- 1 Political Culture handout
- 2 Individualistic
- 3 Moralistic
- 4 Traditionalistic
- 5 State Political Culture
- 6 Moralistic Political Culture
- 7 Individualistic Political Culture
- 8 Traditionalistic Political Culture
- 9 Texas Political Culture and Elazar’s Theory
- 10 Critiques of Elazar’s Theory
- 11 Exam 1 Part 1 Flashcards
- 12 Chapter 12: Political Parties
Political Culture handout
One of the reasons that various governments implement different strategies to cope with comparable challenges, according to political scientist Daniel Elazar, is because of differences in political culture. In reality, he distinguishes between three political subcultures that combine to constitute the American political culture, which he contrasts with the German political culture, the French political culture, and the Mexican political culture, all of which are distinct from one another. The following political subcultures exist:
- Individualistic subcultures rely on the marketplace for their livelihood. The government’s role is minimal, and it is primarily concerned with maintaining the operation of the marketplace. It is the pecuniary self-interests of politicians, as well as their desire to promote themselves professionally, that drive them into politics. Bureaucracy is perceived badly because it interferes with the ability to get patronage. Corrupt practices are permitted because politics itself is a filthy business. Political rivalry is partisan in nature. Elections are primarily concerned with attaining office rather than with addressing concerns.
- Originally originating in the Middle Atlantic states, when German and English settlers established themselves
- Then spreading to the lower Midwest, Missouri, and western states
- “Government should never get in the way!”
- Individualistic values are opposed
- The commonwealth is emphasized. A beneficial influence in citizens’ lives, the government advances the public interest and contributes to the well-being of all citizens. Aspects of politics are centered on topics. Politicians run for office in order to advance specific issues. Due to the fact that government service is seen as public duty, corruption is not allowed. It is generally agreed that bureaucracy serves the public interest and should be encouraged. Participation in politics is a civic obligation for every person.
- The Puritans, who colonized in New England, were responsible for bringing view to the United States. Traveling from the upper Great Lakes through the Midwest and then to the Northwest. Values that have been reinforced by waves of Scandinavian and northern European immigrants
- Individualism and morality are on opposite sides of the spectrum. The market and the common good are treated with ambivalence by the individual. The government’s role is to sustain the present social and economic hierarchical structure. Politicians are drawn from the upper crust of society. Politicians have a moral duty to govern for their families. Individuals from all walks of life are not required to participate in politics or even to vote. Competition between different groups within the elite, rather than between class-based parties, is the essence of politics. It is believed that bureaucracy is harmful to personal connections because it interferes with them.
- Individuals who settled in the southern colonies contributed their point of view to the United States. Constructed a plantation-based agricultural system
- Descendants traveled westward across the southern and southwestern states
Political Culture in the State of Texas According to Elazar, Texas’s political culture is a mix of traditionalistic and individualistic characteristics that coexist together. Traditionalism in state politics is demonstrated by the lengthy history of one-party dominance in state politics, the low voter turnout, and the social and economic conservatism that characterize the state. It is possible to discern the individualistic nature of state politics in the support for private enterprise, the hostility to large government, and the belief in the ability of individuals to take up new challenges.
- In order to identify these subcultures, researchers looked at colonization and migration patterns, which had essentially been accomplished by the early twentieth century.
- If a big number of northern retirees moved to a traditionally conservative state like Florida, what influence did this have on the state’s economy?
- We may gain a better understanding of the influence of population expansion on political culture by studying the politics of a region such as Amarillo, and more especially the politics of southwest Amarillo, for example.
- “Virginia’s World” (Virginia’s World, 1999).
- 7th edition of Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis (Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis).
- Hanson, and Herbert Jacob are the editors of this volume.
- Neal Tannahill published a book in 2000 titled Texas Government: Policy and Politics, 6th ed., is a textbook about Texas government.
- It’s all in my head.
- Return to the Course Page Central page.
