The Involves The Culture In Which Individuals Live

Developmental Ch 1 Flashcards

Term Definition the pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through human life span
Term Definition the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together
Term Definition the setting in which development occurs that is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
Term normative age-graded influence Definition biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
Term normative history-graded influences Definition biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. these influences are common to people of a particular generation
Term Definition unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person’s life. the occurrence pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals
Term Definition a national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
Term Definition changes in an individual’s physical nature
Term Definition changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, nd language
Term Definition changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
Term Definition refers to a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features
Term Definition the debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences.
Term Definition the debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change
Term continuity-discontinuity issue Definition the debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
Term Definition theories that hold that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic, that it is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior, and that early experiences are important in development
Term Definition Freud; claims that it is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality
Term Definition a psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human life span. each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
Term Piaget’s cognitive theory Definition the theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go though four stages of cognitive development
Term Definition a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
Term information-processing theory Definition a theory that emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. the processes of memory and thinking are central.
Term behavioral and social cognitive theories Definition theories that hold that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment
Term Definition the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. a behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur. a behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur.
Term Definition the theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development
Term Definition an approach that stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods
Term Definition Lorenz: the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen
Term Definition if it doesn’t happen during this period, then it will not take place
Term Definition Bowlby: attachment should occur in order to promote optimal development of social relationships
Term Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory Definition Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems; microsystem, mesosystem, ecosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
Term Definition the setting in which the individual lives
Term Definition involves relations between contexts
Term Definition consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context
Term Definition involves the culture in which individuals live
Term Definition consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances
Term eclectic theoretical orientation Definition an approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories
Term Definition a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time
Term Definition a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more
Term Definition effects that are due to a subject’s time of birth or generation but not age

How Do Individualistic Cultures Influence Behavior?

Organizational cultures can be robust or weak; functioning or dysfunctional cultures can exist in the same organization. It is possible to establish a strong culture when all workers understand and behave in ways that are compatible with the company’s values, beliefs, and social conventions. Having a poor culture means that people don’t comprehend what the culture is about and/or don’t want to participate in it. Successful businesses are built on strong functional cultures that encourage innovation and teamwork.

A contrast is made between a company’s “actual” (also known as “current”) culture and its “desired” (also known as “strategic”) culture, which we refer to as the “real” culture (also known as the “current” culture).

  • Companies with the best success are those in which the real culture and the ideal culture are extremely well matched with one another.
  • The Six Step Culture Management Process used by Management Systems is illustrated and quickly discussed below: Definition of the “Desired Culture,” which is the culture that will most effectively support the attainment of long-term objectives.
  • Second, identify the current culture, which is the culture that is currently affecting employee behavior (which may or may not be completely aligned with the organization’s ideal culture).
  • Employees from all levels of the organization are asked to provide feedback on the present corporate culture during this phase.
  • Step 4: Develop a Culture Management Plan that specifies Objectives and Goals for 1) fixing the gaps found in Step 3; and 2) building on the “strengths” of the culture that has already been established.
  • The implementation of cultural management goals might entail holding managers and, possibly, all employees accountable for achieving them.
  • Step 6: Shortly put, success against this plan – as well as the company’s Strategic Plan – should be assessed on a quarterly basis, and the plan should be publicly revised once a year.

** A more in-depth explanation of the culture management framework can be found in numerous of our books and articles (see Publications), including Growing Pains and Corporate Culture: The Ultimate Strategic Asset.

Individualistic Culture Traits

The words individualistic and collectivist cultures are likely to be familiar to you; they are frequently used in the context of comparing and contrasting variations in behavior and attitudes between the two types of civilizations. So, what is it that distinguishes individualistic cultures from collectivist civilizations, exactly? Individualistic cultures share a number of qualities in common, including the following:

  • Being reliant on others is frequently regarded as a source of shame or embarrassment. The importance of independence is highly regarded. In today’s world, individual liberties are paramount
  • People frequently lay a larger focus on sticking out and being different. Individual rights tend to take precedence over the rights of others
  • People are more self-reliant in general.

