- 1 What does it mean to say that humans use culture instrumentally?
- 2 What does it mean to say that humans use culture instrumentally?
- 3 What is the connection between anthropologist and culture?
- 4 How do anthropologist appreciate all people in their cultures?
- 5 What are the 4 fields of anthropology?
- 6 What are the three fields of anthropology?
- 7 Why is culture important in anthropology?
- 8 What can you learn from anthropology?
- 9 What is the meaning of physical anthropology?
- 10 What are the activities that shows the nature and goals of anthropology?
- 11 What is the nature of anthropology?
- 12 What important role does the activity emphasize?
- 13 What is the most important details about the nature and goals of political science?
- 14 What does it mean to say that humans use culture instrumentally A People use
- 15 midterm 1 questions Flashcards
- 16 2.3: Culture As An Adaptive Mechanism
- 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY
- 18 Study Guide 3-1 – The concept of culture is an important and fundamental aspect of anthropology. It
- 19 Intrinsic Value, Ecology, and Conservation
- 20 What is the term for cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous firsthand contact?
What does it mean to say that humans use culture instrumentally?
- What does it mean to suggest that people utilize culture as a tool for their own ends? What is the relationship between an anthropologist and a certain culture
- How do anthropologists value all persons within their own civilizations
- What are the four subfields of anthropology are you asking? The three branches of anthropology are as follows: What is the significance of culture in anthropology
- In what ways may anthropology be applied to your life
- In what way can physical anthropology help us understand ourselves better? What are the anthropological practices that demonstrate the nature and purpose of the discipline
- In what way does anthropology differ from other disciplines
- What is the most significant role that the activity highlights
- Who or what are the most important facts and figures regarding the nature and objectives of political science
What does it mean to say that humans use culture instrumentally?
What does it mean to suggest that people utilize culture as a tool for their own ends? Food, water, housing, comfort, and reproduction are just a few of the basic biological demands that people have to meet. Rest on some characteristics of human biology that allow for the possibility of culture, which is not itself biological.
What is the connection between anthropologist and culture?
Anthropologists that specialize in cultural anthropology investigate how individuals who share a common cultural system organize and influence the physical and social world around them, as well as how they are shaped by the ideas, actions, and physical surroundings that they encounter. The idea of culture itself is a defining feature of cultural anthropology.
How do anthropologist appreciate all people in their cultures?
Anthropologists have several approaches to their research that they use in their investigations. They compare distinctions amongst human communities in order to gain a better understanding of cultural variety. Patterns of growing similarity and decreasing complexity through time may be observed in cultural qualities such as language forms and tool kinds, for example.
What are the 4 fields of anthropology?
The Four Subfields are as follows:
- Archaeology. Archaeologists study human civilization by examining the items that humans have created. Biological Anthropology
- Cultural Anthropology
- Linguistic Anthropology
What are the three fields of anthropology?
Three subfields of Anthropology are included in the Anthropology undergraduate program: AnthropologicalArchaeology, CulturalAnthropology, and Physical/BiologicalAnthropology.
Why is culture important in anthropology?
An important term in anthropology is culture, which refers to how human people utilize their culture to adapt to and modify the environment in which they exist.” (LS:512). Culture has been employed in anthropology to comprehend human uniqueness, but there have been both benefits and problems to the notions of culture that have been included into this understanding.
What can you learn from anthropology?
Students in the anthropology degree get an understanding of human difference in all of its biological, historical, cultural, and linguistic complicationes. Learn how to suspend judgment, gather evidence, analyze change and compare and contrast facts. Students will also learn how to draw connections between information and think outside of the box.
What is the meaning of physical anthropology?
Physical anthropology is a discipline of anthropology that is concerned with the origin, evolution, and variety of human beings. It is necessary for physical anthropologists to investigate past populations of fossil hominins, as well as nonhuman primates, in order to understand the diversity found within and between human populations.
What are the activities that shows the nature and goals of anthropology?
