The Gandhara Style Was Influenced By What Other Culture


the gandhara style was influenced by what other culture

In what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan, Gandhara art is a form of Buddhist visual art that emerged between the first century bce and the seventh century ce. In addition to being heavily influenced by ancient Greek and Roman art, the style also drew heavily on Indian traditions of composition. As a result, the Gandhara sculpture included characteristics of both Western and Eastern art styles. Since ancient times, the Gandhara area had served as a crossroads for many cultural influences.

A supporter of Gandhara School, which is well known for the first sculptural portrayals of the Buddha in human form, both Shakas and Kushanas were prominent figures in the kingdom.

What is the main theme of Gandhara art?

This form of art was intimately tied with Mahayana Buddhism, and as a result, the Lord Buddha and the Bodhisattvas were the primary subjects of this art. As a result, it is possible to hypothesize that this style was Indian in conception and idea, but alien in implementation and execution. The Bamiyan Buddha sculptures, which are an example of the Gandhara school of art, are one such example.

Who introduced Greek culture and ideas in Gandhara?

Alexander the Great invaded this region around 330 B.C., and he, along with the Indo-Greek rulers that followed him, established classical traditions that were an essential element of Gandhara’s aesthetic language over the course of the following seven centuries.

What do you know about Gandhara civilization?

It was called Gandhara the territory that comprised the Peshawar valley, Swat, Buner, Bajaur, and hills of Swat Valley, all of which are located in the northwestern part of modern-day Pakistan. According to archeological investigations, the Gandhara Civilization first appeared around 500 BCE and went on to accomplish great things under a variety of kings.

What is Gandhara school of art known for?

The Gandhara school is renowned for producing the world’s earliest sculptural portrayals of the Buddha in the human form.

Which dynasty is associated with Gandhara school of art?

Notes: The Gandhara School of art, along with the Mathura School, was established in the first century AD under the reign of the Kushana ruler Kanishka. A supporter of Gandhara School, which is well known for the first sculptural portrayals of the Buddha in human form, both Shakas and Kushanas were prominent figures in the kingdom.

What are the difference between Gandhara style of art and Mathura style of art?

. External influences: The Gandhara school of art was inspired by Greeks and maybe Macedonians, but the Mathura school of art was entirely indigenous, with no external influences. In terms of material, the Gandhara School of Art employed Blue Grey and grey sandstone, whereas the Mathura School of Art used red sandstone with spots.

What was the religion of Gandhara?

Buddhism Under Kanishka’s reign, Gandhara was elevated to the status of a Buddhist holy region, attracting a large number of Chinese pilgrims who came to see the monuments linked with various Jataka stories.

Mahayana Buddhism flourished in Gandhara, and Buddha was shown in human form as a result of this. Under the rule of the Kushans, new Buddhist stupas were constructed, while existing stupas were renovated and expanded.

What made Gandhara an important place in the past?

Taxila and Peshawar, the ancient Gandhara’s two most prominent cities, were key cultural centers, as you said. Gandhara was the birthplace of a particular art style that was a fusion of Indian Buddhist and Greco-Roman elements that flourished from the first century bce to the sixth–seventh centuries ce.

What was the subject matter of Gandhara art?

Sakyamuni, the real Buddha, depictions of the Buddha’s significant life events and teachings, and numerous bodhisattvas are all shown as subjects in Gandharan art. Buddhist artists working under the heavy influence of Greco-Roman culture created numerous masterpieces of sacred sculpture that had a significant impact on the development of Mahayana Buddhism.

Who is known as great empire builder he Patronised Buddhism and the Gandhara school of art?

Buddhist stupas and temples were created in the Gandhran city of Peshawar (Skt. Purusapura), which served as the capital of the Kushan empire, during the reign of Kanishka the Great (128–151).

What is Gandhara architecture?

The architecture of Gandhara, like its sculpture, blends aspects borrowed from both Indian and western predecessors with components derived from local traits. The ruins of religious structures such as stupas and monasteries serve as the primary archaeological sources for the architecture and sculpture of Gandhara, as well as for other parts of India.

In which one of the following the Gandhara sculptures of the Buddha are typically Indian and not Greek or Roman?

Q. In which of the following countries are the Gandhara sculptures of the Buddha primarily Indian, rather than Greek or Roman in style? Notes: The fundamental iconography, on the other hand, remained Indian.