Individualistic societies regard people as “excellent” if they are strong, self-sufficient, aggressive, and self-reliant, among other characteristics. This is in contrast to collectivist societies, in which attributes such as self-sacrifice, dependability, generosity, and helpfulness to others are valued more than other characteristics. Individualistic cultures may be found in a number of nations, including the United States, Germany, Ireland, South Africa, and Australia, to name a few examples.

Individualistic vs. Collectivist Cultures

If a person is powerful, self-sufficient, forceful, and independent, he or she is deemed “excellent” by individualistic societies. The opposite is true for collective cultures, in which virtues such as self-sacrifice, dependability, generosity and helpfulness to others are highly valued. United States, Germany, Ireland, South Africa, and Australia are just a few countries that are considered to have individualistic cultures. People who live in collectivist cultures are more inclined to turn to family and friends for help during tough times, whereas those who live in individualist cultures are more likely to go it alone during challenging situations.

  • When faced with adversity, people are frequently expected to “pull themselves up by their bootstraps” and go on.
  • Workers in an individualist culture, for example, are more likely to place a higher emphasis on their own well-being than they do on the welfare of the collective.
  • Such disparities can have an impact on practically every element of a person’s behavior, including the type of job they pick, the items they purchase, and the societal concerns that they are concerned about.
  • Individualist cultures emphasize the significance of each individual taking care of himself or herself, rather than relying on others for help.

Effects on Behavior

It is a prominent issue of study in the field of cross-cultural psychology to investigate the impact that culture has on individual behavior. Intercultural psychologists investigate how diverse cultural influences impact an individual’s behavior from one culture to another. They frequently concentrate on aspects that are common to all civilizations throughout the world, as well as the contrasts that exist amongst communities. Individualist cultures define themselves differently than collectivist cultures do, which is an intriguing phenomena that cross-cultural psychologists have seen and documented.

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Consequently, individuals tend to characterize themselves in terms of their own distinctive personal features and traits rather than general characteristics and traits.

Those who live in collectivist societies, on the other hand, are more likely to describe themselves as “a nice spouse and a loyal friend,” as opposed to “I am a loyal friend.” What is the extent to which these self-descriptions differ from culture to culture?

A Word From Verywell

People’s conduct, both individually and collectively, may be significantly influenced by culture, as psychologists have grown increasingly conscious of this potent impact. It is necessary to examine both the similarities and distinctions between collectivist and individualist cultures in order to comprehend exactly how powerful these effects may be. Collectivist and individualist cultures are not mutually exclusive. Thank you for sharing your thoughts! Thank you for taking the time to join up.

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  1. Individualism vs collectivism: A comparison of Kenyan and American self-concepts. Individualism versus collectivism: A comparison of Kenyan and American self-concepts. Basic Applied Social Psychology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 261-273, 1997. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp1902 7

supplementary readings

  • Markus, H.R., and Kitayama, S., “Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation,” in Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation, edited by H.R. Markus and S. Kitayama. Psychological Review, vol. 98, no. 2, 1991, pp. 224-253
  • Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? – H.S. Kim and H.R. Markus An examination of cultural differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 785-800, 1999.

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory

  • The ecological systems theory developed by Bronfenbrenner sees child development as a complex system of interactions that is influenced by several layers of the surrounding environment, ranging from the proximate settings of family and school to broader societal values, laws, and practices. Therefore, in order to understand a kid’s growth, we must look not just at the child and her local environment, but also at the interaction between the child and the greater environment
  • Brönnbrenner classified people’s environments into five distinct systems: the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exotronic system, the macrocosmic system (or macrocosm), and the chronosystem (or chronosystemm). The microsystem is the level of ecological systems theory that has the most influence. This includes the most immediate environmental situations in which the developing kid is present, such as the home and the school environment
  • The ecological systems theory developed by Bronfenbrenner has consequences for educational practice.