The following tasks demonstrate the nature and purposes of anthropology: – Observing one’s own culture from a more objective perspective, as if one were an outsider. – Discovering the characteristics that distinguish persons from one another. – Developing new hypotheses and understanding about the human home and its inhabitants’ activities.
What is the nature of anthropology?
Anthropology is the study, analysis, and description of the history and present of humankind’s existence. Prehistoric origins and human evolution are among the historical questions that have been raised. The study of current humanity is primarily concerned with biological and cultural variety, as well as the study of language.
What important role does the activity emphasize?
It is critical that we learn how to manage, organize, and stress the importance or relevance of the perspectives of Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science as a result of this activity.
What is the most important details about the nature and goals of political science?
Political science is a traditional field of study that is concerned with the investigation of political phenomena. Its purpose is to enhance human understanding of the forms and nature of political activity, as well as to provide theoretical tools for analyzing politically significant facts, among other things.
What does it mean to say that humans use culture instrumentally A People use
The fact is that people have to eat, but society instructs us on what, when, and how to eat. This is an illustration of how Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more. 17. A symbol is defined as something, whether verbal or nonverbal, that represents another thing. Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more. 18. Akachi emigrated to the United States from Africa in order to pursue the American dream. He brought his favorite selection of insects to school with him as the school year began.
- The American dream has come true for Akachi 20 years later, and he now gags when his parents come to visit and grill insects for the family supper.
- He thought it was strange that the Yanomami used drugs in front of their children, but he recognized the importance of drugs in their community and praised their efforts to share their culture with the rest of society.
- Get answers to your questions and much more.
- Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
midterm 1 questions Flashcards
The investigation of human variability over time and space. Learning, thinking metaphorically, using language, and employing tools and other items all improve as humans organise their life and adapt to diverse environments: rely on specific characteristics of human biology that enable culture, which is not biological in and of itself, to exist Over time, people have become increasingly reliant on which of the following to enable them to cope with the wide variety of situations in which they have found themselves throughout time and space?
- Adaptation strategies that are cultural in nature Which of the following is not true of culture?
- When children learn a specific cultural feature, what is the mechanism through which they do so?
- Biology, linguistics, culture, and archaeology are all disciplines that fall under this category.
- People utilize culture to meet their basic biological demands for food, drink, shelter, comfort, and reproduction.
- “People must eat, but culture instructs us on what to eat, when to eat it, and how to prepare it.” This is an illustration of how.
- Culture may be either adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the situation.
- In anthropology, cultural relativism refers to the propensity to see one’s own culture as superior to others and to apply one’s own norms and values in assessing others.
- It asserts that in order to truly comprehend another culture, we must make an effort to grasp how the people of that culture perceive the world.
- With the exception of longitudinal study of data sets acquired through state-sponsored statistics organizations, all of the approaches listed below are typical field procedures used by ethnographers.
- even in a stratified society, persons who do not speak the prestige dialect are more likely to accept it as standard or superior Dumbledore once stated that just because something is entirely in your brain does not rule out the possibility that it is real.
In the Northeast United States, what are you most likely to refer to as fizzy, flavored sugar water and why is this importantsoda; linguistic variety is significant because it expresses regional identity through linguistic variance human investigation should be centered on nature, human inquiry should be centered on God, and God should be centered on God.
The anthropological “other” emerged from the “discovery” of native peoples after the voyages of discovery and conquest, and was used to justify paternalism, conversion, and colonialism.
As we currently understand it, deductive reasoning emerged from the scientific revolution and means moving from general to specific statements, e.g.
focused on empirical factshad several fixed stages that all human societies went through was a French philosopher who developed a teleological universal historical framework for all human cultures that consisted of ten stages.