Who influenced the culture of Gandhara and Taxila?

Historically, Taxila and Peshawar, the two most prominent cities in ancient Gandhara, were important cultural centers. Gandhara was the birthplace of a particular art style that was a fusion of Indian Buddhist and Greco-Roman elements that flourished from the first century bce to the sixth–seventh centuries ce.

When did the Gandhara civilization exist?

First millennium BCE (Before the Common Era) The Gandhara Civilization thrived in what is now northern Pakistan and Afghanistan from the middle of the first century BCE to the beginning of the second millennium CE, and it was centered in the region that is now Pakistan.

How did Gandhara become Kandahar?

The city was previously known by the name ‘Quandhar,’ which was taken from the name of the surrounding area of Gandhara. Kandahar was captured by Alexander in 329 B.C.E., ceded by the Greek to Chandragupta in 305 B.C.E., and is commemorated with a rock inscription praising the great king Asoka.

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What was the name of the most ancient university that was established in Gandhara Civilisation?

Taxila University of Gandhara is a public research university in Gandhara. The Taxila University of Gandhara, as well as the Buddhist Monastery at Takhtbhai, are two of the most well-known institutions in the region. It is also densely populated with ancient sites of considerable historical and cultural importance. The University takes its name from this renowned civilisation, which was one of the earliest of its type and had a significant impact on the world at the time.

Where did the civilization begin?

Mesopotamia Civilizations originally arose in Mesopotamia (what is now Iraq) and afterwards in Egypt, according to archaeological evidence. Civilizations had flourished in the Indus Valley by around 2500 BCE, in China by approximately 1500 BCE, and in Central America (what is now Mexico) by approximately 1200 BCE, according to archaeological evidence.

Civilizations eventually arose on every continent, with the exception of Antarctica. 6th of February, 2018

Where would we find the remains of Gandhara civilization?

Peshawar Valley is a valley in Pakistan. The ruins of the Gandhara civilisation may be found in the Peshawar valley, as well as in various sections of eastern Afghanistan, among other places. In the Gandhara culture, Texila served as the primary administrative center. The civilisation can be traced back to the first millennium BC. 7th of July, 2012

Which of following represents Gandhara school of art?

Answer: Bamiyan Buddha is the right response. The Gandhara School of art is represented by the Bamiyan Buddha. From the first century CE forward, Gandhara was a flourishing civilization (now in Pakistan). Art producing centers such as Mathura in northern India and Vengi in Andhra Pradesh have risen to prominence in recent years.

Which form of Buddhism was prominent during the Sultanate period?

‘Vajrayana’ is the proper response. The development of Vajrayana Buddhism occurred throughout the medieval period, which also coincided with the emergence of the Sultanate period.

Where did Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon?

Sarnath An extremely famous topic in medieval Buddhist art is the Buddha presenting his first sermon in a deer forest at Sarnath, north of Bodhgaya, where he had gained enlightenment just a few weeks before, and which has become a favorite subject in modern Buddhist art.

Which of the following statements about the Gandhara school of art is not correct *?

Which of the following statements about the Gandhara School of Art is NOT correct? Answer:Gandhara School of art enjoyed the liberal patronage of Indo-Greek rulers. Notes: Gandhara School of art enjoyed the liberal patronage of Kushana rulers especially Kanishka.

What is Mathura art style?

It thrived at Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India, from the 2nd century bc to the 12th century ad. Its most notable contributions were produced during the Kushna and Gupta periods (the 1st–6th centuries ad), when the city was a bustling commercial and pilgrimage destination.

Which of the following is not related to Gandhara school of art?

All of the Ellora caves, Ajanta caves, and Elephanta caves have been influenced by the Gnadhara school of art, although the Khajuraho temple is not associated with this school of art in any way.

Was there any difference between Buddhism and Jainism?

In Buddhism, the life and teachings of Gautama Buddha are the focus of attention, but in Jainism, the focus is on the life and teachings of Mahavira. … As a polytheistic faith, Jainism seeks to liberate the soul by non-violent means. Its aims are similar to those of Buddhism.

When did Buddhist art develop?

After the historical life of Siddhartha Gautama, in the 6th to 5th centuries BCE, Buddhist art developed on the Indian subcontinent, where it expanded throughout Asia and the world. It then evolved via contact with various civilizations as it traveled around the world.

What was the significance of the Kushan Empire?

