How Is Substance Use Viewed In The Hispanic/latino Culture

Contents

SAMHSA’s National Helpline

  • What Is Substance Abuse Treatment and How Does It Work? A Booklet for Children and Their Families This program was developed for family members of those who suffer from alcoholism or drug addiction difficulties. Questions regarding substance abuse, including its symptoms, different forms of therapy, and rehabilitation are addressed in this section. This publication addresses the issues of children whose parents have drug misuse or addiction disorders. Addiction to alcohol and drugs may occur in even the most loving of families. This book describes how alcohol and drug addiction have an impact on the entire family. He describes the process of drug and alcohol addiction therapy, how family interventions may be a first step toward recovery, and how to assist children in homes afflicted by alcoholism and drug misuse. It’s Not Your Fault (National Association of Colleges and Employers) (PDF | 12 KB) Assures kids who have parents who misuse alcohol or drugs that “It’s not your fault!” and that they are not alone in their struggles with substance addiction. A resource list is provided, which encourages kids to seek emotional assistance from other adults, school counselors, and youth support organizations such as Alateen, among other places. It Hurts So Much: It Doesn’t Have to Be This Way The organization provides information on alcohol and drug addiction to youngsters whose parents or friends’ parents may be struggling with substance misuse issues. The author encourages young people to look out for one another by talking about their problems and joining support organizations such as Alateen. When There Has Been an Attempt: A Guide to Taking Care of a Family Member Once you have received treatment in the emergency department, Aids family members in dealing with the aftermath of a relative’s suicide attempt by providing information and resources. Provides an overview of the emergency department treatment procedure, a list of questions to ask regarding follow-up care, and information on how to limit risk and maintain safety while at home. Family therapy can be beneficial for people who are recovering from mental illness or substance abuse. This course examines the function of family therapy in the treatment of mental illness and substance misuse. A family therapy session is described in detail, along with the people that conduct them. It also includes information on the usefulness of family therapy in the rehabilitation process. Please visit the SAMHSA Store for further resources.

Substance Abuse Statistics for Hispanic Americans

Hispanic Americans are one of the fastest growing groups of the United States population, accounting for around 10% of the total. According to the United States Bureau of the Census, there are 60 million individuals of Hispanic descent residing in the United States as of July 1, 2018, accounting for 18.3 percent of the overall population. 1 With the Hispanic population predicted to grow to more than 30% of the population by 20502, it is critical that we address any inequities in drug abuse and addiction treatment that these individuals are now experiencing.

Substance Abuse Among Hispanic Americans

Generally speaking, the rates of substance misuse among Hispanic Americans are similar to those of the overall U.S. population, while there are some minor variances between the two groups. The following are some of the findings from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 3

  • Generally speaking, the rates of substance misuse among Hispanic Americans are similar to those of the entire U.S. population, with a few minor exceptions. The following are some of the findings of the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:. 3

Differences Across Hispanic Communities

The rates of substance addiction among Hispanic Americans are usually similar to those of the overall U.S. population, with a few minor exceptions. The following are some of the findings of the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 3

  • Among recent illegal drug users, Puerto Ricans have the greatest rate (6.9 percent), while South Americans have the lowest percentage (2.1 percent). In recent marijuana usage, Puerto Ricans have the greatest rate (5.6 percent), whilst Cubans and South Americans have the lowest rates (2.1 percent). In the United States, other Hispanics (individuals who are not native-born citizens of a Spanish-speaking country such as Puerto Rico, Mexico, Cuba, Central America, or South America) have the highest rate of recent cocaine use (1.7 percent), while Cubans have the lowest rate of recent cocaine use (0.5 percent).

Puerto Rican men and women, according to a recent study published in the journal Alcohol and Alcoholism, tend to be the heaviest drinkers among all Hispanic Americans, with males being the most heavily alcoholic than women. 5 According to the study’s authors, cultural disparities between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic white Americans are to blame for the fact that Puerto Ricans are nearly three times more likely than non-Hispanic white Americans to acquire alcohol use problems.

  • As reported in the journal Alcohol and Alcoholism, Puerto Rican men and women tend to be the most heavy drinkers among all Hispanic Americans, according to a recent study published in the journal Alcohol and Alcoholism. 5 Researchers believe that there are cultural distinctions between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic white Americans that explain why Puerto Ricans are nearly three times more likely to develop alcohol use problems than non-Hispanic white Americans.

According to the findings of the study, Cuban males consume the least amount of alcohol compared to other Hispanic men, while Mexican women consume the least amount of alcohol compared to other Hispanic women. Beer is the favored beverage among all Hispanic subgroups in the United States, with wine coming in second. 5

The Discrepancy in Treatment Options and Outcomes Among Hispanics

Alcohol and other drug misuse is a serious public health concern in the United States. Unfortunately, Hispanic Americans suffer from the repercussions of their substance addiction at a higher rate than their non-Hispanic counterparts, which is unfortunate. Although the rates of drug addiction among Hispanic Americans are similar to those of the general population in the United States, there is a significant disparity between Hispanics and the rest of the population when it comes to access to substance abuse treatment.