It eventually became known as orientation towards knowledge as detached and value-free, which is a fancy way of stating “orientation towards knowledge as detached and value-free.” As stated by Marxism, human life, that is, the real conditions under which people live, influences human consciousness, and as a result, the means of production form human society and culture.
was born in the United States, elaborated the stages of savagery, civilisation, and barbarism, and was fascinated by family relationships Tylor, who was British, was interested in religion, and popularized the word “survivals,” was the paradigm for practicing anthropology in the late nineteenth century, and he is considered to be the prototypical example of the discipline.
- Taylor advocated for development, while degeneration stated that primitives had fallen farther following the fall of Adam and Eve.
- because british cultural evolutionists proposed that Christianity could be investigated in the same way that other primitive religious beliefs were evaluated How racist was Victorian anthropology, on the other hand?
- has become well-known for his conception of the social reality and collective awareness, which was based on Durkheim’s concepts of organic and mechanical solidarity, and which was mediated by simple forms.
- He did not believe that historical transformation was conceivable.
- Which of the following best represents American anthropology throughout the first half of the twentieth century?
- No, his head shape study was intended to challenge racism in American anthropology.
- he was a pioneer in cultural relativism in ethnography and he did extensive fieldwork.
- France’s structural anthropology, informed by Durkheim and published by Marcel Masus, expands on Durkheim’s concept of the gift as a “whole social actuality” and advances the concept of reciprocity.
- His methods of participant observation are still in use today because he was a pioneer in the field.
- This was remarkably progressive for the time period in which he lived.
A ritual that contributes to the formation of institutional identity is emic (insider’s perspective) and etic (outsider’s perspective); these two terms correspond to the two terms in “participant observation.” The sapir-whorf hypothesis, which claims that language structures perception and vice versa The man is two-faced.
- society – coexist in him as two distinct entities.
- Is claude Levi-Strauss an empiricist or a rationalist?
- Culture or civilization is defined as follows: Although eb Taylor is seen as the prototypical armchair anthropological, his notion of culture is still widely used today and has a lot of influence.
- We are interested in Edmund Leach because he demonstrates how the force of myth lies in the tale itself, rather than whether or not it is genuine.
The work of radcliffe brown and evans pritchard exemplified structural functionalism; radcliffe brown advocated that social anthropology be conducted as a synchronic rather than a diachronic science; that is, a study of societies as they exist today (synchronic, one at a time) rather than across time; and evans pritchard advocated that social anthropology be conducted as a synchronic rather than a diachronic (diachronic) The belief that each element of culture, such as a culture trait or trait complex, has its own distinct history, and that social forms (such as totemism in different societies) that appear similar but are not comparable because of their different histories is known as cultural relativism or cultural relativism.
As anthropologists believe, cultural learning is unique to humans and that all people have culture, they also agree that all humans have culture.
What exactly does this doctrine imply? Even if individuals differ in terms of their emotional and intellectual skills, all human communities have equal possibilities for cultural expression and transmission.
2.3: Culture As An Adaptive Mechanism
The study of human diversity throughout time and space. Learning, thinking symbolically, using language, and employing tools and other products all improve as humans organise their lives and adapt to various environments: The possibility of culture, which is not itself biological, is based on certain characteristics of human biology. To cope with the wide range of environments they have occupied in both time and space, humans have become increasingly reliant on which of the following over time?
- When children learn a certain cultural feature, what is the mechanism through which they do so?
- Archaeology is a branch of science that includes biological, linguistic, and cultural studies.
- Food, drink, shelter, comfort, and reproduction are all basic biological requirements that people employ culture to meet.
- An example of how to do it is as follows: In other words, culture takes the fundamental biological drives that we all share with other animals and teaches us how to express them in a certain way.
- It is considered maladaptive when cultural features, patterns, and inventions endanger the group’s ability to reproduce and survive, and hence its own existence, as a result of these threats.
- It is not a moral attitude, but rather a methodological one.
- Which of the following research approaches is considered to be a distinctive anthropological tactic?
- Can you give an example of what Bourdieu refers to as symbolic domination in the context of language use?
- A wise man named dumbledore once stated that just because something is entirely in your brain does not imply that it does not exist.
