- 1 How Does Culture Influence Behavior?
- 2 TheSignificance Of Culture
- 3 CharacteristicsOf Culture
- 4 TypesOfCulture
- 5 ElementsOfCulture
- 6 MaintenanceOf Culture
- 7 HowCulture Influences Behavior
- 8 Cultural Planning
- 9 Conclusion
- 10 Does culture affect our personality?
- 11 Personality: Boas and Benedict
- 12 Personality: Margaret Mead
- 13 Sex, Differences and Personality
- 14 Lynda Gantt: How does culture affect behavior?
- 15 How Culture Wires Our Brains
- 16 Individual & Society
- 17 When will a dictator give?
- 18 Scanning for answers
- 19 Enhancing sharing across cultures
- 20 Part 1: What Is Culture and How Does It Affect Our Daily Lives?
- 21 How Culture Affects the Way We Think
- 22 How where you’re born influences the person you become
- 23 The enduring influence of cultural values
- 24 To think about yourself, or to think of others?
- 25 Free to pursue happiness?
- 26 Is individualism the future?
- 27 Culture May Influence How You Describe Your Personal Goals
- 28 Does culture influence our beliefs?
How Does Culture Influence Behavior?
Culture has an impact on our actions in a variety of ways. This is due to the fact that culture is a way of life for the people. The social ethics, beliefs, and morals that are observed in society are included in culture. Culture is defined as a way of life that incorporates people’s ideas, values, customs, language, and traditions into one system of thought and action. Specifically, the question is: how does culture affect human behavior? Culture encompasses the entirety of a person’s way of life, from their appearance to their eating habits, as well as their beliefs, language, social standards, and values.
It is important to remember that there are several ways in which culture influences and effects people’s lives in order to answer the question, “How does culture influence behavior?” For example, pupils from various cultural backgrounds may react to their instructor in a way that is not appropriate in school settings, even though their reaction is reasonable given their cultural background.
TheSignificance Of Culture
Culture, particularly inherent values, contributes significantly to the well-being of a society. Participation in cultural activities may be extremely beneficial to people and can have a profound impact on them individually. People’s emotional and intellectual intelligence are enhanced by the pleasurable and beautiful experiences that culture provides them. People may express themselves creatively through culture. As a result, it has a significant impact on our actions. We may look at the relevance of culture in a number of different ways.
- Culture has an unrivaled ability to have a profound impact on people’s lives.
- Food, attire, language, beliefs, and values are all perceived differently according on cultural perceptions of the world.
- We can’t ignore the fact that cultures have a significant impact on human behavior when considering their significance.
- It stimulates innovation in other industries, which manifests itself in a variety of ways, including product creation, regional advancement, community change, and tourist accretion, among others.
- In other words, health clinics and hospitals have seen significant advances in all aspects of their operations as a result of better or advanced learning.
It leads to the development and implementation of more effective learning methods, hence having a beneficial impact on the future of learning. In both rural and urban settings, culture serves as a catalyst for transformation. Its full ramifications are something we must not disregard.
A culture is made up of five basic components, which are listed below. They are as follows:
Culture is learnable:
People of all ages may learn about other cultures, whether consciously or unconsciously. It doesn’t matter how old they are. In essence, it implies that you have the ability to learn a wide range of actions. Going to the gym, developing a hair-styling routine, waiting in line, and dressing in a particular way are all habits that may be learned. There are two ways in which learned habits manifest themselves. There are two sorts of behavior: overt and covert. The former refers to activities that you engage in outside of the home, such as attending football games or eating with forks and knives.
The latter, covert conduct, refers to activities that are not readily evident to the general public, such as feelings of hatred for an adversary or preparations for the future.
Culture is abstract:
It is a reality that culture is something that cannot be seen or touched, and as a result, it is considered abstract. Human culture can only be found in the brains of individuals, and it manifests itself in the behaviors of those who practice it. It has a practical impact on people’s ways of thinking and the manner in which they conduct themselves. Culture may only be observed in a behavioral form or in a consistently structured method, which is referred to as culture.