6-7 According to the Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 91 percent of Hispanic Americans who suffer from a substance use problem are unable to obtain the care they require at a specialist facility (such as substance abuse rehabilitation centers).

8 An increase in the availability of culturally appropriate treatment programs can help to alleviate some of the discrepancies in treatment that exist within the Hispanic population.

9

Sources

  1. The Census Bureau of the United States of America (2019). In a nutshell, here’s all you need to know: Hispanic, percent
  2. Ennis, S. R., Rios-Vargas, M., Albert, N. G. Hispanic, percent
  3. Ennis, S. R., Rios-Vargas, M., Albert, N. G. (2011). The Hispanic population in the United States in 2010 (2010 Census Briefs C2010BR-04). Administration on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration
  5. U.S Census Bureau (2019). The National Institute on Drug Abuse has published the detailed tables from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2003). The Prevalence of Drug Use Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities
  6. C.F. Rós-Bedoya and D. Freile-Salinas (2014). An investigation of the prevalence of alcohol use disorders among various Hispanic subgroups in the United States. Wells, K., Klap, R., Koike, A., and Sherbourne, C. (2005). Alcohol and Alcoholism, 49(5), 549–556. (2001). Disparities in unmet needs for alcoholism, drug misuse, and mental health care exist among ethnic groups. SAMSHA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) and the American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(12), 2027-2032. (2012). A report by the National Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (NSDUH) titled The Need for and Receipt of Substance Use Treatment Among Hispanics was published in 2010. The authors are K.G. Chartier and T. Carmody. The authors are M. Akhtar and M. Stebbins. Walters and D. Warden are also authors on the report (2016). A study of Hispanic subgroups, acculturation, and the outcomes of substance abuse treatment. Alvarez, J., Jason, L.A., Olson, B.D., Ferrari, J.R., Davis, M.I., Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 59, 74-82
  7. Alvarez, J., Jason, L.A., Olson, B.D., Ferrari, J.R., Davis, M.I. (2007). Prevalence of substance misuse and treatment outcomes among Latinos and Latinas In the Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 6(2), 115-141, it is said that

Student Corner: Substance Abuse/Addiction among Latino and Hispanic Americans

Religion and substance use among Latino Emerging Adults: A Cross-Cultural Study Oscar S. Escobar, MA, a student contributor, analyzes the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Latino emerging adults.

Abstract

Approximately half of the population increase in the United States was accounted for by the Latino community in 2010, and Latinos now account for 16.3 percent of the overall population in the United States, according to the 2010 Census (Ennis, Rios-Vargas,Albert, 2011). Substance abuse is a serious public health concern, and Latinos may be more vulnerable to the repercussions of substance abuse than their non-Hispanic White peers (ChartierCaetano, 2010; Chartier, Vaeth,Caetano, 2013). The association between age and the likelihood of developing a drug abuse problem is widely established.

Hingson, Zha, and Weitzman (2009) highlighted the possible negative alcohol and drug-related outcomes that emerging adults attending college (Engs, Diebold, and Hanson 1996; Engs, Diebold, and Hanson 2009) and non-college emerging adults (Hingson, Zha, and Weitzman 2009) may experience (Cleveland, Mallett, White, Turrisi,Favero, 2013).

  • Emerging adults, people between the ages of 18 and 25 who are developing their independence and autonomy, are in a period of change in their lives (Arnett, 2005).
  • Latinos in the United States are confronted with a variety of structural and cultural obstacles.
  • (Stolzenberg, Blair-Loy,Waite, 1995).
  • Additionally, participating in religious services and activities helps participants become more connected to their local community, which increases their chances of receiving social assistance.
  • In their research, the authors discovered that participating in religious services and activities decreased the chance of binge drinking and marijuana usage.

Furthermore, the expanding number of research on Latino merging adults emphasizes the importance of better understanding environmental and cultural aspects in clinical intervention, as well as the establishment of preventative measures for this population.

Resources

J. J. Arnett et al (2005). Adolescent and young adult drug abuse in the context of their development. The Journal of Drug Issues, volume 22, pages 235-264. K. Chartier and R. Caetano are co-authors of this article (2010). Research on alcohol and health inequalities based on race and ethnicity. Alcohol Research and Health, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 152-160. K. Chartier, P. A. C. Vaeth, and R. Caetano are co-authors on this paper (2013). Concentrate on: Ethnicity, as well as the social and health consequences of excessive drinking.

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  2. Cleveland, M.
  3. A., White, H.
  4. Cleveland, M.
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  7. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, vol.
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84-93, 1996.

C.

A.

J.

An investigation on the drinking habits and difficulties of a national sample of college students was conducted in 1994.

41, no.

13-33 A study by Ennis and Rios-Vargas, as well as by Albert (National Geographic), was published in Science in 2003.

Hispanics constitute a significant proportion of the population.