- Soda; If you reside in the Northeastern United States, what are the most common names for fizzy, flavored sugar water, and why is it important?
places nature at the heart of human inquiryplaces the human at the heart of human inquiryplaces God at the heart of human inquiry Science, humanism, and religion are important in anthropological theory because each field influenced the development of “anthropology” as a discipline, with anthropology retaining elements of each.
It was necessary to develop new conceptual tools in order to explain Europeans’ role in the globe during the conquest/voyages of discovery, which eventually led to the development of anthropology as a discipline.
drawing a theoretical conclusionemerged from the scientific revolution and means moving from specific to general statements, e.g.
In order of least to most sophisticated, the three most popular stages in universal history used to define cultures were: the savagery, the barbarism, and the civilisation Orientation towards knowledge as detached and value-freeis a fancy way of expressing that was created by the French philosopher Comte, is concerned with the quest for generalizations, and was afterwards known as orientation towards knowledge as detached and value-free.
- As stated by Marxism, human life, that is, the real conditions under which people live, shapes human consciousness, and as a result, the means of production influence human society and culture.
- a significant implication of Marxist ideology for anthropology is its interconnected study of history, social development, and the physical and economic circumstances of human life.
- primarily concerned with “prehistory” and the peoples who “represented” prehistoric phases of evolution an ideology which held to the belief that all peoples strive to achieve civilization, which was characterized as western culture.
- Degeneration was a christian concept, whereas progress was a humanist concept (the belief that cultures may develop).
- The reason why Victorian anthropology was revolutionary is not well understood.
- Diffusionism and hereditarianism were embraced by experts in anthropology due to the way he perceived the individual and the structure of his personality.
- the first person to propose the concept of individual responsibility in society Was Max Weber a traditional cultural anthropologist in the traditional sense?
The following best characterizes the state of American anthropology in the early twentieth century: Fieldwork, a four-field method, powerful founding personalities, and a clear founding vision According to the Boasians, anthropology was a “arch-indutivist” and a rigorous empiricist who advocated for the documentation of indigenous cultures before they “disappeared,” resulting in a historical particularist approach.
- Although his head shape study was intended to challenge racism in American anthropology, it has since fallen out of favor.
- he was a pioneer in ethnographic cultural relativism and he did extensive fieldwork in the field.
- France’s structural anthropology, informed by Durkheim and published by Marcel Masus, expands on Durkheim’s notion of gift as a “whole social truth” and advances the concept of reciprocity.
- is considered the “father” of French structural anthropology and is still influential for his studies on kinship, taboo, and food preferences.
- is the “father” of French structural anthropology and Because many British anthropologists were able to do fieldwork in colonial regions, the British Anthropological Association helped to develop the profession.
- In spite of the caricature of a colonialist anthropologist, his emphasis was on cultural relativism, rationalism, and historical change—all of which were fairly progressive for the time period.
- The man is two-faced, as they say.
society – coexist in him as two separate entities.
Societal awareness is structured through the communal mind according to Semile Durkheim’s introduction to the elementary forms of religious life (Second Edition).
Taken in its broad anthropological definition, culture or civilization refers to a complex totality that comprises knowledge, religion, artistic expression, morals, customs, and any other talents and habits that man has acquired as a member of a social group.
In this case, it’s a good thing, because the actual meaning of what is being expressed in this, as in other great myths, is really dreadful.
A theoretical paradigm that maintains that social practices (customs) assist to sustain the social structure is denoted by one or more of the following names.
Anthropologists are unanimous in their belief that cultural learning is a human-specific process and that all people are cultural creatures.
What is the significance of this doctrine? Even if individuals differ in terms of their emotional and intellectual skills, all human communities have equal possibilities for cultural expression and transmission.