Culture is a designed, cultivated behavior:
According to its definition, culture is the process through which you learn behaviors. Someone’s conduct is influenced by and aligned with cultural traditions, or possibly one’s behavior is influenced by and dependant on another. The model is based on the behavior of a certain individual.
Culture is an outcome of behavior:
Cultural knowledge is produced as a result of human conduct. The individual begins to get knowledge about how to deal with specific situations. It might be anything from learning how to swim to expressing anger towards someone.
Culture is dynamic:
The fact that culture is dynamic is proof that it is susceptible to change as a result of interactions with different civilizations. It is quite easy for culture to change as a consequence of frequent engagement with other cultures as a result of the integration of various groups of people. The interchange of ideas and symbols are variables that contribute to the dynamism of the organization. It makes it easier for people to adjust to environmental changes as a result of this.
People exhibit their cultural identities in a variety of ways. Social scientists, on the other hand, devised two key categories to describe the things that society produces. The several sorts of culture are as follows:
Physical objects produced by human society are referred to as material culture. Automobiles are one of the most important items produced by the United States. We are all familiar with the fact that Americans have a great affection for the manufacturing and usage of automobiles.
It is a cultural phenomena that serves as a sign of the location. Additionally, in several African countries, we may observe other civilizations such as gold and diamond manufacturing.
When we say non-material culture, we are referring to the intangible elements that are created by a culture. It talks about the components of culture that cannot be touched, felt, held, or otherwise interacted with. They have a huge impact on our lives and are fundamental to our existence. It encompasses language, values, beliefs, equality, and social roles, among other things. Although we are unable to observe these elements, this does not rule out the possibility that they exist.
The elements of culture are made up of norms, languages, artifacts, symbols, and values, all of which contribute to its composition. The fusion of cultural components results in a distinctive style of life in contemporary civilization. Language may be considered to be one of the aspects of culture, as can other elements of culture. Every day, the language changes and progresses. New concepts are developed almost on a daily basis. Some languages rely on symbols to communicate well, whilst others rely on non-verbal or spoken communication to communicate effectively.
- The values and ideas that people hold are another important component of culture.
- Fundamental principles and convictions are what people hold as their beliefs.
- It also highlights the wrongs, as well as the rights and good morals, and it shows which ones should be continued and which ones should be revisited in the future.
- It specifies how individuals conduct in accordance with what the people in a society consider to be good and right, and what the majority of the people in the society are required to adhere to.
If we do not conserve and sustain the culture that people value and respect, we will end up with a society that is devoid of standards and values. It robs them of their sense of belonging, resulting in the next generation being unable to recognize the significance of culture. It has an impact on both the behavioral patterns of people and the replacement of rights with wrongs, resulting in a weak society with no backbone. Many individuals consider culture to be their foundation. It gives them a cause to live, love, and work together to keep that sense of oneness and connection alive.
Cultures endure despite the advancement of civilization and technology and continue to shape the identities of individuals.
Culture is, at its core, a sense of belonging.
HowCulture Influences Behavior
If we do not conserve and sustain the culture that people appreciate and respect, we will end up with a society that is devoid of morals and values. The younger generation will be unable to recognize the significance of culture as a result of this deprivation. It has an impact on both people’s behavioral patterns and their ability to distinguish between good and wrong, resulting in a weak society with no backbone. For many people, culture serves as a foundation. The purpose for their existence, love, and maintenance of that oneness and unity is given to them by this act of solidarity.
Cultural traditions continue to shine out and shape who people are regardless of civilization or technology.
It is via the presentation of culture that you may characterize someone else. Cultural identity can be defined as follows: Holding on to one’s ideas and ideals is essential, especially when doing so has a good impact on one’s life.
Cultural planning is a direct service that is provided to assist in the development of a community’s assets. This is accomplished by first finding the opportunity and then utilizing it. It also entails pooling such resources across all aspects of planning and decision-making. Culture obtains attention via cultural planning as a result of its contribution to urban and rural communities, as well as cosmopolitan and metropolitan locations around the world. Communities are increasingly enjoying a genuine feeling of living, success, and rebranding as a result of the extra value it provides.