State Political Culture
You will be able to do the following by the conclusion of this section:
- Make a comparison between Daniel Elazar’s three types of political culture. Describe how cultural variations across the states might influence perceptions toward the function of government and citizen engagement in the political process. Discuss the key points of contention with Daniel Elazar’s idea
Some states, such as Alaska, have a wealth of natural resources at their disposal. These countries may take use of their oil or natural gas assets to support education or lower taxes. Other states, such as Florida, are favored by a climate that attracts visitors and retirees each winter, generating cash that can be used to fund infrastructure upgrades throughout the state. Florida is a good example of this. When these discrepancies are taken into account, states might gain strategic advantages in terms of their economic fortunes, which can translate into differences in the amounts of taxes that must be collected from individuals.
According to theory, states are also distinct as a result of their diverse political cultures, or their attitudes and ideas about the functions of and expectations from the government.
Daniel Elazar proposed in 1966 that the United States may be separated into three distinct political cultures: moralistic, individualistic, and traditionalistic.
The migratory patterns of immigrants who settled in and spread out throughout the country from the east coast to the west coast are credited with the spreading of these cultures across the United States.
Daniel Elazar proposed that the United States may be split geographically into three sorts of political cultures: individualistic, moralistic, and traditionalistic. These political cultures, Elazar argued, spread across the country with the migration patterns of immigrants.
Moralistic Political Culture
State governments with an amoralistic political culture, according to Elazar’s theory, consider the government as a vehicle to improve society and promote the public welfare. The public expects political officials to be honest in their interactions with others, to put the interests of the people they serve above their own, and to make a commitment to improving the area in which they are elected or appointed. The political process is seen positively rather than as a vehicle polluted by corruption, as was the case in the past.
- As a result, moralistic nations are more likely to accept the expansion of the role of government.
- Furthermore, they believe it is the responsibility of public authorities to push for new initiatives that will assist marginal individuals or that will solve public policy problems, even when there is little public pressure to do so at the time.
- The ideals of these pioneers spread over the top of the United States to the upper Great Lakes region after multiple generations of migration westward by these migrants.
- Together, these tribes advanced further west, passing through the northern section of the Midwest and West, and eventually along the West Coast of the United States of America.
- Citizens in moralistic nations, according to Elazar’s model, should be more likely to devote their time and/or resources to political campaigns and to vote in elections.
- First and foremost, because the state places a high priority on mass involvement, state legislation is expected to make it simpler for citizens to register and vote.
- As a result, candidates will be less likely to run unopposed and will be more likely to encounter meaningful competition from a competent opponent.
Individualistic Political Culture
States that share Elazar’s individualistic political culture are called “aligned states.” Consider the government to be a vehicle for resolving issues that are important to individual people and for achieving personal objectives. When it comes to government, people in this society deal with it in the same way they would with a marketplace. They anticipate that the government will provide products and services that they consider necessary, and they anticipate that the public officials and bureaucrats who offer these goods and services will be paid for their efforts.
- It is likely that new policies will be passed if they can be used by politicians to win support from voters and other interested stakeholders, or if there is a high demand for these services among the general public.
- It was in the mid-Atlantic area of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey that the first settlements appeared, and they spread throughout the central half of the United States in a fairly straight path from Ohio to Wyoming.
- In 2015, for example, New Jersey Governor ChrisChristie made news when he spoke about the incentives he employed to get firms to relocate to the state of New Jersey.
- The governor thinks that by offering these business incentives, it would encourage the development of jobs for individuals who are in need of work in an economically disadvantaged section of his state.
- Elazar’s argument is supported by research.
- These personal motives will cause individuals in individualistic governments to be more tolerant of corruption among their political leaders and less inclined to regard politics as a noble profession in which all citizens should participate.
- Instead, it puts political parties against one another that are well-organized and compete directly for votes in order to win votes.
Thus, unlike in moralistic cultures, voters do not place a high value on the personalities of politicians when selecting how to vote and are less accepting of third-party candidates than in moralistic cultures.