Retrieved on February 3, 2012, from (PDF, 2,601KBE) The relationship between public religiousness, religious significance, and drug use among Latino emerging adults was studied by scobar and Vaughan (2014).

The authors, B.

Esparza, Y.

E Davis, have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2010).

Santiago-Rivera, A., Arredondo, P., Gallardo-Cooper, M., Santiago-Rivera, A., Arredondo, P., Santiago-Rivera, A., Santiago-Rivera, A., Santiago-Rivera, A., Santiago-Rivera, A., Santiago-Rivera, A., Santiago-Rivera, A., Santiago-Rivera, A (2002).

is based in Thousand Oaks, California.

M., Blair-Loy, M., Waite, L.

Stolzenberg, R.

J.

Age and family life cycle influences on church membership in early adulthood: A study of religious engagement in early adulthood.

In the Office of Applied Studies of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, (On the 27th of May, 2010, Adolescent Substance Use Among Hispanic Adults, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Substance Use Awareness for Hispanic History Month

The month of September is designated as Hispanic Heritage Month. There is a recognition and celebration of the rich and diverse history and culture of the Latino and Hispanic populations, which originate in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central America, and South America, among other places. A complex tapestry of cultures distinguishes the people who live in Spanish-speaking areas and throughout Latin America, making them one of a kind. This month, we will be visiting events that will feature dances, music, artwork, and food from the people who live in these villages.

Drug and alcohol abuse disorder continues to be a big problem in the Hispanic and Latino populations.

Problems such as alcoholism and opiate addiction must be tackled front on. What is the perception of substance abuse in Hispanic and Latino culture? How can those who are struggling with addiction disorders get the support they require?

Understanding Substance Use Disorder in the Hispanic Community

Several studies have shown patterns in the relationship between alcohol and the Hispanic community. Approximately 9.5 percent of persons in the Hispanic population will acquire an alcohol use disorder at some time in their lives. In comparison, 13.8 percent of persons who are white and not Hispanic who develop alcohol dependent do so at a rate that is less than half as high. The same is true for Hispanic Americans, with 7.1 percent experiencing a drug use issue, compared to 7.4 percent in the general population.

According to data from 2018, virtually all Hispanic and Latino kids who suffered with a drug use issue, around 92 percent, did not obtain treatment at a specialist institution.

Risk Factors for Addiction

The following elements may have a role in the development of addiction in this community:

  • Genetics: A large component of an individual’s risk of getting a drug use problem is determined by their genetics. If persons of Latin American or Hispanic heritage have family members who are struggling with addiction, they are at a higher risk of developing drug abuse and addiction themselves. Acculturation is the process of becoming assimilated into another culture, often the dominant culture. Acculturation in Hispanic adolescents has been demonstrated to play a role in the probability of developing substance abuse problems, according to research. Poverty: Poverty increases the likelihood of having a drug use problem and later addiction by a factor of two or three. Unemployed people are twice as likely as working people to suffer from addiction. In accordance with data from the Kaiser Family Foundation, around 20 percent of the Latino community lives in poverty.

Obstacles to Treatment

Obtaining the appropriate treatment is not often as straightforward as realizing that you want assistance. People from the Hispanic and Latino populations may have obstacles to seeking addiction treatment, such as the following:

  • Language barrier: Many persons discover that they can only receive care from physicians who are fluent in the English language. While this may not be a problem for someone who is bilingual, it might be a big hindrance for those who only speak Spanish as their first language. Financial resources: It is understandable to be concerned about the cost of addiction rehabilitation. The fact that some people are either uninsured or underinsured might be a substantial hurdle to seeking care. When compared to any other racial or ethnic group in the country, the Hispanic population has the greatest rate of uninsured persons. A person’s legal status might contribute to a lack of financial resources and provide an additional barrier to receiving care. Stigma: The stigma associated with addiction rehabilitation is one of the most significant barriers to obtaining treatment for persons of any race or ethnicity. People are concerned about what their family, friends, and coworkers will think if they acknowledge they require assistance. Even after recognizing that they require assistance, people may continue to be concerned that they will be criticized for seeking treatment for addiction. Only 20% of Latinos who are suffering from a mental health problem seek help from a primary care physician.

Barrier due to language: Many persons discover that they can only get care from physicians who speak English. However, while this may not be a problem for someone who is bilingual, it might be a substantial hindrance for someone who only speaks Spanish. It is understandable that people are concerned about the financial implications of addiction treatment. A key hurdle to seeking care is the fact that some people are uninsured or underinsured. When compared to any other racial or ethnic group in the country, the Hispanic population has the greatest rate of uninsured people.

Stigma: For persons of all races and ethnicities, stigma is one of the most significant barriers to getting addiction recovery treatment.

There might be persistent fears about being judged for seeking addiction treatment even after people understand they need it.