Providing security that encouraged travel across the Khunjerab Pass and facilitated the spread of Mahayana Buddhism into China,the Kushan Empire linked the seagoing trade of the Indian Ocean with the commerce of the Silk Road, via the Indus Valley, while also providing a link between the Indian Ocean and the Silk Road.

Which civilization is Peshawar from?

In a region that was once ruled by several tribes of Indo-Iranian descent, Peshawar is a significant city.

The territory was linked with the ancient kingdom of Gandhara and had ties to the Harappan culture of the Indus River Valley, as well as to Bactria and other ancient kingdoms centered in Afghanistan, among other places and civilizations.

Which country influenced the Gandhara art?

In addition to being heavily influenced by ancient Greek and Roman art, the style also drew heavily on Indian traditions of composition. As a result, the Gandhara sculpture included characteristics of both Western and Eastern art styles. Since ancient times, the Gandhara area had served as a crossroads for many cultural influences.

What influences did Hellenistic culture have on Buddhist imagery?

Buddha and the spiritual path to Nirvana were both clearly influenced by the Greeks, and the Buddhists used Hellenistic tactics to exalt the Buddha and the spiritual trip to Nirvana. As more figures were depicted in the sculptures, the variety of the work increased. A civilized empire was established by Kanishka I, the ruler of the Kushan dynasty, who embraced Buddhism as a technique of doing so.

Gandhara School of Art (English)

There are many different types of gandhara art. Some of the most well-known are: gandhara art and architecture gandhara art history Islamic art produced during the time of the Mughal Empire was heavily influenced by the culture of Gandhara sculpture gandhara art in pakistan characteristics of gandhara art See more entries in the FAQ category.

Gandhara art

Sculpture is a type of visual art that can be seen in a variety of settings. Date range: around 100 BCE to approximately 700 BCE Art of Gandhara, a form of Buddhist visual art that flourished in what is now northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan from from the first millennium BCE to the seventh millennium BCE, was known as Gandhara art. The style, which is said to have originated in Greco-Roman times, appears to have thrived primarily under theKushan dynasty and to have been contemporaneous with an important but distinct school ofKushan art at Mathura (Uttar Pradesh, India).

  1. During the time of the Indian emperorAshoka (3rd century BCE), the area became the focus of intense Buddhist missionary effort, which continued to the present day.
  2. In its portrayal of Buddhist mythology, the Gandhara school integrated numerous themes and methods from Classical Roman art, such as vine scrolls, cherubs with garlands, tritons, and centaurs, as well as elements from other cultures.
  3. More Information on This Subject may be found here.
  4. The Gandhara school, which was contemporaneous with the school of Mathura and lasted almost as long as it did, is distinguished by its distinctive style, which is unlike anything else.
  5. Originally, the statues were painted and plated in gold.
  6. David Jackson captured this image.
  7. The importance of Gandhara in the development of the Buddha image has been a source of much debate among scholars.
  8. It was the Gandhara school that drew on the anthropomorphic traditions of Roman religion and depicted the Buddha as having a young Apollo-like countenance and clad in robes reminiscent of those seen on Roman imperial sculptures.
  9. During the period between Gandhara and Mathura, the schools of art exchanged ideas and the overall movement was away from a naturalistic notion and toward a more idealized, abstract picture.
  10. In the Victoria and Albert Museum in London is a statue of the Buddha Maitreya made of schist from Gandhara, Pakistan, from the Kushan empire in the 2nd–4th centuries CE.

David Jackson captured this image. The Victoria and Albert Museum in London has an IS.100-1972 number. Virginia Gorlinski has changed and updated this article in the most recent version.

The Greek Influence on Buddhist Art: Gandhara and Mathura

According to certain historians, Alexander the Great is responsible for the spread of Greek culture in ancient India. He began by conquering countries in the east and advanced all the way to modern Pakistan and the Indian state of Gujarat before being defeated. After being beaten by King Porus in 326 BCE, he decided to turn around. When the Indo-Greeks came into contact with the Greeks, they were impacted by them since they were exposed to so much of their culture, philosophy, art, and architecture.

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In that location, we can observe the impact of Greek painters on Indian sculptures, which is notable.

Because both Bactria and Gandhara were ruled by the same Indo-Greek ruler, we can tell that the same individuals worked in both areas by comparing the art on the coins.

After all, it was not until the Hellenistic period that the Buddha was shown in his iconic form.

