are also responsible for child care and family health. Their contribution to the family’s productive activities, including farming, paid domestic work, services, industries, and other sources of money, is significant in the majority of cultures. Others have definite positions in the community in various civilizations. Women have frequently been harmed by the growth process in each of these areas: reproduction, production, and the community, to name a few. There is a significant disparity between women’s high economic engagement, which goes mostly unnoticed, and their limited political and social influence, and development initiatives have traditionally begun with the requirements of the most outspoken and politically engaged women. Because women’s work is less mobile than men’s labor, they are more negatively affected by the development process. In the opinion of Collier et al. (1994), four main factors explain for why women experience unequal restrictions in their economic activities. Difficulties in the labor and financial markets are the initial step in this process. For the second, we must consider the replication of gender role models: economic possibilities that are first pursued by males are distributed throughout a male population via a mechanism that does not transfer them to the female population. Lastly, the third phase results from the unequal rights and duties of men and women in the home. It is the fourth reason that women are inflexible, as reproduction places additional demands on their time and health. Female participation is therefore concentrated in industries that are less affected by these limitations. The Japanese Woman states that “Japanese women think that men and women may be equal as people despite the fact that men and women are different in disposition, conduct, and genetics. The author (Iwao) describes this as follows: Women and men have distinct roles in Japan, and these roles are present to a lesser level in the United States, according to the author. Both nations’ views about employment and job mobility are evidence of this disparity. The prevalent sentiments held by women in the United States and Japan are diametrically opposed to one another. The concept that “women should leave working when children are born but return to work when they are old enough to require less care” was shown to have widespread support among Japanese men and women in a 1987 study (Iwao, p 163), with 43 percent of men and 52 percent of women supporting the notion. Originally published by the Prime Minister’s Office in 1987 Women should be able to continue working even after delivering birth, according to another option that received a higher level of approval from Americans (43 percent overall). 1987 (Prime Minister’s Office) Because women in Japan are not regarded similarly with males, the professional alternatives available to them are dichotomous: they may either pursue full-time professions at the expense of their marriage and family, or they can pursue part-time occupations that they will abandon once their children are born and married. Several researchers, including Iwao (1993) and Tanaka (1995), have examined the relationship between the two. In Japan, although many women work, many of them do it part-time while raising a family or after their children have graduated from high school. The lack of incentive to work because the male is the breadwinner, the need for a woman to raise the family due of the lack of assistance from her husband, and the discrimination experienced by many Japanese women who attempt to pursue a profession in Japan are all possible explanations (Iwao, 172-176). 68 percent of respondents agreed that part-time employment is preferable to full-time job because it is “better compatible with home responsibilities and childcare” and “allows for flexible and convenient working hours” (68 percent agree) On page 174 of Iwao’s book, the author states that Differences exist amongst cultures when it comes to how they deal with gender issues. In one approach, initiatives and programs are developed to make life ‘easier’ for women and to assist them in carrying out their gender responsibilities. “Women’s work” encompasses not only (1.) reproductive work (childbearing and rearing obligations) that are necessary to ensure the survival and reproduction of the labor force, but also (2.) productive work that is commonly performed as secondary income earners in low-income homes. Aside from that, women are participating in (3.) community management work that is carried out at the local community level in both urban and rural settings. As long as the triple function of women is not acknowledged, the reality that women, in contrast to males, are severely confined by the burden of balancing the demands of reproductive, productive, and community-managing labor is overlooked. Furthermore, only labor that is considered productive is classified as such. It is considered ‘natural’ to perform reproductive and community management tasks, which are hence undervalued. Females suffer as a result of this, which is really significant. The result is that the vast majority, if not the entirety, of the job they perform is rendered invisible and so unrecognized. Men’s work, on the other hand, is highly appreciated, either directly via monetary compensation or indirectly through social standing and political influence. In Moser (1991), the term “responsibility” refers to the ability to recognize and respond to adversity in a timely manner. Creating false assumptions can lead to delusional thinking and ultimately to illogical behavior. As an ironic result of the ‘determinism’ that goes hand in hand with the belief in ‘the biological character of women,’ women are routinely viewed as a minority group, despite the fact that they account for more than half of the world’s population. Too many public papers contain phrases such as “This is meant for women, adolescents, and other special groups” or “this is intended for women, children, and disabled.” Consequently, being female is linked with having an irreversible disability