Biological adaptation is the primary means by which other species survive and thrive in their own surroundings. Biological adaptations can take place during a short period of time, over a long period of time, or via genetics. The sort of biological adaptation that is triggered is frequently determined by the degree and duration of stressors in the surrounding environment. It is possible to achieve short-term adaptation within seconds of being exposed to a stressor. When the stressor is no longer present, this sort of reaction quickly reverts to the baseline.
- It will not take long for your body to begin to perspire in an attempt to bring your body temperature down and back to equilibrium.
- Tanning, which can develop within hours of increased UV-radiation exposure, is another short-term reaction to increased UV-radiation exposure.
- Developmental acclimation is a process that happens during an individual’s development and growth.
- In most cases, there is a “magic time window” during which developmental acclimation can take place.
- One example of this is the effective respiratory system possessed by persons who have grown up at high elevations in their lives.
- It is important to note that developmental adjustments can occur as a result of cultural pressures as well.
- The ancient Maya aristocracy reshaped the skull with cradleboards, which they found in a cave.
- The practice is now outlawed.
- One such example is the occurrence of the sickle cell allele in several human groups, which is one of the most common in the world.
- To put it another way, whereas a certain gene may be useful in one context, it may be destructive in another.
- While it may be good for individuals who live in malaria-free regions in some cases, for others it is truly a dangerous sickness.
It is the knowledge or conduct that helps persons or groups to adjust, live, and prosper in their environment that is known as acultural adaptation. Through the use of tools, humans are able to culturally adapt to their surroundings in a number of ways. The employment of tools by certain non-human animals, as described previously in the chapter, indicates that they have a primitive civilization. It doesn’t matter whether dolphins use sponges to protect their beaks when hunting for fish on the ocean floor, chimpanzees use sticks to “fish” for termites, otters use a rock to break open a shell, or humans hunt with an ax and bow and arrow, using tools is a cultural adaptation that increases the chances of a species’ survival in its environment.
- (PageIndex): Figure (PageIndex): Cultural Adaptations – The Application of Tools Image 1: A sea otter uses a rock to split open a shell, taken in 2008 by Brocken Inaglory and licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 licensing agreement.
- and licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.
- Image 4: Young Man with a Bow and Arrow, Lubwa, Zambia, c1905-1940, by Unknown, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivatives license.
- They may involve something as basic as dressing warmly in the winter, or they may involve complex endeavors such as designing, building, and installing a heating system in a structure, or even creating a space station for human habitation.
- Not all cultural modifications, on the other hand, have been helpful.
- However, certain features have become maladaptive as a result of their evolution.
- For example, the usage of air conditioners is widespread.
- Although air conditioners made it easier to live in hot and humid conditions, older air conditioners released chlorofluorocarbons and contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer.
PageIndex: Self-portrait of Tracy Caldwell Dyson taken in the Cupola module of the International Space Station while seeing the Earth below during Expedition 24, 2010, by NASA/Tracy Caldwell Dyson and used with permission under the Creative Commons license.
Conrad P. Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Cultural Anthropology is a concise introduction to cultural anthropology. McGraw-Hill Education, New York, New York, 2012.
Study Guide 3-1 – The concept of culture is an important and fundamental aspect of anthropology. It
Study Guide 3-1 – Chapter 2 of Kottak’s book Chapter 2: The Humanities 1. Describe the characteristics that distinguish culture. The idea of culture is a crucial and essential part of anthropology, and it is discussed here. It is complicated, and it encompasses knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, tradition, and any other capacities and habits that man has acquired as a member of a social organization. The following are the defining characteristics of culture: Cultural learning is dependent on the uniquely elaborated human capacity to learn, and cultural learning is dependent on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbols; through cultural learning, people can create, remember, and deal with ideas; people acquire culture through observation; many aspects of culture are absorbed unconsciously; although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities, all individuals share a common emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities.
Since the beginning of time, humans have possessed the abilities that underpinculture; these abilities include the ability to learn, think symbolically, manipulate language, and use tools and other cultural products in the course of organizing their lives and coping with their environments; every contemporary human population possesses the ability to use symbols, and thus the ability to create and maintain culture.