Community engagement is required to optimize a community’s cultural resources while also integrating them all in order to tackle difficult situations.
Cultural planning creates space for culture to grow, hence promoting tolerance, togetherness, and oneness among people in a community.
Every society’s foundation is built on the foundation of culture. People are who they are as a result of their cultural backgrounds. Consequently, we may consider the subject of how culture influences human behavior. As a result, we have come to understand that culture has a huge impact on people. Its consequences are shown in the behavioral patterns of individuals. The raising of children is influenced by their cultural background. As they mature, they become increasingly attached to the culture they encounter.
Can a non-Native American become a member of a tribe?
Does culture affect our personality?
Culture may be described as the common values, beliefs, and social standards of a certain group of people, albeit this is a broad definition. As a result, culture has an impact on the way we learn, live, and behave. As a result, many scholars feel that culture plays a crucial role in the formation of our personalities. When it comes to the influence of culture on personality, one of the typical beliefs is that persons who are born and raised in the same culture have personality features that are similar to one another.
Personality: Boas and Benedict
The pioneer of Psychological Anthropology, or the study of the link between culture and personality, Franz Boas, asserted that personality is derived from culture rather than biology. His Cultural Relativism hypothesis provides a complete explanation of the fundamental link between culture and personality, and it is widely used today. Ruth Benedict, a student of Boas’, elaborated on the research on the influence of culture on personality by looking at cultural patterns and themes that are prevalent throughout the world.
While writing her book Patterns of Culture, Benedict made reference of her research on the cultural patterns of two separate northern American Indian communities, as well as an Indian group located off the coast of Papua New Guinea.
For example, one tribe’s concept of a “”good guy”” differs from another tribe’s conception of the same.
Among the topics covered in her book, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture, was a thorough account of Japanese religion and value system, as well as a theory on the motivations of the Japanese during World War II.
Personality: Margaret Mead
Margaret Mead was, without a doubt, one of the most influential anthropologists of the twentieth century. As a student of Boas, Mead contributed to the expansion of the school’s knowledge of culture and personality by extending her attention beyond American culture to the whole Western World. In Samoa, she discovered that the cultures there had uniform value systems, and as a result, their personalities are similar to one another. Individuals do not play substantial roles in social life until they reach the age of 15 or 16, at which point they are subjected to marriage rites, according to the culture of the Samoan tribes studied.
Girls are socialized to view boys as their adversaries.
Sex, Differences and Personality
It is claimed that evolution and genetics have resulted in variances in personality qualities that are dictated by a person’s biological sex. According to the Theory of Sexual Selection, males compete with one another in order to attract females, and as a result, men are more aggressive and competitive than women. However, we can observe that more and more women are becoming aggressive in their pursuit of a guy, as seen by the fact that they are competing against other women. Our cultural heritage has made significant contributions to the establishment of our ideas and values.
Furthermore, differences in gender might have an impact on the personality qualities that a person possesses.
Lynda Gantt: How does culture affect behavior?
Generally speaking, culture refers to a set of beliefs about ethics, behaviors, and values that are shared by the majority of individuals in a community. The culture of which we are a part has an influence on our sense of ourselves as well as our views about the essence of existence. The sort of culture into which a person is born, whether Individualistic or Collective, has an impact on and impacts what that person thinks and how that person behaves as a result of his or her upbringing. For example, someone who grows up in a “tight” (Collective) culture, where regulations are strictly enforced, will not be encouraged to think or behave in an individualistic manner as an adult.
- Loose cultures are more prevalent in western nations, such as the United States.
- Collective cultures, on the other hand, think that a person’s first commitment is to his or her community.
- When the rules of thinking and conduct become more strict, a society is said to be in a Collective state.
- When compared to Collectivistic societies, Individualistic cultures perceive people to be more open.
- Individualistic cultures are less adept in understanding other people’s perspectives in order to create social cohesion, whereas Collectivistic civilizations are more adept at doing so.
- If our society encourages a more extroverted personality style, we might anticipate a greater demand for social engagement in the future.
- As a result of the general public encouraging these gregarious activities, more ideas are exchanged and self-esteem rises throughout the populace.