- As a result, women are relegated or excluded “because of biological reasons.” They have not only dominated public opinion, but they have also influenced social scientists to view sex differences as outside the scope of social analysis, obstructing their understanding of the sociological and historical roots of gender relations until relatively recently, a situation that has changed. REFERENCE BRETT, A. A. SBRETT, A. BRETT (1991). When it comes to development, gender matters. Changing Perceptions: Writings on Gender Development is a collection of essays that examines how people perceive women and men differently (pp. 2-4) Oxfam International is based in Oxford, England. In ‘Gender dimensions of labor allocation during structural adjustment’, by P. Collier, A.C. Edwards, J. Roberts, and K. Bardhan. Volume 1 of Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment, edited by S.Horton, R.Kanbur, and D.Mazumdar (Washington, DC: Economic Development Institute of the World Bank), pp. 277-307 (in English). C.O.N. Moser is an acronym that stands for Certified Organizational Neuropsychologist (1991). Changing Perceptions: Writings on Gender Development is a collection of essays that examines how people perceive women and men differently (pp. 158-159) Oxfam International is based in Oxford, England. A. Oakley is a British author who lives in Australia (1987). Relationships between men and women as well as between men and women in society GOWER PUBLISHING CO., LTD., Aldershot, UK The author, L. Ostergaard, is the editor of this publication (1992). This book is a practical guide on gender development. Routledge, London. Josei ni kansuru chosa (Women’s Survey) is an initiative of the Prime Minister’s Office. 1986 – Cabinet meeting in the Prime Minister’s Office Ries, P., and Stone, A.J. (eds.) for the Woman’s Research and Education Institute (1993). From 1992 through 1993, The American Woman was published monthly. RTI (Royal Tropical Institute) and W.W. Norton (Eds.) published a book in New York called “The Royal Tropics” (1995). Gender, Society Development, and the Advancement of Women’s Status. Men and women at the same place? KIT Press (Amsterdam) Yukiko Tanaka is a Japanese actress and singer who has appeared in several films. Japanese women in contemporary portraiture. Praeger, Westport, Connecticut: Connecticuit, 1995. *Note to Eugene: I did not utilize any web resources in this work since I couldn’t locate anything that was beneficial to me on the internet. As much as I appreciate and appreciate being able to access information on the internet, I felt it was wasteful to reference a website that I didn’t utilize solely to fulfill a requirement for the paper. Even while the internet is available to serve as an extra resource, it was of little assistance to me, and the books that I’ve listed here included more than enough material.
- Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
- The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
- Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
- In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
- A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
- While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.
- Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
- Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
- Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
- Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
- Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.
The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with. At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:
- The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
- On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.
MOUNTING CULTURAL DIFFERENCESA variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or multivariate methodologies, depending on the situation. After the domain of a concept has been empirically sampled, a single-measure technique is used to measure its domain; a composite-measure technique is used to construct an index for the concept after several indicators have been used to measure its domain after the concept has been empirically sampled. According to Hofstede (1997), a composite-measure approach has been developed to quantify cultural differences across various societies:
- It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:
- Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.
Cultures grouped together:
- Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.
There are numerous characteristics that certain nations share and which contribute to the shaping of their respective cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). On the basis of data gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations may be categorized based on their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, as opposed to when going from one cluster to another, less changes may be predicted.
- It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.
Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.
- However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
- Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
- The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
- The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
- Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
- The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
- [ENR (2003).
- [New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
- These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
- Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.
[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]
what elements make up culture
- Language, communication, the transmission of beliefs, and the perpetuation of culture are all important. Institution. Schools,church’s,military
- Technology. Water, bridges, and a cell phone are all necessities. Religion. What your life’s purpose is, and what you believe in
- Customs/beliefs. Things that individuals do for a reason, such as what they dress or eat, as well as special occasions
What are the elements of culture in world geography?
Language, religion, different economic and governmental structures, art, music, and other cultural aspects are some of the most important cultural phenomena studied in cultural geography. These phenomena help to explain how and/or why people function in the environments in which they live, and they are studied in depth.
What are the components of cultural diversity?
Cultural diversity (also known as multiculturalism) refers to a collection of persons who come from a variety of different cultures or social groups. Language, religion, race, sexual orientation, gender, age, and ethnicity are all taken into consideration while discussing cultural diversity.
What is the example of material culture?
Material culture includes all tools, weapons, utensils, machinery, ornaments, art, structures, monuments, written records, religious imagery, clothes, and any other ponderable items created or used by humans, as well as any other ponderable objects made or used by animals.
What is culture and its components?