Gandhara and Mathura Schools of Art

Both theGandharaandMathuraschools of art became well-known as Buddhist sculpture centers as a result of their work. One of the most distinguishing elements of this school of art was the anthropomorphic portrayal of Buddha and Bodhisattvas, which was particularly prevalent in its sculptural expressions. It is believed that human depictions of the Buddha began to appear in Gandhara and Mathura at around the same period, although they can be separated from one another. The Mathura pictures are reminiscent of Indian male fertility gods, except that their hair is shorter and curlier, and their clothes are lighter and more transparent.

  1. Image 1.A Bodhisattva from Pakistan, during the second-third centuries.
  2. LACMA A significant difference between the Gandhara school and the Mathura style is the considerable impact of Hellenistic characteristics on its architecture.
  3. The Hellenistic ideal human shape was thin and muscular, with muscles clearly evident.
  4. The elaborately pleated clothing worn by these models were inspired by the dress styles of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Parthians.
  5. The William Randolph Hearst Collection is a private collection owned by William Randolph Hearst.
  6. Therefore, when he was created in human form, certain characteristics like as his extended earlobes and theushnishaon top of his head were employed to distinguish him from other people.
  7. Hellenistic culture established the notion of distinguishing characteristics, since the Greeks used symbols to depict their gods and heroes in order to communicate their messages.
  8. Buddha was fashioned after Apollo, the Greek deity of the sun, who was worshipped in ancient Greece.

Image 3.The God KumaraPakistan, courtesy of Wikipedia The Twentieth Century After then, the Hellenistic style was combined with Indian iconography to create a hybrid style, which is now known as Gray SchistLACMAIt was only later that the Hellenistic style was combined with Indian iconography to create a hybrid style.

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Gandhara: A Melting Pot of Cultures

Buddhism is not typically associated with Pakistan’s northern and western boundaries, despite the fact that it is. However, Pakistan’s northwestern area was historically a part of the Gandhara region, where Buddhist culture and customs flourished, particularly during the first and fourth centuries AD. Gandhara, which was ruled at various periods by the Persians, the Greeks, the Indian Mauryas, and the Kushans, was likewise susceptible to a wide range of cultural influences. The Art and Exhibition Hall in Bonn, Germany, has been transformed into a museum dedicated to ancient treasures and artifacts from this time period.

  • The snow-capped peaks of the Hindu Kush mountain range are shown in a large painting that hangs far over the room’s ceiling.
  • Abdul Samad, a guest from Pakistan, is among many who have come to see the exhibition.
  • Aspects of Gandhara art that he is particularly interested in include the influences of Indian mythology on it, as well as the cohabitation of the Buddhist and Hindu religions.
  • At particular, he is taken by one of the stone sculptures on show in the gallery.
  • In one scene, he is portrayed on his ‘vahana,’ or chariot, which is shown as a peacock.
  • Samad explains that in Gandhara, Skanda was always shown as a warrior deity, wielding a spear in his right hand and flying with his bird in his left.
  • A statue of the Greek goddess Athena, which was erected during the reign of the Greek warrior Alexander the Great in the 4th Century BC, is only a few steps from from the entrance.

The figures of men and women wearing costumes that mimic the Greek toga are carved into the palettes.

This duo may be seen in the local drinking establishments.

During the reign of the Kushans, Buddhist art thrived.

The Kushans were patrons of Buddhism in Gandhara, and under their reign, Buddhist art had a renaissance.

The curls on the hair are painstakingly carved to look like snail shells, and the rest of the hair is carved in the same way.

“In Gandhara, the most renowned style of Bodhisattvas is heavy jewelry, and he is dressed in heavy jewelry as well as the Kafur Style, which is represented by his hair knot.

The Gandhara area used to reach all the way up to Bamiyan in Afghanistan, which is famous for the gigantic twin stone sculptures of Buddha that have been carved into the valley floor there.

The sculptures, which can reach heights of up to 53 meters, have been replicated in a one-of-a-kind 3-dimensional virtual display at the exhibition.

The archaeological sites in Pakistan and Afghanistan contain the only remaining vestiges of Buddhism in these countries today. Gandhara, on the other hand, has been portrayed as it truly was at the Bonn exhibition: as an artistic centre and a melting pot of diverse civilizations, as it was.