People who grow up in the same culture share common beliefs, values, memories, and expectations; enculturation unites us by providing us with common experiences.
Culture is Transmitted: Culture is transmitted in society; we learn our culture by observing, listening, talking, and interacting with many other people.
Human Nature and Culture: Culture takes the natural biological urges that we share with other animals and teaches us how to express them in specific ways; people have to eat, but culture teaches us what to eat and when to eat it; culture molds “humannature” in many directions; our culture (and cultural changes) affect the ways in which we perceive nature, human nature, and “the natural”; through science, invention and discovery, cultural advances have overcome many “natural” limitations.
Culture is All-Inclusive: Culture encompasses everything.
Cultural Integration: cultures, not accidental collections of traditions and beliefs; cultures are integrated not only by their dominating economic activities and related social patterns, but also by sets of values, ideas, symbols, and other signifiers that are shared by people all over the world.
Intrinsic Value, Ecology, and Conservation
“What is Conservation Biology?” asks the author. As Michael Soulé points out in his 1985 book, “Normative Postulates of Conservation Biology,” one of the most important of them is that “biotic diversity has inherent worth.” A number of major environmental ethicists (e.g., Rolston 1986, Callicott 1989) have supported the notion that nature and biotic variety have intrinsic worth, and the concept has appeared prominently in a number of key international environmental declarations (United Nations 1992a, Earth Charter International 2000).
It is the belief of those who think that species and ecosystems have intrinsic worth that they feel that acknowledgment of this value is essential both in justifying conservation biology and in choosing suitable conservation goals.
- What is the meaning of intrinsic value? Is there anything in the environment (species, ecosystems, or creatures) that has inherent value? For conservation biology, why does it important if species, ecosystems, or creatures have intrinsic worth
Exegetical quotations on the intrinsic value of species are included in Figure 1. It is the worth that a thing possesses in and of itself, for what it is, or as a goal in and of itself (Figure 1). Instrumental value, on the other hand, is the polar opposite of intrinsic worth. The worth that anything possesses as a means to achieving a desired or valued aim is referred to as instrumental value. A conditional value is always a derivative on the value of something else, and an instrumental value is always a derivative on that something else.
- Suppose a person wants to catch fish and has access to fishing line.
- No one can deny that ecosystems and species have a diverse range of instrumental values, and this is undisputed (e.g., cultural value, recreational value, medicinal value, spiritual value, transformational value, natural resource value, and ecosystem services value).
- There are two opposing viewpoints on what constitutes the basis or foundation of intrinsic value.
- The subjective intrinsic value viewpoint holds that anything has intrinsic worth if it is valued for what it is rather than for what it can bring about in the future.
- As a result, it is conditional in the same way as instrumental value is.
- The fact that subjective intrinsic value is reason-oriented means that it is not arbitrary, and that it is amenable to review — as well as reform — through education and persuasion.
- Many individuals place a high value on the intrinsic worth of species and ecosystems (e.g., for their complexity, diversity, spiritual significance, wildness, beauty, or wondrousness).
The ubiquity, intensity, and stability of the valuing determines how much subjective intrinsic worth they have in general, as well as with regard to specific systems and species.
In as a result, they have a higher subjective intrinsic worth (Figure 2).
Photo courtesy of Anne Morkill/US Fish and Wildlife Service.
If something has objective intrinsic worth, it possesses attributes or characteristics that make it valuable in and of themselves, regardless of the attitudes or opinions of others.
People are valuable because of who they are, not because others regard them as valuable.
If species and ecosystems have objective inherent worth, then the value of such species and ecosystems is found by human valuers, rather being generated by them, as is the case.
Katz (1992) argues that natural things, including species and some ecosystems, have intrinsic worth because of their independence from human design and control, as well as their relationship to human-independent evolutionary processes (natural-historical value view) (Rolston 1986).
Despite the fact that the concept of natural-historical value is intellectually sound, it has proven to be difficult to defend in practice.