A culture is made up of a number of different aspects or components. Mores, folkways, customs, traditions, laws, morality, stereotypes, taboos, tales, fashion, myth, and other patterns of group behavior are examples of such patterns. 2. Literature, which includes prose, poetry, theater, and short stories, among other things. Music, dance, sculpture, paintings, architecture, photography, and other forms of art are all included.
What makes a good culture?
A positive culture develops as a result of messages that encourage characteristics such as teamwork, honesty, and hard effort. Principals have the ability to affect each of the following five intertwined elements: fundamental beliefs and assumptions, which are the things that individuals at your school believe to be true; shared values; shared goals; and shared expectations.
What elements contribute to a person’s cultural identity?
The formation of cultural identities is impacted by a variety of elements such as one’s religious beliefs and ancestry; skin color; language; social status; education; occupation; skill; family; and political sentiments. These elements all contribute to the formation of one’s own identity.
Several diverse elements impact one’s cultural identity, such as one’s religious beliefs and heritage, skin color, language, socioeconomic status, education, career, skill, family, and political views. A person’s identity is formed as a result of a combination of variables.
- What exactly is culture? Religion, language, art, and literature, as well as political structures and economic systems, are all included in this section. Customs and traditions are examples of cultural elements. Rules of Behavior are notions of what is proper and wrong that are enforced. …
- Religion Answers to the most fundamental questions regarding the nature of existence
What are the 2 types of culture?
Material culture, which refers to tangible items generated by a community, and nonmaterial culture, which refers to intangible things produced by a society, are the two fundamental categories of culture.
How do you create a culture?
The Eight Crucial Steps to Creating a Winning Organizational Culture
- Learn from your mistakes.
- Develop a company culture that is consistent with your fundamental beliefs. .
- Surround yourself with wonderful individuals who enhance your abilities. .
- Have a good time. …
- Inviting others to sip the Kool-Aid is a good idea. .
- Collaborate with others. .
- Keep your culture alive and carefully evolve it
What elements contribute to the overall culture of an organization?
Organizations must create and maintain excellent organizational cultures if they want to retain and attract high-caliber employees. The following are the five fundamental aspects that businesses must address in order to do this: purpose; ownership; community; effective communication; and competent leadership.
What kind of culture is there?
Cultures may be found in a variety of different sorts of organizations. There are even subcultures within a country or target ethnic group that are distinct from one another.
Depending on where you live, you may be a member of numerous different cultures: national, subcultural (ethnic or regional, gender-based, religious, generational, or socioeconomic), and group or workplace culture (corporate culture).
What are the elements of society?
The following characteristics are present in society:
- Likeness: The basic basis of mutuality among members of a social group is the similarity of their personalities. In addition, there is the Reciprocal Awareness: Similarity is a generator of reciprocity. .
- Dissimilarities: A sense of similarity is not always adequate. .
- Interdependence: ADVERTISEMENTS:.
What is symbol in elements of culture?
Likeness: The basic basis of mutuality among members of a social group is their shared likeness. Aspects of reciprocity include: the Reciprocal Awareness: Similarity is a source of reciprocity. Differentiation: A sense of similarity is not necessarily enough to establish a connection. .; Interdependence: ADVERTISEMENTS:.; Cooperation:.; Disagreement:
Which of the following is a common component of culture?
What are the five components of culture that are universally recognized? Symbols, language, values, beliefs, social norms, and ideal culture are all examples of ideal culture.
What are the key elements of corporate culture?
In terms of culture, what are the five elements that are universally accepted. A culture’s symbolism is expressed through its language, its values, its beliefs, its norms, and its ideals.
- Community. When circumstances are good, workers at Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For® feel a sense of belonging that allows them to win together—and remain together when times are rough. …
- sFairness. Humans place a great importance on fairness in their interactions with others. Innovation.
- Trustworthiness in management.
- Carefulness in the workplace.
What five components make up culture and which do you think is the most important in defining culture Why quizlet?
Create a list of the five common components of all human culture, and explain why they are important. The five components are symbols, language, values, beliefs, and norms. Do you have a preference on which component is the most important? Why? Symbols-Anything that conveys a specific meaning that is recognized by individuals who share a common culture (for example, a flag).
Why is the element of culture important?
The first, and arguably most important, aspects of culture that we shall consider are the values and beliefs held by the people who inhabit it. Values are the gold standard by which a culture determines what is right and wrong in society. Values are deeply ingrained in a culture and are essential for the transmission and teaching of that culture’s ideas.