Background and History

Urie Bronfenbrenner, an American psychologist, was a vocal opponent of past ideas of childhood development. Specifically, he contended that studies of children in unfamiliar laboratory conditions with one other person, who was generally a stranger, were ecologically flawed (See Mary Ainsworth’s 1970 experiment of the “Strange Situation” for an example). The impact of A on B (e.g. a stranger/mother with a kid) was noticed in the laboratory research, according to Bronfenbrenner (1974), rather than the influence of the child on the stranger/mother or any other third party’s influence, as reported by Bronfenbrenner (in 1974).

There are several factors of a developing kid’s life that interact with and impact the child, as Bronfenbrenner noted.

He developed the ‘Ecological Systems Theory,’ which is based on the dynamic interactions that the environment has on the developing kid, and he proposed it in the 1970s.

The Five Ecological Systems

According to Bronfenbrenner (1977), a child’s environment is a nested arrangement of structures, each of which is contained within the one that comes before it. He arranged them in descending order of the amount of influence they have on a youngster. The microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem, and the chronosystem were the names he gave to these formations. Because the five systems are interconnected, the effect of one system on a child’s development is dependent on how well it interacts with the other systems in the system hierarchy.

The Microsystem

The microsystem is the first level of Bronfenbrenner’s theory, and it includes all of the things that have direct contact with the child in their immediate environment, such as parents, siblings, teachers, and school peers. The macrosystem is the second level of Bronfenbrenner’s theory, and it includes everything else. Relationships in a microsystem are bidirectional, which means that the kid can be impacted by other individuals in their surroundings while simultaneously having the ability to influence the views and behaviors of other people in their environment.

The interactions that take place inside microsystems are frequently highly intimate, and they are critical in developing and supporting the growth of the kid.

If a kid has a good nurturing relationship with their parents, it is believed that this will have a favorable impact on the child’s development. On the other hand, aloof and unaffectionate parents will have a detrimental impact on their children.

The Mesosystem

The interconnections between the child’s microsystems, such as the interactions between the child’s parents and teachers, or the relationships between school peers and siblings, are included in the mesosystem concept. When an individual’s separate microsystems do not work independently, but rather are interrelated and exert influence on one another, this is referred to as the mesosystem. Consider the following scenario: If a child’s parents speak with the child’s teachers, this interaction may have an impact on the child’s development.

If the child’s parents and teachers get along and have a healthy connection, according to ecological systems theory, this should have beneficial impacts on the child’s development, as opposed to negative consequences on development if the instructors and parents do not get along.

The Exosystem

The exosystem is a concept that originated with Urie Bronfenbrenner in the 1970s and is a component of ecological systems theory. It contains various formal and informal social structures that do not directly contain the kid but have an indirect impact on them as a result of their impact on one of the microsystems in the system. Exosystems include areas like the neighborhood, parents’ places of employment, parents’ friends, and the news media, to name a few. These are circumstances in which the kid is not involved and which are external to their experience, but which yet have an impact on them.

As a result of anything that occurred at work, the parent may return home and have a short fuse with the kid, which will have a bad impact on the child’s development.

The Macrosystem

According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the macrosystem is a component that focuses on how cultural aspects, such as socioeconomic position (wealth or poverty), ethnicity, and ethnic background, impact a child’s development. As a result, the culture in which individuals are raised and educated may have an impact on their ideas and perceptions regarding events that occur in their lives. This ecosystem is distinct from the previous ones in that it does not refer to the individual settings of one developing kid, but rather to the previously formed society and culture in which the child is evolving.

For example, a child growing up in a third-world nation would have a very different development than a youngster growing up in a more prosperous country.