According to the inherent worth viewpoint, environmental elements have intrinsic value because they provide a good or have interests that people (valuers) should be concerned about (Sterba 2001, Taylor 1986).
Independent of the effects on others, they can benefit from and harm from certain things (e.g., oak wilt is bad for oak trees, and ocean acidification is bad for corals).
Anthropocentrism is defined as the belief that solely human interests should be taken into consideration (Pinchot 1914, Baxter 1974).
The concept of nonanthropocentrism can also be defined as follows: A viewpoint is nonanthropocentric if it implies that non-human nature possesses intrinsic value of any type, such as natural historical value, inherent worth, or subjective intrinsic value.
These scholars hope to demonstrate that, if humans have inherent worth, then so do non-humans; that is, that there is no adequate justification for considering the good or interests of humans but not the good or interests of non-humans (Singer 1977, Taylor 1986, Sandler 2007).
Figure 3: The San Joaquin Fox, which is endangered.
Peterson/US Fish and Wildlife Service.
There is a problem with this ecocentrism viewpoint in that it is not clear that there is anything that could be considered the good of a species or ecosystem that is above and beyond (or distinct from) the good of the individual organisms that make up the ecosystem or species in question.
Because of this, even if wolves have a good of their own and an inherent worth, the species Canis lupus as a whole may not be worth saving (Cahen 1988, Sandler 2007).
Policies and practices are designed to achieve specific objectives.
This holds true for the objectives of conservation biology and ecosystem management, among others.
The goals are justified by making a moral argument.
Occasionally, the justification value is instrumental, as in the case of fisheries (natural resource value), watersheds (ecosystem services), and ecotourism (environmental benefits) (economic value).
In these situations, the goals of preservation, conservation, and assisted recovery are only justified if the organisms, species, or systems in question have intrinsic (rather than instrumental) value.
If something is valuable as a means to an end, it is possible to compare it to other potential means to the same end if it has instrumental value as a means to that end.
Consequently, if the value of non-human organisms, species, and ecosystems is purely instrumental in nature, their value—and by extension, the conservation and management goals that they justify—will be highly contingent, defensible, and unstable.
Intrinsic value, on the other hand, is not interchangeable or replaceable (Callicott 2006).
As a result, proponents of intrinsic value contend that it is more stable and robust than instrumental value when it comes to justifying conservation objectives.
In contrast to human impacts and control, natural-historical value typically favors less intensive design and management — and if individual animals have inherent worth, ecosystem management practices (e.g., methods of population management and translocation) must take that into consideration.
Environmental pragmatists, in particular, have questioned the validity of the distinction between instrumental value and intrinsic value (Weston 1985), as well as the general validity of the concept of intrinsic value (Norton 1995).
The preservation of intrinsically valuable language is supported by some environmental pragmatists, who argue that it can be useful in discourse and procedural contexts (Minteer 2001).
But the pragmatic conception of intrinsic value lacks the normative characteristics (that is, the distinctive stability and robustness) that are associated with more standard conceptions of intrinsic value, such as those associated with monetary value.
What is the term for cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous firsthand contact?
What is the phrase used to describe the cultural shift that occurs when two or more cultures come into direct touch on a regular basis? Acculturation. To view the complete response, please click here. As a result, what is the phrase used to describe the type of cultural change that occurs when two or more cultures come into frequent personal contact with one another? Enculturation is defined as the interchange of cultural characteristics that occurs when two or more groups come into continuous personal contact with one another.
Second, what is the phrase used to describe policies and practices that are detrimental to a group and its members.
Policies and behaviors that are detrimental to an organization and its members are referred to as “harmful practices.” With this in mind, what name would you use to describe the changes that occur when groups of people come into continual personal contact?
Diffusion, on the other hand, can occur even when there is no physical interaction.
CLIMATECHANGEis contributing to global warming.
Definition: A person who is knowledgeable about a specific facet of local life.