People who are low in extroversion are more likely to be less socially inclined, but this does not imply that they do not enjoy socializing in the traditional sense of the word.
They have a reputation for being less forceful.
The emotions of extroverts and those with less extroversion differ significantly, which may be shown in another study.
This might be due to the fact that they receive greater attention.
Certain religious views are also reinforced by popular culture.
Each religion has its own set of norms for personal behaviour that must be adhered to.
Some cultures favor close physical contact when conversing, whilst others encourage noisy, even combative verbal interactions, and some cultures may praise soft-spoken, courteous communication as a desirable trait.
In immigrants whose personality features were more consistent with the cultural norms of the new nation to which they had immigrated, there was a higher level of emotional well-being seen.
Take into consideration your cultural background.
What cultural ideas, attitudes, and actions have you assimilated into your own life? What would you do differently? What steps are you taking to make things better? Licensed marriage and family therapist Dr. Lynda M. Gantt, Ph.D.,LMFT practices in Santa Maria, California.
How Culture Wires Our Brains
D. L. Ames and S. T. Fiske are co-authors of this paper (2010). Neuroscience in the cultural context. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, volume 13, number 2, pages 72-82. Draganski B, Gaser C, Busch V, Schuierer G, Bogdahn U, May A. Draganski B, Gaser C, Busch V, Schuierer G, Bogdahn U, May A. (2004). Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to change as a result of training. Natural History, 427:311–312. Gardner, W. L., Gabriel, S., and Lee, A. Y. (in press) (1999). “I” value freedom, but “we” value relationships: Self-construal priming reflects disparities in cultural values in decision-making.
- Gutchess, R.
- Welsh, A.
- Differences in brain function linked with object processing exist across cultures.
- Humphreys et al (2016).
Current Opinion in Psychology, vol.
Northoff have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2008).
Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.
Affiliations: Hedden, T.
Neuronal substrates of attentional control are influenced by cultural factors.
Han have published a paper in Science (2014).
Social Neuroscience, volume 9, number 2, pages 130-138.
Kitayama and A.
Uskul have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2011).
Park have published a paper in Science (2010).
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that studies social cognition and affect.
The hippocampi of taxi drivers have undergone structural changes as a result of navigation.
Markus and S.
Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation based on one’s cultural background Psychological Review, vol.
The authors, S.
Pascual-Leone, have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2011).
Park and C.
Huang have published a paper in Science (2010).
Tang, Y., Zhang, W., Chen, K., Feng, S., Ji, Y., Shen, J., Liu, Y., Tang, Y., Zhang, W., Chen, K.
The processing of arithmetic in the brain is influenced by culture.
A study by Varnum, M.
et al., Z.
Han was published in the journal Science (2014).
NeuroImage, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 164-169. Zhu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, J., Han, S. Zhu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, J., Han, S. (2007). The neural underpinnings of cultural impact on one’s own self-presentation. Neuroimage, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 1310-1316.
Individual & Society
We begin to learn about our culture—the customs and traditions of our society—as soon as we are born. That process is referred to as socialization, and it entails much more than simply attending school. When it comes to work and play, our culture influences how we behave, and it also influences how we perceive ourselves and others. It has an impact on our values, on what we regard to be good and bad. This is an example of how the culture in which we live impacts our decisions. However, our decisions can have an impact on others and, in the long run, serve to shape our society.
- What words would you use to characterize the individual?
- Even though we are aware that every person is unique in a variety of ways, we frequently use generalizations to describe others when we come into contact with them in real life.
- Various beliefs about race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, economic class, and other factors are used to categorize people.
- These beliefs can also cause us to harbor feelings of suspicion, fear, or hatred toward certain members of our society at times.
- The stories in this chapter explore some of the dilemmas that people face as they establish themselves as individuals and as members of a group, as they define themselves and as they are defined by others, and as they define themselves and as they are defined by other people.
- Readings that match the objectives of the lesson as well as the interests and needs of the students are encouraged to be chosen by the teachers.