Mental Health in the Hispanic and Latino Communities

Addiction and mental health concerns are frequently associated with one another, necessitating the use of a dual treatment strategy. When considering how to best manage drug use disorder among Hispanic or Latino people, it is critical to consider how members of these groups regard mental health in general. Many Latinos find it challenging to bring up the issue of mental health in casual conversation. Mental health problems affect people in these areas at a rate that is similar to that of the overall population, on average.

Hispanic Heritage Month is an excellent chance to raise awareness about mental health and to demonstrate to them that help is accessible.

Organizations That Offer Support

A dual treatment strategy is typically necessary since addiction and mental health concerns are frequently associated with one another. Understanding how people of Hispanic and Latino communities see mental health is critical when considering strategies for addressing drug use disorder within this population. It might be challenging to bring up the issue of mental health with many Latinos. When compared to the overall population, these populations experience mental health disorders at a similar incidence.

It is important to draw attention to mental health issues during Hispanic Heritage Month, as well as to show individuals that assistance is readily available.

  • A search option is available on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) website, which can assist users in locating health-care practitioners who are fluent in Spanish. A resource for Hispanic and Latino communities, the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) provides multilingual materials as well as insight into the specific needs of the Hispanic and Latino populations. Therapy for Latinx: Therapy for Latinx is a service that connects people in the Latino community with licensed therapists in their area. Moreover, it facilitates the connection of individuals with services such as crisis hotlines and mental health screening tools
  • A page on the Mental Health America website dedicated to understanding mental health challenges in Latino and Hispanic populations, as well as a plethora of Spanish-language resources, may be found here. The National Alliance for Hispanic Health (NAHH) is a non-profit organization that focuses on science, culture, and community to enhance the quality of treatment and access to health care for Hispanics. She was the organization’s first female president and has devoted her professional life to promoting health in the Hispanic and Latino populations
  • Jane Delgado, PhD, was the organization’s first female vice president.

Seeking Treatment With Gateway Foundation

A search option is available on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) website, which can assist consumers in locating health-care practitioners who are bilingual in Spanish. A resource for Hispanic and Latino communities, the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) provides bilingual information as well as insight into the specific needs of the Hispanic and Latino populations; Providing access to therapists in the Latino community, Therapy for Latinx is a non-profit organization.

Mental Health America: The non-profit Mental Health America provides a page dedicated to understanding mental health concerns in Latino and Hispanic populations, as well as a plethora of information in Spanish.

She was the organization’s first female president and has devoted her professional life to promoting health in the Hispanic and Latino populations; Jane Delgado, PhD, was the organization’s first female vice president;

  • Inquire as to whether your service provider is multilingual. Consult with them about their previous experience treating persons from the Hispanic and Latino populations. Inquire as to whether they understand how your cultural background might effect your treatment strategy.

At the Gateway Foundation, we specialize in the treatment of those suffering from drug and alcohol use problems. We recognize the difficulties associated with taking the initial steps toward recovery, and we are here to assist you. We provide personalized, high-quality therapy that is tailored to your specific requirements. Our method is intended to assist you immediately while also laying the groundwork for long-term rehabilitation. If you or someone you care about requires assistance, please contact us to get the process started.

Drug abuse risk and protective factors among Hispanic adolescents

Those suffering from drug and alcohol use issues are treated at Gateway Foundation. We recognize the difficulties associated with taking the initial steps toward recovery, and we are here to assist you in overcoming these challenges.

In order to meet your specific requirements, we provide tailored, high-quality therapy. In addition to assisting you today, our method is intended to lay the groundwork for long-term healing. We can get started right away if you or someone you care about needs assistance.

Abstract

Drug abuse is a troubling issue among the expanding population of Hispanic youths in the United States. A total of 507 Hispanic teenagers participated in this study, which looked at risk and protective variables linked with drug use. Youths from all throughout the United States participated in the data collection in 2014 and 2015. The sample had a mean age of 14.1 years and consisted of 37.3 percent males on the whole. An online questionnaire was sent to youths, who answered questions on their drug usage, as well as the risks and protective variables linked with drug use.

Adolescents with higher self-images who grew up in homes where English was the primary language were less likely to take drugs than youths with higher self-images who grew up in homes where Spanish was the primary language.

Efforts to properly analyze and strengthen the cognitive-behavioral skills of Hispanic kids appear to be an excellent investment.

Keywords

Drug use among Hispanic teenagers Risk and protective variables were identified by the authors in 2016. Elsevier Inc. is the publisher.

A Guide to Drug Addiction & Recovery for Hispanic Americans

The most recent update was made on November 29, 2021.

Article Summary

Age, trauma exposure, and acculturation are all factors that may play a role in Hispanic addiction. It might be difficult for them to receive care because of a lack of insurance, a fear of deportation, and language issues. Locating multilingual treatment programs that include family members can boost the probability that Hispanics will participate in treatment programs.

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Which Drugs Are Abused by Hispanics/Latinos?

According to statistics, members of the Hispanic American population are more likely than other groups to abuse specific substances, including:

How Is This Group Affected by Substance Abuse?