Traditionalistic Political Culture
Because of the role played by slavery in the establishment of political culture, atraditionalistic political culture, according to Elazar, considers the government to be essential to sustaining the current social order, or the status quo. Only elites have a place in the political enterprise, and as a result, new public policies will be implemented only if they serve to reinforce the ideas and interests of those in positions of authority. Traditionally conservative political culture, according to Elazar, has been associated with the southern area of the United States, where it first emerged in the higher regions of Virginia and Kentucky before expanding to the Deep South and the Southwest.
- Although some settlers in traditionalistic states made money via business operations, most related their economic fortunes to the need of slavery on plantations throughout the South.
- For example, despite the fact that poverty is an issue throughout the United States, the South has the highest incidence of it, as seen on the map below.
- Due to the fact that they must prioritize economic limits in the face of increasing demand for services, these figures provide issues for legislators not only in the near term, but also in the long run.
- While moralistic cultures expect and encourage all people to participate in politics, traditionalistic cultures are more inclined to consider it as a privilege reserved for those who satisfy the necessary requirements to do so.
- Conservatives contend that these rules minimize or eliminate voting fraud, whilst liberals argue that they disproportionally disenfranchise the poor and minorities and amount to a modern-day poll tax on the poor and minorities.
Prior to realignment during the civil rights period, the Democratic Party had historically controlled the political system in the southern United States. These days, depending on the post being sought, the parties are more likely to compete for voters than they were previously.
Texas Political Culture and Elazar’s Theory
In his Theory of Texas, Elazar asserts that the state is a fusion of traditional and individualistic political cultures. Therefore, voter turnout in Texas is lower than in most other American states, with the notion that Texans regard political engagement as a financial reward rather than as a valuable way to make a positive contribution to society.
Critiques of Elazar’s Theory
Since Elazar originally published his theory of state political culture fifty years ago, a number of objections have been brought to the fore. However, because immigration patterns have changed over time, it is possible to argue that the three cultures no longer correspond to the country’s current reality. The original theory was founded on the assumption that new cultures could emerge as a result of an influx of settlers from various parts of the world. Today’s immigrants are less likely to be from European nations and are more likely to be from Latin American and Asian countries as their origin.
Consequently, the pattern of diffusion on which the original idea is based may no longer be correct since individuals are traveling in a greater number of directions, many of which are unpredictable in nature.
Often, they are driven by socioeconomic challenges such as widespread unemployment, urban deterioration, or poor quality health care in educational institutions.
Finally, unlike economic or demographic variables, which can be measured with more precision, culture is a broad notion that might be difficult to define on a micro level.
Exam 1 Part 1 Flashcards
PHYS 1443 is a physical science course. General Technical Physics I is a course in general technical physics. The University of Texas at Arlington (UT Arlington) Latinos and Native Americans have to be relegated to the background in Texas in order to realize the Anglo Saxon goal. The battle of San Jacinto was won by a hero named Accord to the annexation agreement between Texas and the United States of America According to Texas law, the state may form a maximum of four new states. Juneteenth is a state holiday in Texas that commemorates the liberation of slaves from their chains.
- TxRRC stands for the Texas Railroad Commission.
- The first Hispanic to be elected to a statewide post in Texas was Jose Antonio Vargas.
- Individualistic but also adhering to tradition If the general public believes that the government has the authority to rule its citizens, then a constitution encourages .
- The powers that are reserved are those that belong to the government.
- Article 2 of the Texas Constitution places restrictions on the government’s ability to do what on the basis of this principle?
- The state government decentralizes authority by delegating a wide range of responsibilities to units of local government, particularly school districts.
- Among those who participate in politics, which of the following is regarded to be the most prevalent method?
- In order to be eligible to vote in Texas, an individual must have registered at least _days prior to the election day.
- Texas was the first state to provide women the right to vote.
- On even-numbered years, the primary elections in Texas are traditionally conducted on the second Tuesday in March.