What are the elements of culture ap human geography?
Unit 3 of the AP® Human Geography course covers culture, which includes topics such as diffusion, religion, language, race, and ethnicity.
What are the two geographic elements in defining culture?
Identify and provide a brief explanation of the 7 Elements of Cultural Diversity. The term “geography” refers to a mix of physical and human elements that contribute to the development of the environment in which they are situated. Political and economic systems are governed by a central authority. The third point is that religion may help individuals address fundamental concerns about the meaning and purpose of life.
Major Elements that Define Culture
Who and what are the twelve aspects of culture? What are the 5 aspects of culture? What are some instances of elements of culture? What are some elements of culture? The following are ten aspects of culture: Culture is comprised of six aspects. There are four components to culture. What are the eight characteristics of culture? See more entries in the FAQ category.
What Makes Up Your Company Culture?
Are you interested in having a clear understanding of what your workers are referring to when they talk about your company’s workplace culture? The work atmosphere that you provide for your staff is referred to as company culture. Employees are more motivated, happier, and more pleased when their needs and beliefs are compatible with those reflected in the workplace culture that you have created. Beginning with the initial application a potential employee submits to your business and continuing until the person is employed, both the employer and the prospective employee strive to discover if the candidate is a suitable cultural fit for the organization.
Culture refers to the setting in which you spend the most of your time at work.
In contrast to this, culture is something that cannot be observed directly, other than through its tangible expressions in the workplace.
While your firm has a distinct culture that has been formed by the workers that work for you, each new employee brings their own unique perspective to the table, enriching the overall work environment.
As a result, while a culture already exists when a new employee starts, he or she quickly becomes a part of the culture that all of the employees at the company are experiencing.
What Makes Up Your Culture?
Culture is similar to a person’s personality. The personality of a person is made up of the values, beliefs, underlying assumptions, interests, experiences, upbringing, and habits that shape the way that person behaves and interacts with the world. Among a group of people’s common values, beliefs, underlying assumptions, attitudes, and actions are those that are referred to be their culture. Culture is the behavior that develops when a group of people agrees on a set of norms for how they will interact with one another in the workplace.
It is the sum of all of the life experiences that each employee contributes to the workplace that makes up your company culture.
Middle managers are particularly important in the development of your organizational culture because they serve as the glue that ties all of your employees together in a way that allows them to receive information and guidance from upper management.
How Do You See Culture
Culture is similar to a person’s personality in many ways. The personality of a person is made up of the values, beliefs, underlying assumptions, interests, experiences, upbringing, and habits that shape the way that person behaves and interacts with other people. Among a group of people’s common values, beliefs and underlying assumptions are attitudes and behaviors, and these are referred to be their culture. In the workplace, culture is the behavior that develops when a group of people agrees on a set of norms for how they will interact with one another.
Individual life experiences that each employee brings to the workplace contribute to the creation of your company’s overall culture.
Additionally, middle managers play an important role in the development of your organizational culture since they are the glue that connects all of your employees together in a way that allows them to acquire information and guidance.
- Language, decision-making, symbols and objects, myths and legends, the level of empowerment, celebrations, and daily labor routines are all discussed in further detail.
Language, decision-making, symbols and artifacts, myths and legends, the level of empowerment, celebrations, and daily labor routines are all discussed in further detail below.
Enculturation: Helping New Employees
enculturation is a socialization process that helps new employees acclimate to and become a part of their new company’s corporate culture, whether it’s in their new office, department, workgroup, or anywhere else. Through orientation or onboarding meetings, as well as other Human Resources (HR) programs, several firms assist new workers in becoming acclimated to their organization’s culture. Departments should provide new workers with a plant that will assist them in learning their new job responsibilities.
The most effective strategies also include acquainting the new employee with the most significant parts of the company’s culture. They accomplish this through various behaviors such as:
- The sharing of the organization’s mission and vision, as well as the organization’s guiding principles, and values
- Ensuring that the new employee meets with the organization’s president and other key employees so that they can communicate the company’s culture and expectations
- Providing mini-updates at 30, 60, and 90 days to see how the employee is doing
- And assigning a well-informed, thoughtful mentor or buddywho can teach and introduce the new employee to additional longer-term opportunities.
Involving new employees in enculturation activities can help you determine that they are a good cultural match for your firm, as well as engage and onboard them into your desired organizational culture.
Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists
When we talk about culture, we are referring to a wide and diversified collection of primarily immaterial elements that make up our social lives. Cultural values and beliefs are defined by sociologists as being those that individuals have in common and may be used to characterize them as a group. Language, communication, and customs are also defined by sociologists as belonging to a culture. The tangible artifacts that are shared by a community or society are also considered to be part of its culture.
How Sociologists Define Culture
Cultural understanding is one of the most significant notions in sociology because sociologists acknowledge that culture plays a critical role in our social interactions. It is critical in the formation of social interactions, the maintenance and challenge of social order, the determination of how we make sense of the world and our role in it, as well as the moulding of our everyday actions and experiences in a democratic society. Non-material as well as material components are included in its composition.
- To summarize, Using these categories as a starting point, we may say that culture is comprised of our knowledge, common sense, assumptions, and expectations.
- It is also the symbols we use to represent meaning, ideas, and concepts (what sociologists refer to as ” symbology “).
- Culture is also defined by what we do, how we act, and how we perform (for example, theater and dance).
- Religion, secular holidays, and athletic events are all examples of collective behaviors in which we engage.
- Architecture, technical devices, and apparel, among other things, are all included in this category of culture.
- Parts of material culture are more usually referred to as cultural products than they are as material culture.
- Material culture arises from and is molded by the non-material parts of culture, as well as by the material aspects of culture.
- In contrast to this, the interaction between material and non-material culture is not one-sided.
- In the case of a strong documentary film (an part of material culture), it is possible that people’s attitudes and beliefs would change (i.e.
- As a result, cultural goods have a tendency to follow patterns.
In the case of music, cinema, television, and art for example, what has gone before affects the values, beliefs, and expectations of individuals who engage with them, which in turn affects the development of further cultural goods in the future.
Why Culture Matters to Sociologists
Due to sociologists’ recognition that culture plays a critical role in our social lives, one of the most significant notions in sociology is culture. Social relationships are formed, social order is maintained and challenged, how we make sense of the world and our place in it, and how we behave and experience our daily lives in society are all influenced by our beliefs. Non-material as well as material items are included in its construction. The non-material features of culture, as defined by sociologists, are the shared values and beliefs, as well as the shared language, communication, and activities, that are shared by a group of people.
- As well as words and how we say and write them (what sociologists refer to as ” discourse “), it is the rules, conventions, regulations, and morals that control society.
- (like traffic signs and emojis, for example).
- It informs and is contained in the way we move, sit, carry our bodies, and interact with others; how we behave according on the location, time, and “audience;” and how we display our identities of race, class, gender, and sexuality, among other characteristics.
- What we call material culture is made up of the objects that humans create and utilize.
- Other categories of culture include music and literature as well as cinema and music.
- Both the tangible and non-material aspects of culture, according to sociologists, are inextricably linked.
- This means that our decisions are influenced by our values, beliefs, and knowledge (as well as the things we do together in our daily lives).
- Cultural characteristics that are not directly related to material culture can also have an impact on them.
- non-material culture).
In the case of music, cinema, television, and art for example, what has gone before affects the values, belief systems, and expectations of individuals who engage with them, which in turn impact the production of more cultural items in the future.
Examples of Culture
In general, culture may be defined as the traditions, arts, and social interactions that are unique to a certain nation, people, or other group to which individuals identify or belong. It may also be characterized as an appreciation for the arts and for human intellectual progress in other fields of study. In both perspectives, examples of culture may be a useful tool for gaining a fast knowledge of the subject matter. illustrative of culture
Culture Linked to Geography
Some features of culture are associated with a specific geographic area, such as a country or a geographic region.
National Identity (Country-Specific Culture)
Visiting a new (to you) nation and marveling at the way people in that country speak, think, and act, especially in comparison to what you’re accustomed to in your home country, is not uncommon when traveling.
- The languages of a country have an impact on its national identity and enable for successful communication. Dialects and accents can be used to distinguish between different subcultures that exist within a country. As countries approach their culture, they typically reflect this approach in how they spend their collective time, money, and energy
- This approach may also be mirrored in their legal system. Fashion, family life, and commercial interactions, among other aspects of a country’s etiquette and customs, can play an important part in shaping its culture. The use of nonverbal communication varies substantially from country to country. When viewed from a different perspective, the hard handshake that is required in the United States might be perceived as hostile. The beliefs of a country, both religious and historical in nature, are frequently at the heart of that nation’s culture
When it comes to national identity and communication, a country’s languages have a role. When it comes to identifying different subcultures that exist inside a country, dialects and accents may be quite helpful. As countries approach their culture, it is frequently mirrored in how they spend their collective time, money, and energy; it may also be represented in their legal systems. Culture may be influenced significantly by the etiquette and conventions of a nation, which might include things such as clothing, family life, and commercial activities; Country-to-country differences in nonverbal communication are substantial.