The Chronosystem

The chronosystem is the fifth and final level of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, and it is the most complex. This system is comprised of all of the environmental changes that occur over the course of a person’s lifetime and have an impact on development, including important life transitions and historical events.

Transitions can encompass both normative and non-normative events such as parents divorcing or needing to relocate to a new home.

The Bioecological Model

It is crucial to highlight that Bronfenbrenner (1994) later changed his theory and renamed it the ‘Bioecological model,’ which is now widely accepted. The proximal processes of development, that is, the permanent and persistent kinds of interaction in the local environment, grew more important to Bronfenbrenner as his research progressed. In his latter years, he redirected his attention away from environmental effects and onto the developmental processes that individuals go through throughout time.

(Bronfenbrenner, 1995; Bronfenbrenner, 1995).

Critical Evaluation

It is crucial to note that Bronfenbrenner (1994) later altered his theory and renamed it the ‘Bioecological model,’ which is more descriptive. The proximal processes of development, that is, the permanent and persistent forms of contact in the local environment, grew more important to Bronfenbrenner as time progressed. His research interests switched from environmental impacts to the developmental processes that individuals go through throughout time, which he called “developmental processes.” According to the theory, development occurs through a series of increasingly complicated reciprocal interactions between an active, developing biopsychological human being and the people, things, and symbols that constitute its immediate external environment.

I [ii] [iii] [iv] [iv] We must consider the person, the context, and the developmental result in order to comprehend the influence of these proximal processes on development, according to Bronfenbrenner, because these processes differ and affect people in various ways (BronfenbrennerEvans, 2000).

Bronfenbrenner’s theory in the 21st century

In terms of technical advancements, the world has altered dramatically since this hypothesis was first proposed. To be sure, the exosystem of a child might be broadened to incorporate social networking, video games, and other modern-day activities within the ecological system, but that would be a stretch. As a result, it is possible that ecological systems are still viable, but that they will evolve through time to incorporate new technological discoveries. Kelly and Coughlan (2019) used constructivist grounded theory analysis to develop a theoretical framework for youth mental health recovery, and they discovered that their own more recent theory had many connections to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, as well as to other theories in the field.

Classroom Application

It has been utilized to relate psychological and educational theory to early childhood curriculums and practice, with the Ecological Systems Theory being one example. The developing child is at the heart of the theory, and everything that occurs inside and between the five ecological systems is done so that the kid can profit from it in the classroom, according to the theory.

  • The idea suggests that in order to improve the growth between ecological systems in educational practice, instructors and parents should maintain open lines of contact with one another and collaborate in the best interests of their children. Teachers should also be sensitive to the circumstances in which their students’ families may be finding themselves, including the social and economic variables that are a part of the various educational systems. According to the hypothesis, a positive interaction between parents and instructors should have a favorable impact on the development of the kid. In the same way, the kid must take an active role in their education, participating both intellectually and socially. For beneficial growth to take place, they must collaborate as a team with their peers and participate in meaningful learning activities (Evans, 2012).
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Empirical Evidence

There have been a plethora of research conducted to study the influence of the school environment on students’ performance. LA Lippard is a writer and poet. Paro, Rouse, and Crosby (2017) undertook a research to evaluate Bronfenbrenner’s idea, which was published in the journal Science. Using teacher reports and classroom observations, they conducted an investigation on the teacher-child relationship. According to their findings, these interactions were strongly connected to children’s academic success and classroom conduct, indicating that these relationships are vital for children’s development and supporting the Ecological Systems Theory of development.

The inclusion of this type of school ethos has an impact on those who are a part of the developing child’s ecological systems.

(2014), whole-school approaches to the health curriculum can favorably promote educational attainment and student well-being, and as a result, the microsystems have an impact on the development of the children.