What percentage of the vote does a candidate need to win a general election in order to win? The following individuals hold the position of Chief Election Officer in the state of Texas: Secretary of State for the State of Texas
Chapter 12: Political Parties
Introduction Government-controlling political parties are composed of a coalition of politicians, activists, and voters whose purpose is to gain control of the government. Parties must complete critical tasks like as finding and nominating candidates, raising the funds necessary to run campaigns, and developing a policy program that will help them appeal to voters in order to achieve this objective. The Democratic and Republican parties are vital to the everyday running of government as well as the conduct of American democracy in elections, despite the fact that many people in the United States are skeptical of “party control.” This two-party system contributes to the framework of voters’ election choices and the coordination of America’s otherwise split and distinct governmental bodies.
What are the reasons for the formation of political parties?
- The winning of elections is the primary means by which political parties aim to exert power over the government. Unlike interest groups, which are “benefit seekers” seeking policy gains, political parties are mostly comprised of office seekers. In fact, the design of party organization itself reflects this electoral purpose, since party organizational units mirror district or geographical units where elections are place. Parties organize to promote collective action in the electoral process. By establishing a “brand name” that provides vital information about the people running under the party label, parties help voters minimize their information costs. During the course of the policy-making process, political parties establish long-lasting coalitions with the goal of inducing collaboration and resolving challenges related with collective decision-making. Aside from that, political parties help to govern the career progression of ambitious officeholders and to address the possible difficulties that might arise from rivalry among ambitious party members.
2. What are the functions that political parties perform? What are the most important tasks that political parties provide in American democracy and government once they have been established?
- The political parties recruit candidates for the thousands of campaigns that take place at the federal, state, and municipal levels. Parties also pick people to represent them as their standard bearers in each election cycle. Although nominations are sometimes made at party conventions, primary elections are the most common method of selecting candidates. Primaries can be either closed primaries (in which only party members can vote) or open primaries (in which voters must declare their party affiliation on the day of the primary). On Election Day, political parties organize voter registration campaigns and mobilization activities in order to combat the problem of free riders and improve voter turnout. Parties enable mass electoral choice by encouraging voter identification with their party
- Even when voter identification fails to persuade people, parties reduce the information costs that potential voters face when making electoral decisions. Aside from their numerous responsibilities in elections, political parties also exert influence over the national government.
- It is common for party leaders to advance policies to build coalitions and broaden the party’s appeal to new constituencies in order to try to make their party a “big tent.” However, there is a tension between these coalition-building efforts and the need for the parties to present distinct alternatives to voters and satisfy their most partisan “base” constituencies. The organization of Congress is significantly influenced by political party
- The majority party controls each chamber and dominates the committee system. Even while the president is frequently seen as the leader of his or her own political party, some presidents are better and more involved party leaders than others.
3. Political Parties and the ElectorateHow well do political parties organize the electorate, and how well do they do it? What kind of people tend to identify with Democrats and Republicans, and why is this so?
- Political parties are made up of millions of rank-and-file members who form psychological attachments to, or identifications with, their respective political parties as time goes on. In addition to these rank-and-file identities, political parties rely on a dedicated cadre of party volunteers who devote significant amounts of time, energy, and effort to supporting the party and its candidates. In the United States, a wide range of qualities are connected with the identification of political parties. Race & ethnicity, religion, class, philosophy, and geography are all factors to consider.
- For example, African-American voters are largely Democratic, whereas Latino voters are more split (Cuban Americans tend to vote Republican, although Mexican Americans tend to vote for Democrats by a narrow majority)
- There is a significant gender disparity in political support, with women being more likely to favor Democrats and males being more likely to support Republicans. Different religious groups are associated with different political parties: Since the 1970s, Jews have tended to vote for Democrats, while Protestants have tended to vote for Republicans, and Catholics, while traditionally a Democratic demographic, have tended to vote for Republicans more frequently. Despite the fact that class is generally ignored in American politics, upper-income Americans are more likely to identify with Republicans, whilst lower-income Americans are more likely to identify with Democrats. Liberals identify with the Democrats, whereas conservatives identify with the Republicans. Ideology and party affiliation are intimately related. While the traditionally “solid” Democratic South is increasingly becoming strongly Republican, as is most of the West and Southwest, Democrats’ traditional stronghold is now in the Northeast, with the Midwest being a more or less equally divided battlefield. Affecting partisanship is also age, with persons older than fifty years more likely to be Democrats, while those younger than fifty years are fairly evenly divided.