People who misuse alcohol and drugs, regardless of their ethnic origin, can suffer serious consequences. However, the Hispanic population may be particularly sensitive to extra repercussions, such as those described below:

Why Does This Group Abuse Substances?

Abusing alcohol and drugs may be harmful to everyone, regardless of their ethnic origin. However, the Hispanic population may be particularly prone to extra repercussions, such as those listed below:

  • There is a family history of substance misuse issues. There may be a hereditary component to addiction, and having a family history of drug misuse can raise the probability that a person would develop a similar issue. There may also be an increased likelihood of developing mood or anxiety problems. According to research, Hispanic Americans who suffer from drug misuse problems are more likely than other ethnic groups to suffer from anxiety and mood disorders, such as depression. The first concern is acculturation. Despite the fact that researchers are currently investigating the precise implications of this phenomena, it appears that acculturation challenges may enhance the probability of a person acquiring a drug addiction illness. It is interesting to note that studies have indicated that as Hispanics get more acculturated, they may also become more prone to binge drinking. The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that Latinos and Latinas who were born in the United States were more likely than men and women who were born in Mexico or Puerto Rico to use marijuana and cocaine, respectively. 1
  • Younger in years. Latino adolescents are more likely than non-Hispanic youth to participate in illegal drug use, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2nd, one’s marital status. Unmarried Hispanic Americans may be more prone than married Hispanic Americans to report substance misuse. 1: Unemployment and poverty are a problem. Unemployment and/or being subjected to higher degrees of poverty have been connected to an increase in alcohol misuse among Hispanic Americans, according to research. 1
  • Being subjected to horrific occurrences Among a number of studies, it has been proven that witnessing traumatic situations is associated with substance misuse in Hispanic persons. 1

What Are the Symptoms of Addiction?

Becoming aware of the signs and symptoms of addiction can aid in the treatment of you or someone you care about who is suffering from an addiction. The first step in rehabilitation is becoming aware of and admitting that you have a problem. Some of the signs and symptoms of addiction are as follows:

  • Being unable to maintain control over drug or alcohol consumption. People may, for example, consume more alcohol than they meant or take drugs more frequently than they stated they would
  • They may also neglect vital activities. People suffering from addiction may neglect activities they formerly loved or retreat from social interaction
  • They may also engage in risk-taking behaviors at a higher rate. People suffering from addiction may engage in harmful or risky actions (such as driving while intoxicated)
  • They may also experience relationship difficulties. In certain cases, people may become hostile toward loved ones who attempt to confront them about their substance abuse problems. They may also exhibit unpredictable behavior and engage in more frequent altercations with friends and family members
  • Their physical appearance may deteriorate. People who are addicted to drugs or alcohol may ignore their personal hygiene and seem disheveled. Tolerance. This indicates that a person has to consume a substance more frequently or in greater quantities in order to achieve the intended benefits
  • Withdrawal. It is possible that people will have physical and psychological symptoms like as tremors, sleeplessness, or sadness if they attempt to quit using. Consequently, they continue to use in order to prevent withdrawal symptoms
  • They continue to use despite the negative effects of their actions. When someone is addicted to drugs or alcohol, they may choose to ignore or reject the financial, social, physical, legal, psychological, and vocational consequences of their behavior. 8

Why Do Some Hispanics/Latinos Have Trouble Accessing Treatment?

The statistics collected from 2003 to 2011 reveal that the Hispanic population has an increasing demand for drug misuse treatment, but that access to such treatment is restricted. In reality, according to a report published by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), “Additional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health suggests that 3.1 million Hispanics need treatment during that time period but did not obtain it.” 9 In the Hispanic population, some of the possible hurdles to substance addiction treatment include the following:

What Are Some of Their Special Needs in Treatment?

Some of the unique requirements that suppliers should be aware of and satisfy are as follows:

  • The importance of spirituality is emphasized. Many Latinos are deeply committed to their faith and place a high emphasis on their spiritual beliefs, which is understandable. Despite the fact that orthodox medicine frequently distinguishes between the body, the mind, and the spirit, Latinos frequently have a more holistic perspective when it comes to health and treatment. 13: Involvement of the family. Many Hispanic Americans have extremely deep familial ties that frequently go beyond the confines of the nuclear family unit itself. Providing extra family therapy or allowing family members to accompany patients to visits are two ways in which providers might meet these ideals. 13
  • Spanish-language services and providers who are fluent in the language. Treatment providers should be able to conduct recovery programs in a person’s native language in order to be completely accessible to members of the Hispanic American community. 7 As reported by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, roughly 94 percent of institutions that provided services in a language other than English had counselors on staff who were able to deliver such services in Spanish in 2010. 14
  • sRespect. Respect may have a significant influence in determining whether or not a Hispanic or Latino individual interacts with and continues in therapy. For example, even if the provider does not understand Spanish, he or she should address their consumers appropriately by using the pronouns seor to refer to Mr., seora to refer to Mrs., and seorita to refer to Miss. 13

What Types of Rehab Programs Are Available?