About the Author

Studies on the influence of the school environment on pupils have been conducted in a variety of settings. Theodore A. Lippard Using the theory of Bronfenbrenner, Paro, Rouse, and Crosby (2017) did a research study. Using teacher reports and classroom observations, they looked into the connections between teachers and children. They discovered that these interactions were strongly associated to children’s academic success and classroom conduct, implying that these relationships are vital for children’s development and supporting the Ecological Systems Theory of learning and development.

When a school’s ethos is incorporated, it has an impact on those who are a part of the developing child’s ecological system.

(2014), whole-school approaches to the health curriculum can significantly impact educational attainment and student well-being, indicating that microsystems have an impact on the development of kids.

How to reference this article:

United States v. Bronfenbrenner, U.S.A. (1974). Developmental research, public policy, and the ecology of childhood are all topics covered in this course. 45(1):1-5. Child Development, 45(1):1-5. United States v. Bronfenbrenner, U.S.A. (1977). In the direction of a developmental ecology that is experimental in nature. American psychologist, vol. 32, no. 7, p. 513. United States v. Bronfenbrenner, U.S.A. (1995). A futuristic view on the development of ecological systems over space and time. Uwe Bronfenbrenner and George W.

  • New issues, theoretical models, research methodologies, and empirical discoveries in developmental science in the twenty-first century are being explored.
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  • A bio-ecological model for rethinking nature-nurture relationships.
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  • O’Toole, and A.

Halpenny are among others who have contributed to this work (2017).


(in press) (2019).

Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, vol.

2, pp 161-169.

In order to improve the health and well-being of students as well as their academic accomplishment, the WHO Health Promoting School Framework has been developed.


Brooks-Gunn are co-authors of the paper (2000).

126, no.


N., La Paro, K.

L., Crosby, D.

Lippard, C.

M., Rouse, H.


In preschool, we take a deeper look at teacher–child connections as well as the emotional backdrop of the classroom.

47, no.



A practical application of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory in the context of working with immigrant children and their families.

Wilson, P., Atkinson, M., Hornby, G., Thompson, M., Cooper, M., Hooper, C.

M., Southall, A. Wilson, P., Atkinson, M., Hornby, G., Thompson, M., Cooper, M., Hooper, C. M. (2002). Young brains in our schools: a handbook for teachers and those involved in the educational process YoungMinds was founded in the year 2000. (Jan 2004).

How to reference this article:

United States v. Bronfenbrenner (1974). Children’s development, public politics, and the ecological aspects of childhood are all addressed. 45(1): 1-5. Child Development, 45(1): 1-5. United States v. Bronfenbrenner (1977). Approaching the study of human development via the lens of experimentation 513. American psychologist, vol. 32, no. 7 (july 2004). United States v. Bronfenbrenner (1995). Future perspectives on developmental ecology in relation to space and time United States vs. George W. Bronfenbrenner (2000).

  • U.
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  • An ecological paradigm of nature and nurture that has been rethought.
  • N.
  • O’Toole, and A.
  • Halpenny have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2017).
  • The authors, M.

Coughlan (2019).

Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, vol.

2, pp.

Student health and well-being, as well as academic success, can be improved by using the WHO Health Promoting School Framework.


Brooks-Gunn have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2000).

126 no.


N., La Paro, K.

L., Crosby, D.

N., La Paro, K.

L., Lippard, C.

N., Lippard, C.

N., Lippard, C.

N (2018, February). Young-Friedman, Paat, Yun-Friedman, Paat (2013).

The following authors contributed to this work: Wilson (P), Atkinson (M), Hornby (G), Thompson (M), Cooper (M), Hooper (C.

M.), and Southall (A). Wilson (P), Atkinson (M), Hornby (G), Cooper (M), Hooper (C. M.), and Southall (A) (2002). Teaching young brains in our schools: a handbook for teachers and those who work in educational institutions YoungMinds was established in the year (Jan 2004).

human behavior

Human behavior, the potential and manifested ability for physical, mental, and social action throughout the stages of human life are all discussed in detail in this section. Like other animal species, humans have a typical life course that consists of successive phases of growth, each of which is characterized by a distinct set of physical, physiological and behavioral characteristics. Humans have a life course that is similar to other animal species in that it consists of successive phases of growth.