Jeanne Tsai, an associate professor of psychology at Stanford University, has conducted previous research on the link between culture and emotion, with a particular focus on European Americans and East Asians in particular. While European Americans are more likely to desire experiences of excitement (high-arousal positive states), according to this research, Asians would rather experience serenity (medium-arousal positive states) (low-arousal positive states). As a result, people were more likely to appreciate persons who displayed emotional states that they themselves aspired to experience—an “ideal affect match.” After considering the possibility that ideal affect match may influence not just liking but also willingness to allocate actual money to a stranger, Tsai, along with co-authorsBoKyung Park, Elizabeth Blevins, and Brian Knutson, hypothesized that it might.
When will a dictator give?
In the first study, the researchers looked at groups of European American and Korean college students who were both from the United States. They then played a series of Dictator Games, in which one person (the “dictator”) decides whether or not to distribute their money to other players. After measuring their actual affect (how people feel) and ideal affect (how they want to feel), the researchers had participants complete a questionnaire (potential recipients). Even though all participants were assigned to play the dictator, various prospective receivers were represented by computer-generated avatars that differed in terms of their emotional expression, race, and sexual orientation, among other things.
The researchers discovered that, although European Americans donated more to receivers whose faces communicated enthusiasm (i.e., open, toothy smiles), Korean students gave more to those whose expressions conveyed calmness (i.e., closed lips and closed eyes) (i.e., closed smiles).
However, the fact that people were of the same race and gender had no influence on their willingness to share or to infer trust.
Scanning for answers
So, what aspects of a perfect affect match may encourage people to share their experiences with others? Were they attracted to each other because of the way a matched stranger made them feel, or because they believed they shared values? Researchers conducted a second study in which European Americans and Koreans participated in repeated Dictator Games, but this time while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to find out (fMRI). Following that, participants were asked to estimate the trustworthiness of possible receivers as well as their other traits, such as friendliness and intellect.
One explanation for the decline in participation is that participants expected the receivers shared their ideals, however they were incorrect.
It has generally been difficult for academics to determine which emotional responses are associated with trust, according to Tsai.
These findings contribute to the understanding of why people from various cultures may trust persons who display a variety of emotional responses.
As a result of their combined findings, Tsai hypothesizes that “ideal affect match” has the impact it does because it gives an unconscious signal that someone else shares our views and values, which makes them more trustworthy and encourages giving.
Enhancing sharing across cultures
According to the findings of the study, traditional conceptions of in-group identification, or the cues that people use to identify themselves as belonging to a group, are incorrect. It appears that changeable signs relating to common emotional values might outweigh more static indications such as gender and ethnicity, according to the research findings. When engaging with people from different cultural backgrounds, the findings suggest that recognizing and expressing similar emotional values might help people overcome traditional categorization.
The original version of this item appeared on Stanford News.
Part 1: What Is Culture and How Does It Affect Our Daily Lives?
This is a subject that has always piqued my curiosity, maybe because I was always the odd one out, both in my adopted family and at school, and then later in the job. No matter what we do, culture is an integral component of the society in which we live, whether it is our own cultural heritage or the culture of the new nation in which we have settled. The ethnicity of a person, which includes the different DNA of each parent, the culture of both parents, and the quality of kindness, which I believe is intrinsic in all human beings at birth, are the three elements that I believe make up our unique fingerprints at birth.
- But, before I go with this line of thinking, I believe it would be quite beneficial to provide you with my definitions of some of the terms we will be using.
- When I think about this term, the first thing that springs to me is a response to a stimuli.
- If you ask me what comes to mind when I think of “learned behavior,” I would say this.
- This appears to be a component of your original fingerprint at birth, in my opinion (whether we know this or not).
- Here are the four sections that, in my opinion, are all connected with the concept of wordculture.
- One of the fascinating aspects of our life in 2016 is the fact that we are all linked, and I bring this up because it is critical to recognize that we are exposed to far more information than we were 30 years ago, and I believe it is vital to grasp this.
- We had no concept that technology – what we see on the little and large screens in our houses – would bring such intimacy with people from so many other cultures into our daily lives!
For example, in California, you will come across a large number of Mexicans who were born and reared in the state and have never spoken Spanish.
The youngster that is born in this country, what they refer to as “first generation,” is born with a load on their shoulders.