There are many different types of addiction rehabilitation programs available, including:

  • Detoxification programs are available. Detoxification is often the first step on the road to recovery for many people. Instead of a therapy, it is a procedure that tries to remove the substance from a person’s body while also decreasing withdrawal symptoms. A person may choose between medical detox, which provides medicine and the participation of trained medical professionals, and social detox, which focuses on peer and social support to get them through the withdrawal phase
  • Inpatient programs are also available. In this type of rehabilitation, patients dwell at a residential treatment center for a period of time ranging between 30 and 90 days (sometimes longer). An extensive range of therapies are available in inpatient recovery programs, including individual and group counseling, family therapy, and 12-step groups. Outpatient programs are also available. Outpatient services are available for those who choose to remain in their homes. Outpatient treatment programs, while providing many of the same therapies as inpatient programs, are less rigorous and do not have the round-the-clock monitoring that inpatient programs provide. According to the amount of care necessary, people may need to attend therapy up to several times per week
  • State-funded programs allow this. Many addiction treatment facilities get money from the local, state, and/or federal governments, which can assist to reduce the overall cost of treatment for addicts. Hispanic ethnicity accounted for 13.7 percent of people enrolled to publicly sponsored drug abuse treatment programs in 2008. 15
  • Charitable and nonprofit organizations that provide programs. Many charities and nonprofit organizations, such as the Salvation Army or Catholic Charities, provide treatment on a sliding scale, which implies that the charge is decreased based on the patient’s income and financial ability to pay the bill. Programs based on the 12-step philosophy. Various programs, such as Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous, provide no-cost support groups that follow the 12 stages of recovery. Working through these stages with the aid of a sponsor, drawing strength from a higher power, sharing their experiences with the group, and receiving encouragement from those who have been in their shoes are all possible outcomes

How to Locate a Culturally Competent Provider

Cultural competency is defined as the capacity to comprehend and communicate with people from a variety of cultural backgrounds while also respecting and honoring their beliefs. Some of the methods through which a person can discover a provider who is culturally competent are as follows:

  • The act of posing inquiries. When looking for a substance abuse treatment program, ask yourself the following questions: Is it possible to find suppliers who speak Spanish? Is it common for this organization to treat individuals who come from diverse backgrounds? Reading internet reviews is a good idea. It is possible to get information on drug misuse treatment programs online, including feedback from program graduates regarding whether their cultural values were addressed and respected during the treatment process. I’m conducting research. Consult with treatment facilities or the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMSHA) National Hotline at 1-800-662-HELP (4357). This hotline provides referrals to treatment programs as well as information in both English and Spanish to those who call. They are available around the clock, 365 days a year
  • Having a conversation with other individuals. It is possible to gain insight about treatment programs by consulting with trustworthy friends and members of the community.

What Are the Payment Options for Rehab?

If you have health insurance, your provider may be able to reimburse you for at least a portion of the cost of treatment. It is possible that you will be able to manage the expense of therapy in other ways, such as the ones listed below.

  • The SAMHSA’s Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator is a useful resource. On this website, you may be able to identify low-cost or free recovery facilities in your region
  • You may also call the National Hotline at 1-800-662-HELP (4357). Insurance schemes provided by the government. It is possible that you will be qualified for public health insurance programs such as Medicaid or Medicare if you do not currently have coverage. You may find out if you qualify for help and how to get it by visiting the USA.govwebsite, the HealthCare.govwebsite (which has forms accessible in both English and Spanish), theMedicaid.govwebsite, or by contacting your state through this website. Additional resources are available from the federal government, which can assist you in determining whether state or federal programs you may be qualified for
  • Payment plans based on a sliding scale or a payment plan. Many rehabilitation centers are aware that the expense of therapy might deter people from seeking treatment. As a result, some treatment facilities operate on a sliding scale, with the cost you are charged varying depending on your income and/or capacity to pay. In most cases, you will be needed to present documentation of your income (such as pay stubs or proof of public assistance). Rehabilitation centers may also have payment plans, which may allow you to pay for your treatment in stages
  • Rehabilitation scholarships may be available at some facilities. A rehabilitation scholarship or grant may be available to help qualifying individuals pay for their therapy. Some scholarships are given by private organizations, while others may be made accessible through government-sponsored initiatives. In order to find out if a treatment center offers any financial assistance, you can contact them directly or call the SAMHSA helpline at 1-800-662-HELP (4357).

Resources

The resources listed below may also be of use to anyone seeking drug abuse therapy that is tailored to their cultural background.