  • Attempts to describe and explain the changes in human cognitive, emotional, and behavioral capacities and functioning throughout life, from the fetus to old age, are made in the discipline of human development, which is also known as developmental psychology.
  • Many researchers in the subject have been motivated primarily by the need to understand how the culminating mental powers of adulthood were achieved during the developmental stages that preceded them.
  • The author of this essay analyzes the evolution of human behavior.
  • Emotion; learning theory; motivation; perception; personality; and sexual behavior, human are some of the topics covered in further depth in this section of the site.

Theories of development

Throughout human life, human behavior, the potential and demonstrated ability for physical, mental, and social activity are all considered. A typical human life course consists of successive phases of growth, each of which is characterized by a distinct set or characteristics of physical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics. Humans, like all other animal species, have a life course that is characterized by successive phases of growth. Prenatal life, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and maturity are the stages of life included by this definition (including old age).

As a result of the rapidity and magnitude of psychological changes observed during those phases, as well as the fact that these changes culminate in the optimum mental functioning of early adulthood, the majority of scientific research on human development has focused on the period from birth to early adolescence.

Because of this, the focus of this article will be on human growth throughout the first 12 years of one’s existence.

See the section on human development for information on therapy of biological growth.

For in-depth study of certain components of behavioral development, see Emotion, Learning Theory, Motivation, Perception, Personality, and Human Sexual Behavior. Mental diseases include a wide range of conditions that present themselves in substantial behavioral symptoms.

Psychoanalytic theories

In the early twentieth century, Austrian neurologistSigmund Freud made significant contributions to the development of psychoanalytic views of human behavior. Darwin’s theory of evolution, as well as the physical concept of energy as it pertained to the central nervous system, had an impact on Freud’s thinking. The most fundamental idea of Sigmund Freud was that each kid is born with a source of fundamental psychological energy known as libido. Furthermore, as a child’s emotional development progresses, his or her libido becomes increasingly focused on other regions of the body (in addition to people and objects).

  • This was referred to by Freud as the oral stage of development.
  • The anal stage was the term used by Freud to describe this era of development.
  • The latency stage is defined as the period of time between the ages of 12 and 16.
  • According to Freud, adult emotional difficulties are caused by either deprivation or excessive pleasure during the oral, anal, or phallic stages of the sexual development process.
  • Freud developed a theory of personality structure that has had a significant impact.
  • During infancy and childhood, theego, which is the element of the personality that is concerned with reality, develops in order to balance and complement the id.
  • Even if one’s primary innate desires (sex, love, aggressiveness, and self-preservation) are continually being gratified, the ego serves to put a stop to this process by acting as a check and balance.

According to Freud, child development is primarily concerned with the emergence of the functions of the ego, which is responsible for channeling the discharge of fundamental drives and for controlling intellectual and perceptual functions in the process of negotiating realistically with the outside world during the process of negotiating with the outside world.

This is particularly true of his concept of unconscious drives and motives.

Researchers studying newborn and child development have discovered that the concept that personality is influenced by both biological and psychological processes functioning primarily within the family, with the primary foundations being built early in life, has continued to be productive in their investigations.

Erikson regarded emotional development throughout the course of a person’s life as a series of stages in which significant inner conflicts arise, the resolution of which is dependent on both the kid and his or her environment.

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Erikson identified eight stages of development, the first four of which are: (1) infancy, trust versus mistrust, (2) early childhood, autonomy versus shame and doubt, (3) preschool, initiative versus guilt, and (4) school age, industry versus inferiority.

Erikson also identified eight stages of development. If personality difficulties are to be avoided, it is necessary to address conflicts at any step of the process. In the section Development in Adulthood and Old Age, Erikson’s developmental phases during adulthood are addressed in detail.