From the moment of its conception, the kid is under immense strain!
Educational opportunities, including college and a master’s degree, as well as a high-paying career and ideally, citizenship in the new nation.
This youngster must learn to navigate two different cultures.
Let us consider the case of a Mexican family living in the United States; nevertheless, this may apply to any family.
If there are other children who are older, it is likely that they are already fluent in English.
This is why I included the meanings of the words culture and society at the beginning of the article to make it simpler to understand.
It appears that the adaption process occurs twice a day in the case of this infant.
One of the reasons I find this fascinating is first and foremost how adaptable children are in general, and second and foremost, how rarely anyone in either culture actually assists in explaining how their culture works, much like having a manual or a textbook to guide you through the trials and tribulations of life.
Keep an eye out for further information!
Stay tuned! Furthermore, we will look at several examples of how culture may either work for or against us at critical junctures in our growth. When do we consider something to be a limitation and when do we consider it to be a freedom? It will be continued.
How Culture Affects the Way We Think
At the American Psychological Association’s 19th Annual Convention, APS Fellow and CharterMember Shinobu Kitayama, University of Michigan, noted that “culture is like water for fish.” “Culture is like water for fish,” Kitayama said. In his address, “Voluntary Settlement and the Spirit of Independence: Some More Evidence from Japan’s ‘Northern Frontier,'” Kitayama explained that identifying our own culture is difficult since “it is the only thing we know.” Speaking to a crowded auditorium, Kitayama pointed out that scholars looking into cultural differences frequently compare and contrast Western and Eastern civilizations in their findings.
- Kitayama, on the other hand, used two independent samples from Japan — one from the mainland and the other from the island of Hokkaido — in order to investigate potential disparities in individuality that may exist in Japanese society.
- Many samurai were first dispatched to Hokkaido in the mid-1800s for a variety of reasons, including the fall of Japan’s feudal system, which resulted in fewer jobs for the country’s samurai troops, and the necessity to safeguard the island from escalating Russian aggression.
- According to the voluntary settlement concept, while immigration to the frontier was primarily motivated by economic considerations, it may have influenced psychological tendencies toward self-sufficiency.
- They have a tendency to explain another person’s conduct in terms of internal characteristics while neglecting the influence of external circumstances.
- The trend shows that the voluntary settlement theory may certainly apply to persons from Hokkaido, which is consistent with the data.
- It has been pointed out that modern Asian societies are characterized by a strong sense of interdependence, whereas Western cultures live on independence and individuality.
- As an example of this, Nisbett highlighted a study in which researchers used an eye-tracking device to identify exactly where participants looked when they were shown a photo with an obvious item (for example, a train) against a crowded backdrop.
While in contrast to Chinese participants, who first focused on the item for a brief moment before moving on to the background setting for another five or six fixations, “It’s possible that different people are perceiving different things because they are looking at the environment in different ways,” Nisbett continued.
- The research presented by Medin, who serves on the American Psychological Association’s Board of Directors, looked at the impact of our “culturalframework” (or the way in which we make sense of the world) on inter-group conflict.
- As a result of our limited observation of other groups and our immersion entirely in our own culture, we tend to overgeneralize about other cultures and perpetuate misconceptions about others.
- Denise Park, a former member of the American Psychological Association’s Board of Directors, believes that varied cultural experiences impact the neuronal structure of our brains.
- As a result, Westerners are more likely than East Asians to have activity in perceptual regions that are specialized for object recognition, according to Park.
- The researchers displayed an image to young and old people from Singapore and the United States multiple times until the activation in their brains became accustomed to the scene, in order to investigate these perceptual impacts on the brain.
- When it came to object area activation, the elderly Singaporeans exhibited essentially no activity at all, however activity in the background area of the brain was far more robust than that observed in the American participants.
- A surprising finding was that when they were asked to concentrate just on the item, the object processing region was engaged and performed well, revealing the adaptability of our brain.
Do you think it will make a difference if someone concentrates more on the social context of a scenario rather than their own personal roles and viewpoints inside the scene while they are recalling the scene?