Art of Gandhara

Nearly two years ago, this ground-breaking exhibition of Buddhist art from Gandhara, an ancient kingdom whose capital was in the present-day Peshawar valley in northwest Pakistan, was scheduled to open. The exhibition, which was originally scheduled to open at the Asia Society in New York last spring, was postponed for six months after loans from museums in Karachi and Lahore were jeopardized by a flood, the dissolution of the Pakistani Ministry of Culture by constitutional amendment, and deteriorating diplomatic relations between the United States and Pakistan.

  • Lahore Museum, G-131, standing Bodhisattva Maitreya, 3rd–4th century C.E., gray schist, 100 x 38.5 x 14 cm.
  • A valuable piece of real estate because of its rich valleys and mild temperature, but most importantly because of its strategic location on one of the most important trade routes between Asia and the Mediterranean.
  • The Graeco-Bactrians from Afghanistan, the Scythians from central Asia, and the Parthians from Iran were among the subsequent invasions.
  • Kushans, a nomadic tribe from Central Asia, conquered Gandhara in the first century CE.
  • Known as the Third Emperor of the Kushan dynasty in northern India, Kanishka I was a great advocate of Buddhism who governed from the northern Indian cities of Gandhara and Mathura.
  • Using a variety of sculptures containing Indian and Greco-Roman elements, the first section of the show examined some of the cultural influences at work in Gandharan art.
  • A little sitting buddha is protected by curling acanthus leaves atop a Corinthian capital in the style of the Romans.
  • An additional feature is a half column, which is comparable to the kind found in Iran, while the buxom female figure resting on it is a representation of an Indian yakshini, or tree spirit, which is depicted on the narrative relief.

Mohammed Nari, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, 4th century C.E., light gray schist, 199 x 97 x 28 cm, Lahore Museum, G-155, image courtesy of In Buddhist iconography, the Kushan period witnessed several remarkable developments, including the depiction of the Buddha in human form (he had previously been represented by symbols such as a footprint), a renewed interest in the stories of his life, and the appearance of an ever-expanding cast of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and celestial deities.

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This period of artistic innovation coincided with and reflected the development of Mahayana Buddhist ideas, which included the emphasis on developing an individual relationship with the deity, the concept of a bodhisattva who attains enlightenment but chooses to forego nirvana in order to help others, and the notion of multiple here-and-now buddhas who are accessible to the practitioner through meditation and visualization.

For the same reasons as in India, the first depictions of Lord Buddha in Gandharan art most commonly appeared as part of the carved embellishments on stuppas — Buddhist reliquaries—and the next portion of the presentation includes architectural details from such monuments.

June, the mother of Prince Siddhartha, smiles as she dreams of her newborn baby, who appears in the form of an elephant surrounded by a halo, in one especially endearing illustration.

Practitioners might follow the tale of the Buddha and his spiritual journey via the use of such images, and, by sticking to the same path of renunciation, meditation, and wisdom, they may also gain enlightenment on the same day.

One corner of the room contains an imposing second-century bodhisattva who conforms to western standards of masculine beauty; across the room, a less imposing but dashingly bejeweled and mustachioed Maitreya (the future Buddha) represents the full flowering of the Gandharan figural style, in which idealized film star appearances are combined with a naturalistic treatment of the body and its enveloping draperies.

  1. Head of Buddha, schistosephylitte, late 2nd-early 3rd century C.E., 36.8 x 19.7 x 23.5 cm, Asia Society.
  2. and Mrs John D.
  3. It might be a representation of Amitabha Buddha’s Sukhavati paradise, or it could be an anonymous Buddha imparting a teaching.
  4. In Gandharan Buddhist art, date is ambiguous, meanings are muddled, influences come and go, and works range from awkward to sublime, from elegant to tacky, and from clumsy to sublime again.
  5. However, the overall impression is one of vibrant activity and a developing system of thought—one that would necessitate the creation of new visual languages, one that would find one such language in Gandhara’s syncretic art.
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Introduction of Graeco-Buddhism: The Gandhara School of Art

In his novel ‘Olympus: An Indian Retelling of the Greek Myths,’ Devdutt Pattanaik, a renowned author and mythologist, loosely based on the invincible Macedonian warrior Alexander III and a contemporary Indian sage (whom the author prefers to call a gymnosophist) at a discourse, where cross-cultural and philosophical interaction takes place between the parties, has written down his thoughts on Greek mythology.