Psychology: Definitions, branches, history, and how to become one

Psychological science, according to the American Psychological Association, is defined as “the study of the mind and behavior.” In psychology, the mind is studied in terms of how it operates and how it influences behavior. According to the American Psychological Association, it “embraces all facets of the human experience, from the operations of the brain to the acts of countries, from infant development to the care of the elderly.” Psychologists and psychiatrists collaborate to provide treatment for persons suffering from mental illnesses, but they are not the same thing.

  1. The function of the psychiatrist, who is also a medical practitioner, is primarily focused on the prescription of medicine and other treatments to treat and manage mental illnesses.
  2. The mind is a very complex organ, and illnesses that are related to it can be difficult to diagnose and cure.
  3. Some mental health concerns, such as Alzheimer’s disease, have visible physical indicators, such as the plaques that form on the brain.
  4. Patient consultations are conducted by a practicing psychologist who will analyze the patient’s needs and identify the sources of any troubles, and then prescribe or give treatment, such as counseling and psychotherapy if appropriate.
  5. They may conduct research to advise health authorities and other organizations on social and other methods, assess children who have difficulty learning in school, deliver training on how to avoid bullying, work with recruiting teams in corporations, and a variety of other tasks.
  6. There is no universally accepted method of categorizing them, however the following are some popular categories.

Clinical psychology

Clincial psychology is a branch of psychology that merges science, theory, and practice in order to better understand, anticipate, and alleviate difficulties associated with adjustment, handicap, and discomfort. It aids in the process of adaptation, adjustment, and personal growth. Throughout a person’s life, a clinical psychologist focuses on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral elements of human performance. Clinical psychologists work in a variety of settings, including different cultures and socioeconomic levels.

Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the mind.

In clinical psychology, psychological evaluation and psychotherapy are at the heart of the profession, but clinical psychologists are also frequently active in other areas such as research, training, forensic testimony, and other fields.

Cognitive psychology

Problem solving, memory, learning, and language are just a few of the internal mental processes that cognitive psychology explores. It examines the ways in which humans think, perceive, communicate, remember, and learn new information. It is intimately connected to other disciplines such as toneuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. In their research, cognitive psychologists examine how humans acquire, process, and retain knowledge. For example, improving memory, increasing the precision of decision-making, and setting up educational programs to promote learning are all practical uses of neuropsychological research.

Developmental psychology

This is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes that a person through over the course of his or her life, which is also referred to as human development in some circles. It is not only directed at newborns and young children, but also at teens, adults, and the elderly. Motor capabilities, problem-solving abilities, moral understanding, language acquisition, emotions, personality, self-concept, and identity formation are all factors to consider. It also examines the relationship between intrinsic mental structures and learning via experience, as well as how a person’s qualities interact with their environment and how this effects their development.

Evolutionary psychology

This is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes that a person through over the course of his or her life, which is also referred to as human development in popular culture. In addition to newborns and young children, it also focuses on teens, adults, and the elderly. Motor skills, problem-solving abilities, moral understanding, language acquisition, emotions, personality, self-concept, and identity formation are some of the factors that influence identity development. This research also examines the relationship between intrinsic mental structures and learning via experience, or the way in which a person’s features interact with their environment and how this effects development.

Forensic psychology

When it comes to forensic psychology, it is the application of psychology to criminal investigation and legal issues. A forensic psychologist is a professional who works in the criminal justice system and civil courts to use psychology as a scientific discipline. It entails evaluating the psychological elements that may have an impact on a case or conduct and presenting the findings in court.

Health psychology

Health psychology is also referred to as behavioral medicine or medical psychology, among other things. It investigates how sickness and health are influenced by factors such as behavior, biology, and social situation. Health psychologists look at the full person and what impacts their health condition rather than just the biological reasons of sickness, as physicians do frequently. This may include information on their socioeconomic level, education, and background, as well as habits that may have an influence on the disease, such as following instructions and taking medicine as prescribed.