Wang asserts that cultural variations may be observed in autobiographical memory, which refers to our memories of significant events in our own lives.
The remembering of one’s self, according to Wang, is a cultural process that produces both commonality and variety in human memory and cognition.
Historically, this has occurred as a result of Western societies’ emphasis on autonomy and individuality.
Mothers were seen talking about their childhood recollections with their children.
The employment of an elaborative approach by the American moms assisted the children in recalling the events for up to a year and a half after the research ended.
The participants in the Culture and Cognition program expressed the opinion that this emerging area of research has consequences for health, law, and science since it will allow professionals to customize their approaches to unique cultural contexts.
Through the advancement of our knowledge of the distinctions and similarities of cross-cultural thinking, scholars have made significant strides toward keeping connections across borders and praising rather than condemning cultures that are different from our own.
How where you’re born influences the person you become
Early in the fifth century, the Greek historian Thucydides pitted the self-control and stoicism of the Spartans against the indulgence and free-thinking of the residents of Athens in a classic comparison. Today, various civilizations appear to have instilled its own set of behaviors and features. When Italians speak, they use a lot of hand gestures. Dutch youngsters are characterized for their ease and lack of fuss. Russians are notoriously shy when it comes to smiling in public. For us developmental psychologists, these distinctions and how they manifest themselves and are passed down from one generation to the next interest us.
The enduring influence of cultural values
Despite the fact that genetics have a role in how you behave, your personality is not predetermined. Over the past two decades, experts have shown that culture may have an impact on one’s character. According to a 2005 study, psychologist Robert McCrae and his colleagues were able to demonstrate significant variations in personality between persons living in various locations throughout the world. People from European cultures, for example, tended to be more extroverted and receptive to new experiences than adults from Asian cultures, according to research.
- Recently, we were able to pinpoint the origins of some of these abnormalities back to early development.
- We collaborated with colleagues from 14 various nations in order to perform the research for our book.
- After that, we looked at how these various parenting approaches influenced the behavior and personality of children.
- Afterwards, we asked them to describe the actions of their children in greater detail.
- We were able to compare his findings to our own, and we were pleasantly delighted to see that his findings were consistent with ours.
It is critical to note the following: It demonstrates that cultural beliefs are generally long-lasting and appear to have an impact on how children develop throughout time.
To think about yourself, or to think of others?
Individualism and collectivism are two of the most well-known of these broad cultural ideals, and they are perhaps the most well-known of all. The pursuit of self-interest is a major motivator in certain civilizations, such as the United States and the Netherlands. It is expected of them to seek personal recognition and to improve their own social or financial standing as much as possible. In more collectivist cultures, such as South Korea and Chile, a strong importance is put on the well-being of the wider group — primarily their family, but also their job or nation – rather than individual well-being or wealth.
For example, while reprimanding their children, collectivist parents are far more likely than parents in individualist cultures to tell their children to “think about” their misbehavior and how it can negatively influence people around them.
While on the other hand, if you’re continually being reminded to consider how your actions affect others, you can be more prone to experience feelings of fear, guilt, and shame.
Free to pursue happiness?
The contrast between indulgence and restraint was the subject of a second set of values we investigated. Some cultures, such as those in the United States, Mexico, and Chile, encourage and even encourage self-gratification. Others, such as South Korea, Belgium, and Russia, encourage people to exercise restraint when confronted with temptation. There appears to be a connection between these beliefs and a certain set of parenting objectives. Parents in indulgent societies, in particular, are more likely to emphasize the significance of establishing self-esteem and independence in their children.
When one of their children misbehaves, parents will frequently offer methods in which he or she might make apologies and attempt to heal the harm that has been done.
However, when children are encouraged to seek quick gratification, they may be more inclined to impulsively seek immediate rewards – such as consuming sweets before supper or snatching a toy off the shelf at the shop – before asking for permission.
This may encourage them to be more obedient. However, it is possible that it will cause youngsters to be less hopeful and less likely to enjoy themselves as a result.
Is individualism the future?