Parties as Institutions, Part 4 What is the organizational structure of current political parties? What duties do they do and what services do they provide to job hopefuls are not entirely clear.
- Political parties are neither rigidly disciplined nor hierarchically organized in the way that businesses are. Rather, they are huge networks of persons that operate at practically every level of government and are often structured as committees of active party members
- They are not political parties. The national convention of a political party is the most significant party institution at the national level since it is responsible for choosing the party’s presidential candidate, setting the party’s bylaws, and crafting the party’s platform. In the interim between conventions, each political party’s national committee works to generate finances, arbitrate internal disagreements, and improve the party’s public image in the media. In order to gather cash and devise tactics for the House and Senate elections, congressional campaign committees are established. Candidates are recruited by state and local political party organizations, who also organize voter registration drives and give financial aid to candidates. In the current, candidate-centered period, political parties have developed into “service organizations.” Most notably, national parties offer money, resources, and experience to its candidates, who are becoming increasingly autonomous.
5. System of Parties What is meant by the term “party system”? What have been the most significant “party systems” throughout the history of American politics? When it comes to the American political system, what is the role of third parties?
- In the United States, there are two political parties that compete for power. Scholars define “party system” as the number of political parties that compete for power (the United States has a “two-party system”), as well as the organizational structure of the parties, the balance of power between and within party coalitions, the social and institutional bases of the parties, and the issues and policies around which party competition is organized. Six party systems have emerged throughout the history of American politics as a result of shifts in political forces and alliances.
- Federalists and Democratic-Republicans were set against each other in the first party system
- Both groupings of contending political elites had very tenuous linkages to the voters
- Party organization tended to be centered on political clubs and party publications. Following the War of 1812, the Federalist Party was displaced by the Democratic-Republican Party, which came to dominate the country. This system reflected rivalry between the Democrats and the Whigs
- The Democrats, led by Andrew Jackson, were the most popular and dominating political party of the century, however it was also the Whigs who emerged as a competitive force by mobilizing public support. The Civil War ushered in the emergence of the third party system, in which Abraham Lincoln’s newly created Republican Party controlled the Democratic Party, which had its core constituency in the states of the former Confederacy
- Federalists and Democratic-Republicans were set against one other in the first party system
- Each group of contending political elites had only tenuous linkages to the voters
- Party structure tended to be centered around political clubs and party publications. Following the War of 1812, the Federalist Party was supplanted by the Democratic-Republican Party, which eventually gained control of the government in 1820. This system reflected rivalry between the Democrats and the Whigs
- The Democrats, led by Andrew Jackson, were the most popular and dominating political party of the century, however it was also the Whigs who emerged as a competitive force by mobilizing public support. During the Civil War, as Lincoln’s newly constituted Republican Party dominated the Democratic Party, which had its major base in the states of the former Confederacy, a third-party system was established.
In the United States, the fourth party system existed from 1896 to 1932 and was predominated by Republicans, despite the fact that recurring within party disagreements plagued Republican rule during this time period. The five party system arose as a result of the Great Depression, when Franklin Roosevelt assembled a broad-based Democratic coalition that controlled national politics in the United States until the election of Richard Nixon as president in 1968. Though some scholars disagree on whether or not there has ever been a sixth party system, it is reasonable to assert that the current party system began with Richard Nixon’s 1968 election, when the Democrats’ “Solid South” succumbed to Nixon’s “southern strategy” to convert disaffected former Democrats to Republicanism, as the Democrats’ “Solid South” succumbed to Nixon’s “southern strategy” to convert disaffected former Democrats to Republicanism.
Despite the fact that the United States is controlled by two political parties, third parties reflecting social and economic complaints have formed throughout the country’s history.
This is because the major parties usually absorb any successful themes and because many electoral laws, as well as the single-member district plurality election system, work against the success of successful third parties, as is true at the state and local levels.