  • The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has a number of downloadable brochures accessible. Some of the subjects covered are as follows:
  • In addition to printed materials, SAMHSA provides a number of free downloads. Among the subjects covered are the following:
  • In order to reduce gaps in financing and access for Latinos, as well as to enhance the quality of services, the National Latino Behavioral Health Association works as an advocacy group. The National Alliance on Mental Illness provides information about Latino mental health that is particular to their community. Mental Health Americaprovides Spanish-language brochures and screening tools on a variety of mental health subjects
  • Mental Health America
  1. The following authors contributed to this work: Alvarez (J), Jason (L), Olson (B D), Ferrari (J R), Davies (M I), and Ferrari (J R) (2007). Prevalence of substance misuse and treatment outcomes among Latinos and Latinas C. Rodriguez et al., Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 115-141
  2. Rodriguez, C. (2013). According to the findings of the study, Hispanic youths are more prone to take narcotics. CNN and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism are two sources of information. (2015). Alcohol and the Hispanic community
  3. Nelson, S. Alcohol and the Hispanic community (2017). “Latinos were sentenced to 77 percent of federal marijuana penalties last year.” United States News & World Report
  4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Michigan State University’s Minority Health & Health Disparities Initiative. (2004). Hispanics face an unfair and unjust criminal justice system in the United States, according to a new report by V. Flores (2011). The American Psychiatric Association published a paper on the importance of cultural factors in treating Hispanic/Latino populations. (2013). Manual of diagnostic and statistical procedures for mental diseases (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing, in collaboration with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, published in Arlington, Virginia. (2012). The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a study on the need for and receipt of drug abuse treatment among Hispanics. (2013). Availability of health insurance by race and ethnicity: The possible impact of the Affordable Care Act
  5. A. Pagano, NIDA Postdoctoral Fellow (2014). The viewpoints of treatment clinicians on the barriers to drug misuse treatment for Latino migrants are presented. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 13(3), 273-287
  6. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 13(3), 273-287. Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network
  7. Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A Brief Evidence-Based Guide for Providers
  8. Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network (2015). Refer to the following as a point of reference: Behavioral health statistics and quality
  9. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Cultural factors in treating Hispanic and Latino populations. (2012). According to the National Institute on Drug Misuse, substance abuse treatment facilities that provide services in Spanish are accessible in all areas for Hispanic clients who were accepted to treatment in 2010. (2011). Figures on the effectiveness of treatment
  10. Frank, R., Salkever, D., Frank, R., Salkever, D. (1994). Nonprofit organizations working in the health-care field. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 129-144
  11. Drugfree.org has a partnership program. (2012). Hispanic Teens and Their Parents Participated in the Partnership Attitude Tracking Study
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Working with Latino Patients

Full-Screen Download Instructions for All Populations

The Hispanic Population

Latinos/as/ or Hispanics in the United States are a rapidly growing population, having grown from a small, regionally concentrated group of fewer than 6 million in 1960 to a now widely dispersed population of well more than 50 million (or 16 percent of the nation’s population) in 2010. Latinos/as/ or Hispanics in the United States are a rapidly growing population, having grown from a small, regionally concentrated group of fewer than 6 million in 1960 to Latinos are a varied group of people. The majority of people in the United States have misunderstandings and assumptions about who Latinos are, as well as about their history and presence in this country, particularly the distinction between Latinos and Hispanics.

  1. In particular, to persons from Latin America, including the Caribbean, South America, and Central America.
  2. In truth, much of California and the Southwestern United States was originally a part of the country of Mexico.
  3. Since 2000, however, the dominant source of Latino population increase has shifted away from immigration and toward indigenous births.
  4. In terms of race and culture, Latinos are a diverse population.

Quechua a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language). The following are the top five Hispanic populations in the United States, ranked by origin:

  1. Mexicans constitute 64.9 percent of the Hispanic population
  2. Puerto Ricans constitute 9.2 percent of the Hispanic population
  3. Cubans constitute 3.7 percent of the Hispanic population
  4. Salvadorans constitute 3.6 percent of the Hispanic population
  5. And Dominicans constitute 3.0 percent of the Hispanic population

(Source: Pew Research Center, 2012)

Significant History – Events which influenced the community and contextualize assessment and treatment

Mexican Americans are the most numerous Latino group in the United States. Although technically the first significant influx of Latino immigrants to the United States occurred shortly after most of today’s border between the United States and Mexico was established at the conclusion of the United States-Mexican War (1846-1848), a war during which Mexico lost a significant portion of their territory to the United States. After Spain relinquished control of the island and its colonial territories at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War in 1898, Puerto Rico was designated as a “unincorporated territory” of the United States.

  1. Many Puerto Ricans moved to the Northeast in the early 1900s because of the country’s economic prospects.
  2. In 1959, a revolutionary uprising in Cuba resulted in a mass migration that happened almost overnight.
  3. First, an elite group of Cubans arrived, but emigration continued with the arrival of balseros, individuals who risk their lives crossing the treacherous Atlantic Ocean in improvised boats to reach the United States.
  4. In contrast to immigrants from a number of other countries, many Cubans have received access to citizenship and government assistance as a result of their status as political asylum seekers.
  5. Guatemala.
  6. and Nicaragua—also contributed to a significant increase in Latin American immigration to the United States during this period.
  7. As a result of the post-civil war gang violence and drug trafficking, the number of refugee immigrants, especially children and women, arriving in the United States from Central America has skyrocketed.
  8. The frequency of mental health disorders varies among Latino subgroups, and this variation is a reflection of the wide range of events and conditions that Latinos have encountered.