Parents appear to be driven to provide their children with the greatest possible preparation for the world in which they will most likely live, and what works in one culture may not necessarily work well in another. However, as our globe gets more linked, it is possible that the diversity of parenting styles may diminish. In truth, most nations have gotten more individualistic during the previous 50 years, with the transition being most noticeable in countries that have had the highest economic success.
In this article, it has been corrected to reflect that Thucydides was a historian rather than a philosopher.
Culture May Influence How You Describe Your Personal Goals
In the United States, where individual liberties are respected, the majority of individuals demonstrate their independence by approach-oriented personal objectives like as becoming wealthy, having friends, and doing well in school, among other things. However, in nations like as Russia, where the significance of the community outweighs the worth of the individual, individuals develop objectives in order to avoid the undesirable. According to new cross-cultural analyses conducted by a team of psychologists, an individual’s personal objectives appear to reflect the importance placed on them by the society.
Elliot, assistant professor of psychology at the University of Rochester and main author of the study, explains, “Russians adopted nearly twice than many “avoidance objectives” as those in the United States because their society is aimed at avoiding unpleasant consequences.” In order to avoid causing discord within their group, they don’t want to make a scene; they want to blend in.
- At the University of Rochester, Elliot and co-authors Valarie I.
- At the University of Missouri at Columbia, Kennon M.
- Their findings were published in the November edition of the journal Psychological Science.
- They were aware from past research conducted in the United States that when people set objectives based on what they wish to avoid, they are more gloomy and self-critical.
- In line with what the researchers predicted, participants from Russia and South Korea concentrated their priorities on avoiding certain circumstances.
- “The greater the number of avoidance objectives people pursue, the worse their life happiness,” says Elliot, referring to past research conducted with inhabitants of the United States.
Avoidance objectives, on the other hand, have no detrimental influence on the well-being of persons who live in a collectivist community.
Does culture influence our beliefs?
The 10th of October, 2014 We are all too frequently guilty of presuming knowledge about a whole culture based on inaccurate information obtained from deceptive sources, whether they be the media or an uninformed friend. As a result, there has been an increase in cultural stereotyping. “Culture determines people’s views about other individuals, and since they have these attitudes toward others, culture influences how we see ourselves,” explained Chris Salituro, a sociology teacher. According to Salituro, “since you are a member of certain groups, you are more inclined to think and behave in particular ways because our society influences those groups to think and behave in specific ways.” It’s possible to belong to several different groups depending on your background.
Humans are social animals by nature, and sociologists have shown that people who belong to the same groups, also known as ingroups, are more likely to create ties with one another.
As humans, we are more prone to developing mistrust in the judgment of others who are not like us.
“But ultimately, they were welcomed and were part of the ingroup,” he added.
However, as history’s examples demonstrate, making snap judgments based on looks is not always as black and white as it appears.
Juli Ozmeral ’15 was raised by a Catholic mother and a Muslim father, giving her a mixed background in terms of culture and religion.
Her father grew up in Istanbul, Turkey, where he stayed until he was 18 years old, when he moved to the United States to attend college.
Ozmeral began attending a Unitarian Church when she was nine years old, as a means of achieving a balance between her parents’ religious beliefs.
She was also taught that any belief system she held was valid as long as she treated others with respect and kindness.
When it came to having a mixed heritage, Ozmeral’s least favorite element was the irritation and uncertainty it brought about.
The same question constantly emerges whenever I mention my Turkish heritage or the fact that my father grew raised in Istanbul: ‘Oh.
“He must be a Christian Turk, right?'” ‘And each time, I have to explain to my presumptuous audience that just because I have blonde hair and blue eyes does not mean that I am any less the daughter of a Muslim father,’ I have to say.
In her role as Marriott International’s Director of Ethnic Affairs, Seema Jain works with Marriott properties to ensure that employees are culturally competent in order to serve multicultural customers.
Jain’s work at Marriott has received widespread praise since she began working there two years ago.
As a worldwide corporation with a presence in several countries across the world, Marriott has formed collaborations with a variety of diversity groups in order to strengthen ties and assist all of them in raising their respective levels of awareness.
According to Jain, when we are sincere and true, and genuinely wish to learn about different cultures, others will notice and respond positively.