The religious and historical beliefs of a country are frequently at the heart of that country’s culture.
It’s likely that the place where you live has a distinct cultural identity, especially if you live in a somewhat large civilization like the United States. For example, in the United States, there are some cultural indicators that are shared across the country, such as a love of baseball and American football, or a fondness for apple pie and french fries. There are, nevertheless, significant cultural distinctions across different parts of the country as a whole.
- Being identified as a southern drawlor and speaking in a southern dialect helps people recognize a person as being originally from a specific region of the United States (the South). Throughout Canada, the slang vocabulary differs greatly from one location to the next. From one part of a country to another, different terms might be used to refer to the same subject in different ways. For example, carbonated beverages such as soda, pop, and soft drinks are referred to as such in different regions. Certain meals have a tendency to be connected with a specific geographical location. A deep dish pizza, for example, is the standard in Chicago, whereas a thinner crust pizza is the usual in New York
- Weather occurrences that are prevalent in a certain place are indicative of the culture of that region. Weather disasters such as hurricanes, fires, blizzard and tornadoes as well as typhoons can affect individuals in different parts of the world. Because of the way their inhabitants prefer to vote in many democratic nations, some qualities tend to be linked with areas within such countries.
Those are only a few illustrations of the cultural variances that might occur across various regions of the same nation.
Culture of Diversity
Examples of cultural variations that might occur between areas of the same nation include the following.
- The community calendar may be jam-packed with festivals and activities that bring together members of the community of many races and nationalities. Citizens who were born in other countries may be able to benefit from instructional lectures and research resources available at their local library. The possibility exists of many sporting activities available to residents of all genders, ages and abilities levels, including those who are impaired
- The agendas of municipal officials, local companies, and religious groups may encourage a wide range of attractive retail, educational, and religious activities
- Nevertheless, this is not guaranteed. Classes in community education that are specifically designed for foreign language acquisition may be easily available at reasonable prices. Diverse neighborhoods with a high concentration of immigrants are more likely to celebrate cultural diversity. Every September, for example, the city of New York stages a distinctive Caribbean Carnival.
Those activities would be exemplified as manifestations of a diverse culture in a community. Some communities are extremely accepting of differences and strive to be inclusive of all members. This frequently results in instances of cultural dissemination.
Identifying Examples of Cultures Around You
Everywhere you look, there are examples of culture to be found.
Working culture may be demonstrated in a multitude of ways, including how people dress, how offices are constructed, how workers are treated, and the manner in which a company incorporates its culture into its goods and services, as well as the manner in which it portrays itself to consumers.
- The design of an office might be either informal or formal. To foster a sense of equality among employees as well as comfort and productivity, employees may be encouraged to dress in a more informal manner. On important milestones in workers’ life, such as their birthdays, weddings, births, and funerals of family members, management may demonstrate a caring and friendly attitude by giving them cards and presents. Customer service excellence, personal acknowledgement of valued customers, and business participation in community and philanthropic organizations are all examples of how a caring culture may be presented
- There may be a cultural connection between the design and placement of the offices, with senior personnel having larger offices or cubicles that are the furthest away from the entrance.
The attitudes and behaviors of your coworkers are examples of the corporate culture that exists at your workplace.
Popular culture is determined by the activities of the general public. A person’s popular culture may be defined by what they listen to, what they read, what they dress, and how they communicate with others.
- Popular culture is determined by the activities of citizens. A person’s popular culture may be defined by what they listen to, what they read, what they dress, and how they speak.
Almost everything on this list is an example of popular culture. Trends may shift in an instant; what is today’s pop culture craze could be yesterday’s news in the blink of an eye.
High Culture and Sophisticated Taste
In addition to the traditional meaning of culture, which refers to the attitudes and ideas held by a whole group of people, there is another definition of culture as well. This term is associated with high culture. In this context, possessing what has come to be characterized as refined taste in the fine arts or humanities is referred to as having “culture.” Examples of this type of culture include the following:
- An appreciation for opera
- A love of classical music
- Taking pleasure in the ballet
- Seeing and admiring art displays
- Reading excellent literature, particularly the classics
- And so on. Gourmet cuisine is something to be admired. superb wine knowledge and competence at a sophisticated level
It is sometimes referred to as “cultured” to describe those who have an appreciation for such things. Ironically, persons who enjoy this form of culture are more likely than others to be critical of popular culture. People who are perceived to be members of the so-called “cultural elite” may choose to distance themselves from popular culture or from what is believed to be standard practice in society.