Given the great amount of diversity that exists among Latino/Hispanic persons, it is critical to understand the influence that this diversity has on our understanding of Latinos seeking or in need of treatment in the United States.

Culture-Bound Syndromes in Hispanic Patients

The influence of culture on symptom presentation is well documented. The term “Ataques de nervios” refers to a culturally specific condition of anguish that involves symptoms such as excessive shrieking or yelling, sobbing, shaking, sensations of heat rising in the chest and head, dissociative experiences, as well as verbal or physical violence. Attacks on the nervous system are associated with high rates of comorbidity with a variety of anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder.

  1. Recent Latino immigrants are at risk for traumatic exposure both before and after migration, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and stress linked with the immigration process, as well as the difficulties of integrating vs marginalizing in the United States.
  2. These findings imply that trauma and associated psychiatric illnesses in these groups should be screened for on a systematic basis.
  3. Unaccompanied refugee kids (also known as unaccompanied minors) from the expanding Central American diaspora have significant rates of traumatic exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety.
  4. When comparing second and third generation Latinos to first generation immigrants, suicide and drug abuse, as well as a variety of mental health illnesses, are on the rise among the former.
  5. The prevalence of inadequate educational systems and attainment, as well as mental health difficulties, among Latinos increases as they become increasingly exposed to prejudice and hazardous surroundings.
  6. Latinos are more likely to drop out of school than non-Latino Whites as a result of mental health illnesses and trauma, and immigration to the United States during adolescence increases the likelihood of dropping out of school for both groups.
  7. Latino culture is noted for its collectivist-family orientation, the emphasis of personalismo (personal connectivity in contacts), and the respect for authority that it exhibits in its interactions.

Being bicultural and multilingual can really be beneficial to a child’s academic performance as well as his or her emotional health.

However, non-linguistic features of bicultural competence in the child, family, and extended social milieu play an essential protective function in Latino children of immigrants, reducing their discomfort and allowing them to integrate more successfully into society.

For a more in-depth explanation, please see the section above.

An individual’s experience with a mal de ojo (evil eye) from another person might result in medical difficulties such as vomiting, fever, diarrhea, and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety, sadness), as well as physical ailments.

As a result of terrifying and surprising situations, you may get exhausted and weak.

Modified from Paniagua, F.A.

(Paniagua, F.A.) (2000). I. Cuéllar and F.A. Paniagua, eds., Handbook of multicultural mental health: Assessment and treatment of varied populations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2008). Culture-bound syndromes, cultural variances, and psychopathology (pp. 140-141). Academic Press is based in New York.

A Few Cultural differences between Anglo Americans and Latinos

Anglo Americans Latinos (as)
Nuclear family oriented Extended family oriented (protective factor)
Do not emphasize supernatural forces Importance on the spiritual domain (supernatural forces, use of saints as intermediaries)
Autonomy from parental approval as hallmark of optimal adult development Respect for parental authority persists throughout life, e.g., not talking back
Direct communication Indirect communication (use of third persons, allusions, proverbs, metaphors, jokes, and stories to transmit information)
Business like (task oriented) Personalismo (high level of emotional resonance and personal involvement with family encounters or friends) Emotive style, person oriented Patriarchal (machismo)

Abridged version of a passage from The Massachusetts General Hospital Textbook on Diversity and Cultural Sensitivity in Mental Health Being diagnosed with a mental illness, or simply seeking treatment, may be a socially stigmatizing experience for Latinos. Lack of access to care as a result of low insurance coverage rates, immigration status, language and cultural barriers in healthcare, which can include differences between provider and patient in explanatory models of illness and differences between families as gate keepers, can prevent patients from receiving treatment (Cortes et al, 2008).

Many Latinos understand and treat their mental health issues via the lens of spirituality and religion, which are essential frameworks in their lives.

Visions of ghosts and angels do not always reflect the presence of insanity.

As a result, many of these themes are found in the framework of spiritualist belief systems that are popular in many Latino communities, and they are not seen as “weird” or “uncommon” in such cultures.

Best Practices

Several effective practices for dealing with Latinos are listed below.

  1. Using the biopsychosocial-cultural approach to evaluate and treat patients is recommended. Prepare a cultural formulation that takes into account acculturation, community and family connections, immigrant status/history, and education
  2. Set aside some time to do so. Supporting collaborative care with Latinos is critical for the retention and success of those receiving care. Despite the fact that this is a culture that values authority, feeling misunderstood and disconnected from a therapist is a common reason for people to abandon their therapy.

Future Needs

Despite the difficulties, Latinos are becoming a more significant academic, political, and financial force in the United States. One in every four babies is of Latino descent. Never before in the history of our country has a minority ethnic group made up such a big proportion of the population of the youngest Americans. The sorts of people that these young Latinos grow up to be will have a significant impact on the kind of society that America develops in the twenty-first century, simply by virtue of their sheer numbers.

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