In clinical settings, health psychologists frequently collaborate with other medical specialists to provide patient care.


Brain anatomy and function are studied in connection to behavioral and psychological processes in the field of neuropsychology, which is also known as cognitive neuroscience. If a problem involves lesions in the brain, as well as examinations that entail monitoring electrical activity in the brain, a neuropsychologist may be called in to provide assistance. After suffering a suspected or diagnosed brain damage such as a stroke, a neuropsychological exam is performed to identify whether or not the individual is likely to encounter behavioral issues.

Occupational psychology

Individuals at work and in training are evaluated and suggestions are made by occupational or organizational psychologists, who are involved in the assessment and recommendation process. They assist businesses in identifying more efficient ways of operating and in understanding how individuals and groups behave at work. This information may be used to increase employee effectiveness, efficiency, work satisfaction, and retention by providing them with relevant information.

Social psychology

In order to understand how social forces influence human behavior, social psychology employs scientific methodologies. Specifically, it aims to explain how the actual, perceived, or suggested presence of other people has an impact on one’s feelings, behavior, and ideas. When it comes to social psychology, the areas of interest include group dynamics, social perception, non-verbal conduct such as violence and prejudice, and leadership styles. Sociological perception and social interaction are considered to be essential components of comprehending social behavior.

The number of branches is continuing to expand indefinitely.

Plato proposed that mental processes take place in the brain in 387 BCE, while Aristotle proposed that mental processes take place in the heart in 335 BCE, respectively.

The earliest institutions dedicated to the treatment of mental disorders were reported to have been established by Islamic doctors during the Middle Ages.

Philippe Pinel, a French physician, was the first to release patients suffering from mental illnesses from incarceration in 1793, marking the beginning of a shift toward more compassionate treatment.

He established the world’s first laboratory dedicated only to psychological study at Leipzig University, which is still in operation today.

Principles of Psychology was written by William James, an American philosopher who lived in the late nineteenth century.

In the same year, New York State approved the State Care Act, which mandated that persons suffering from mental illnesses be removed from poor homes and admitted to a mental health facility for treatment.

Stanley Hall, who served as its first president.

During his life from 1849 to 1936, Ivan Pavlov conducted the renowned experiment that demonstrated that dogs salivated when they anticipated food, thereby bringing the notion of “training” to the world.

In order to obtain a better knowledge of the mind, he employed interpretative methods, introspection, and clinical observations.

According to Freud, the unconscious was responsible for the majority of people’s ideas and behaviors, as well as for mental health problems in general.



After a new movement in psychology was created by an American psychologist, John B. Watson, in 1913, the focus of psychology was shifted. It is not our own mental processes that determine our behavior, he said, but our responses to our surroundings that determine our behavior. The study of behaviorism was concerned with how people learn new behaviors from their surroundings.


Behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory, in the opinion of humanists, were excessively dehumanizing. We are not victims of our surroundings or our unconscious, they said, and our own mental processes play an active part in shaping our actions rather than being influenced by them. The humanist movement places a great priority on the emotions, free choice, and a subjective perspective on one’s own life and other people’s lives.

Cognitive theory

This school of thinking in psychology was established in the 1970s and is considered to be the most current. Psychologists that study cognitive theory think that we take in information from our surroundings through our senses and then mentally process that information by organizing it, altering it, remembering it, and linking it to previously stored information. Language, memory, learning, perceptual systems, mental diseases, and dreams are all examples of how cognitive theory is utilized.


Nowadays, psychologists research all of these ways and select the one that appears to be the most effective for a certain circumstance from among them. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), in the United States, a psychologist can become licensed to practice after earning a PhD degree in psychology from a recognized university in the discipline of psychology. Additionally, each state has its own set of standards for licensure. Read the article in Spanish if you want.

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