Recognizing Examples of Culture
You may not consider yourself to be exposed to these many forms of culture on a daily basis, but you instinctively understand that certain attitudes, thoughts, and ideas exist when you visit a certain location, even if you do not think about it. In addition, you can detect the difference between other civilizations just by looking at them.
- When you visit a stuffy and formal law office, the experience is going to be very different than when you visit a casual digital start-up. Invariably, traveling to a modern city like Amsterdam will feel different than traveling to an extremely conservative nation like a Muslim country in the Middle East.
Throughout your day you are exposed to a wide range of attitudes, feelings, ideas, and items that are all manifestations of culture. These examples are related to the form of culture that may be characterized simply as a group of people’s common attitudes, values, and beliefs.
This form of culture is vital because it helps you learn how to think, act, and feel in a way that is acceptable to the majority of people in society. The reason for experiencing culture shock when you suddenly relocate to a new nation or begin interacting with a new group of individuals who have quite different attitudes and beliefs from those you are accustomed to is also explained.
It is critical to understand the various meanings and forms of culture that exist. When you consider various instances of culture, you gain a greater awareness of the world around you, as well as the ideas, beliefs, and values that you encounter on a daily basis. Investigate how slang impacts the English language in order to have a better understanding of culture and its impact. Reviewing this dictionary of major terminology in cultural anthropology can help you improve your abilities to discuss and explain cultures.
Chapter 8: The Characteristics of Culture
Chapter 8: The Characteristics of a Cultural Tradition A hundred anthropologists will give you a hundred different definitions of culture if you ask them to do so. However, the majority of these definitions would highlight basically the same things: that culture is shared, that it is transferred via learning, and that it serves to form behavior and beliefs in people.
In all four subfields, culture is a topic of discussion, and whereas our oldest ancestors depended mostly on biological adaptation, culture now molds humans to a far greater level.
- “Culture, or civilization, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society,” wrote Tylor in 1871. “Culture, or civilization, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”
- A society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values and perceptions, which are utilized to make sense of experience and create conduct and which are mirrored in that behavior, according to the book (147), are defined as culture.
- Culture is ubiquitous across all human groups, and it may even be found among certain criminals. The physical, emotional, and social needs of its members must be met
- New members must be assimilated
- Disputes must be resolved
- And members must be encouraged to survive. Society must strike a balance between the demands of the whole and the needs of the individual member
- The suppression of human needs may lead to the breakdown of social structures, as well as the accumulation of personal stress that becomes too great to bear. Every culture has its own techniques of balancing the requirements of society with the needs of individuals
- Nevertheless, there is no universal method. Subcultures are groups inside a larger culture that have different patterns of learnt and shared behavior (ethnicities, races, genders, age categories, etc.) within it. Despite their individual characteristics, members of subcultures nevertheless have a lot in common with the rest of the population. There are subcultures in most state-level systems because those systems are pluralistic, which means that they include more than one ethnic group or culture.
Culture has five fundamental characteristics: it is learnt, it is shared, it is built on symbols, it is integrated, and it is dynamic in nature. These fundamental characteristics are shared by all civilizations.