Despite the fact that the events depicted in the book are believed to have been fictionalized to some extent, there is historical evidence of the Macedonian King engaging in discussion with Vedic Indian sages known to the Greeks as Calanus and Mandanes, who were known to the Macedonians as Calanus and Mandanes.

According to Alexander, who had been inspired by the spiritual wisdom held by Mandanes and his pupils, he transported Calanus to the Persian highlands, where he met up with his noblemen and the battle-weary Macedonian phalanx.

Maren Niehoff writes in her book Philo on Jewish Identity and Culture that Calanus was considered by the Greeks to be the pinnacle of “eastern honesty and freedom,” and that he was the embodiment of “eastern honesty and freedom.” Because of the erratic and shambolic advances made by the Macedonian army after Alexander’s death in 324 BCE, which Calanus is believed to have predicted during his self-immolation at Persia a year earlier, the once-invincible Macedonian army transfigured itself into what Athenian orator and demagogue Demades equated with the blinded Cyclops.

  1. By the time of the Macedonian overlord’s death, the territorial borders of his Empire (as described in Dr.
  2. His empire spanned from Macedonia in Europe to the Indus River in India, and included much of Greece, Crete, Syria, Egypt, and Persia.
  3. The four unrivaled Hellenistic power blocs were formed as a result of the division of territories that followed a prolonged war that lasted forty years: Ptolemaic Egypt, Seleucid Mesopotamia and Central Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon.
  4. Meanwhile, despite the Greeks’ forty-year exile from the northern Indian provinces, tremendous changes appeared to have occurred in the political landscape of the subcontinent during this time period.
  5. Seleucus returned to Gandhara in 305 BCE with the goal of reclaiming the satrapies and proving himself to be the indestructible Greek ruler of the Eastern Mediterranean.
  6. Soon after, when tensions between the contending clans died down, a treaty was signed that reaffirmed the Mauryan hegemony in northern India, and Seleucus returned to the Central Asian battlefield with new found friends and war elephants in tow.
  7. As a direct result of this alliance, which was established centuries ago between Greece and India, the Mauryans began to accept Buddhism as their official state religion, a process that began under the beneficent Emperor Ashoka.
  8. A full-scale invasion of the subcontinent was launched as a result of this, with Demetrius, the Greco-Bactrian monarch (whose daughter Berenice is claimed to have been married to Brihadratha), leading the charge from Greece.
  9. “Obviously, for the Greeks who lived in India and suffered under the persecution of the Shunga (to whom they were considered outsiders and heretics), Demetrios must have seemed like a savior,” writes Italian Orientalist Mario Bussagli, who is well-known for his writings on the subject.
  10. The incorporation of different Hindu and Buddhist aspects into Graeco Roman art and architecture, as well as the transmogrification of indigenous Indian letters into Bactrian Classical forms, were more significant.

Yuvraj Krishan writes in his book, “The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development,” that “there is evidence of Hellensitic sculptors coming in contact with Sanchi and Bharhut.” Several characteristics of the construction, such the fluted bell and the addorsed capital of the Persepolitan order, as well as the extensive use of the Hellenistic flame palmette or honeysuckle motif, indicate that it was influenced by Hellenistic and other foreign influences.

“The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity,” written by John Boardman, is a classic work in which he observes that the Kharosthi script (one that was widely prevalent in usage at Gandhara) has been discovered in Bharhut, in the form of mason’s marks on various relics and remnants of the ancient Stupa, which indicate that the builders came from Northwestern India and were heavily influenced by Hellenistic ideals.

As we know it today, the sculpture of the Gautama Buddha is believed to have originated in Gandhara during the first or second centuries AD.

Foucher widely defines these pictures as “the most magnificent, and certainly the most ancient of the Buddhas,” according to a popular description.

“The Buddha figures were adorned in clothing similar to those seen on statues from the Roman Empire,” says the author.

Despite the fact that such an expensive embellishment may have obscured the fundamental Indian meaning, it did not.

As a result, the notion of Vajrapani was born, who is also considered to be the guardian of the Buddha by many.

By this period, another artistic style known as the Mathura School of Art had achieved widespread appeal, putting it on an equal footing with the intricateness of the Gandhara Art in terms of complexity.

Henceforth, throughout the subcontinent, was born a broad trend that, “was away from a naturalistic idea and toward a more abstract image.” Writer is a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of London

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