- Culture is something that is learned. It is not a biological trait
- We do not acquire it through genetics. A large part of learning culture is unconsciously constructed. Families, peers, institutions, and the media are all places where we learn about culture. Enculturation is the term used to describe the process of becoming acquainted with a new culture. While all people have fundamental biological requirements such as food, sleep, and sex, the manner in which we meet those needs differs from one culture to the next
- Culture is shared by all cultures. Our ability to act in socially proper ways and predict how others will respond is enhanced by the fact that we share a common cultural heritage with other members of our group. Despite the fact that culture is shared, this does not imply that culture is homogeneous (the same). Following is a more in-depth discussion of the several cultural realms that exist in any civilization. Symbols serve as the foundation of culture. A symbol is something that represents or represents something else. Symbols differ from culture to culture and are completely random. They have significance only when the people who live in a culture agree on how to use them. Language, money, and art are all used as symbolic representations. Language is the most essential symbolic component of culture
- Culture and language are inextricably linked. This is referred to as holism, which refers to the interconnectedness of the many components of a culture. All aspects of a culture are interconnected, and in order to properly grasp a culture, one must become familiar with all of its components, rather than just a few
- Culture is dynamic. Simply said, cultures interact and evolve as a result of interaction. Because most civilizations are in contact with one another, they are able to share ideas and symbolic representations. It is inevitable that cultures evolve
- Otherwise, they would have difficulty adjusting to new settings. Furthermore, because cultures are intertwined, if one component of the system changes, it is probable that the entire system will need to adapt as well
CULTURE AND ADAPTATION ARE IMPORTANT Humans’ biological adaptation is vital, but they have grown to rely increasingly on cultural adaptation as a means of surviving. However, not all adaptation is beneficial, and not all cultural behaviors are beneficial in the long run. Some aspects of a society, such as fast food, pollution, nuclear waste, and climate change, may be deemed unfit for human survival. However, because culture is flexible and dynamic, once issues are identified, culture may evolve again, this time in a more positive way, in order to discover a solution.
In ethnocentrism, someone believes that their own culture is the only right way to behave and adapt to new situations.
- Because most persons feel that their culture is the greatest and only way to live, there are tiny levels of ethnocentrism found all across the world
- Yet, ethnocentrism is not widespread. Although it may be beneficial in small doses to instill a feeling of cultural pride and strengthen cohesive communities, when pushed to extremes, and especially when combined with an inability to be tolerant, it can prove harmful. Despite the fact that ethnocentrism lies at the core of colonization and genocide, cultural anthropologists have advocated for cultural relativism, the notion that all civilizations must be understood in terms of their own values and beliefs rather than by the standards of another society. According to this notion, no culture is superior to another, and civilizations can only be appraised on the basis of their ability to suit the requirements of their own populations.
The majority of people belong to a number of different cultural realms. Culture may be found on a variety of levels. Subcultures are the term used to describe tiny cultures that exist within a larger culture. People have some sort of connection to that subculture, but they must also be able to function well within the greater culture in order to be successful. Among subcultures, we notice a great deal of variation based on factors such as social class, race, ethnicity, age, and gender, among other things.
- Depending on their economic standing in society, people are classified into several social categories. Not all cultures display class distinctions
- Societies that do not exhibit class divisions are referred to be egalitarian societies. Class societies are hierarchical in nature, with one class having greater access to resources than the other classes in society. Early humans lived in egalitarian bands or tribes, and class is a relatively recent feature of culture
- Race (in a cultural sense) is the socially constructed meanings assigned to perceived differences between people based on physical characteristics
- And gender is a recent feature of culture, as all early humans lived in egalitarian bands or tribes (skin color, facial features, hair types). Everything about what distinctions are recognized and the significance we attribute to those differences is decided by cultural factors rather than biological factors. These physical characteristics do not influence a person’s behaviour or provide an explanation for their behavior. In this context, ethnicgroups are defined as individuals who consider themselves as belonging to a separate group based on cultural traits such as shared ancestors, language, traditions, and religious beliefs. They might be historically formed (a group of people who shared a region, language, or religion) or they can be more recently formed (an ethnic group that claims a territory, language, or religion) (African Americans). That all members of a certain ethnic group are the same or share the same ideas and values is not implied by their choice to identify as members of that ethnic group. Because ethnicity is a marker of group membership, it may be used to discriminate against people
- Indigenouspeoples, on the other hand, “are communities that have a long-standing relationship with some region that precedes colonial or outside society prevailing in the territory.” Indians, for example, are an indigenous group since they lived in the area before Europeans or colonists came. Native Americans are also an indigenous group. In many parts of the world, they are referred to as First Peoples, and they regularly face prejudice. Gender refers to the cultural connotations that are attributed to biological distinctions between men and women
- Most civilizations have simply masculine or feminine cultural roles, while other communities have a third, or perhaps an ablended, gender, which is not commonly seen. Gender roles differ significantly from one culture to the next. Issues linked to homosexuality are inextricably intertwined with those pertaining to gender roles. Ongender and sexual orientation are two factors that cause discrimination in many cultures throughout the world
- Age is both a biological truth as well as something that is culturally manufactured in many cultures. While we can determine how many years an individual has lived (biologicalage), we cannot determine what that signifies in terms of rights and obligations. Most civilizations have obligations and responsibilities that are ascribed to individuals depending on their reaching specified ages in their lives. Consider the activities of driving, drinking, and voting.