Artists From Which African Culture Created Portrait Like Sculptures

Artists from which african culture created portrait-like sculptures?

Yoruba culture is a group of artists who came from an African civilization and made portrait-like sculptures. The Yoruba people’s culture Explanation: The Yoruba are one of the most important cultures in African history; they are found in southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin, where a considerable minority of them live in a concentrated population. Yoruba territories are said to have evolved along the southern bank of the Niger River, according to historians. The Yoruba have a thriving artisan community that is both diverse and prosperous.

Workers in the sculpting industry carry out their duties in workshops with apprentices, in which the chosen methods and styles are passed on.

Within the fundamental canons of Yoruba sculpture, some characteristics are unique to specific artists, while others are shared by everyone.

Artists from which african culture created portrait-like sculptures?

Arts, updated at 00:30 The ingredients for a 2l punch recipe are orange juice and ginger ale in a 2:5 ratio. a) How much orange juice do you anticipate being required? In order to make 5 liters of punch, how much ginger ale should be added? Answers are as follows: 2 Arts and crafts, 30 minutes of updating Science always proves or disproves their explanations through experimentation. Answers are as follows: 3 Arts and crafts, 30 minutes of updating Select and move the tiles to the appropriate boxes to complete the pairs that match the dish to its major sensory feature.

  1. What kind of literary structure do both Montagu’s and Swift’s poems employ as their starting point?
  2. Both of them make frequent use of alliterative methods.
  3. Both poems are written in the quatrain stanza form.
  4. both poems are written in free verse format.
  5. Answers are as follows: 3 Do you know what the correct answer is?

… Questions Mathematics has been updated:01Social studies has been updated:01English has been updated:01 Mathematics is being updated:01History is being updated:01Social Studies is being updated:01 History, updating:01Physics, updating:01Mathematics, updating:01Social Studies, updating:01History, updating:26Physics, updating:01Mathematics, updating:01History, updating:26 History and most recent update: 57 Spanish, most recent update:01 Mathematics, updating:01English, updating:01Mathematics, updating:01English, updating:01Mathematics, updating:01English, updating:01Mathematics, updating:01Business, updating:01

The Human Form: Portraits In African Art

The arts, with an update at 00 An orange and ginger ale ratio of 2: 5 is called for in a 2l punch recipe. a) How much orange juice do you think you’re going to require? In order to make 5L of punch, how much ginger ale should you use? There are two possible responses: 30 minutes for arts and crafts. Every explanation is either proven or disproven by science. There are three possible responses. 30 minutes for arts and crafts. Drag the tiles to the appropriate boxes to complete the pairings that correspond to the meal’s principal sensory attribute.

  1. The arts, with an update at 50.
  2. Alliterative devices are used by both of them rather regularly.
  3. A free verse format is employed by both authors.
  4. There are three possible responses.
  5. Which African civilization had artists who sculpted sculptures in the form of portraits?
  6. Mathematics is being updated:01History is being updated:01Social Studies is being updated:01.

African art – Nigeria

It is possible to regard the northern and southern sections of Nigeria as part of the westernSudanandGuinea Coast, respectively; but, because to the abundance of evidence for an artistic history that dates back more than 2,000 years, it is more expedient to treat Nigeria as a separate entity.

Nok

It is the ceramic art of the Nok civilization, which thrived extensively in northern Nigeria from the 5th century BCE to the early centuries CE, that has been identified as the earliest-known sculpture of significant scale in Sudan. In Western Africa, these people are credited with being the earliest known makers of iron, with furnaces at Taruga dating to between the 5th and early 3rd centuries bce; they continued to employ stone tools throughout their history. Their sculptures, which are made of well-fired clay, show animals in a lifelike manner; human figures, on the other hand, have heads that are cylindrical, spherical, or conical in shape.

The art of Nok demonstrates the antiquity of many fundamental canons of West African sculpture, although the precise link between ancient and modern forms remains a source of controversy.

In Nigeria’s Jos Museum, there’s a lot to see.

Frank Willett is a well-known actor.

More Information on This Subject may be found here. Africa is known for its metalwork. African jewelry was made of both precious and nonprecious metals; large neck rings, anklets, and bracelets, for example, were made of gold and silver as well as other materials.

DaimaandSao

Located not far from the Nok region, but in a completely different style, tiny, basic clay animal sculptures were being manufactured by a community of Neolithic ranchers by the 6th century bce at Daima, which is near Lake Chad. In the following centuries, they proceeded to create animals with more extended legs, and sometime around the year 1000 CE, they began to create animals coated in little spikes. These latter specimens are comparable to those found on sites associated with the Saoculture in the Chari valley, Cameroon, where more detailed human figure sculptures, assumed to depict ancestors and maybe spirits, have been discovered in the past.

IfeandYoruba

The Yoruba people occupy a huge portion of southern Nigeria and are known as the Yoruba people. Their artistic traditions may be traced back thousands of years. In Ife, central Yorubaland (the place of the beginning of the world in certain Yoruba mythology), excavations have revealed that realistic sculpture in brass and earthenware was being made somewhere between 1100 and 1450ce, according to the results of the study. The sculptures might be of royal individuals and their entourage, and life-size portrait heads in brass could have been used as part of grave effigies, according to some speculation.

  • Human figures are shown in a basically realistic manner across Yorubaland, with the exception of bulging eyes, flat, projecting, and frequently parallel lips, and stylised ears, which are common in the region.
  • These sculptures are believed to be quite late in terms of artistic development.
  • 14th–15th century; on display in the Museum of Ife Antiquities in Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Frank Willett is a well-known actor.
  • Individual cults, like individuals, have their own distinctive requirements in terms of form and ethnography.
  • He has put carved mortars on his altars, since the pounding of food in a mortar produces the sound of thunder; behind him, a leather bag with a pattern inspired by the extensive motion of a Shango dancer hangs on the wall behind him.
  • The Epacult, which is associated with both the ancestors and agriculture, is a feature of Ekiti’s culture.

Among the Yoruba, the most widely dispersed cult is that of the twins, known as ibeji, whose birth is particularly common.

The carvings on the doors and pillars of temples and palaces, as well as in the homes of influential persons, are widespread.

Yoruba twins are shown in this work.

Height is 27.6 centimeters.

Frank Willett is a well-known actor.

Their ancestors are unknown, and they are by no means exclusively Yoruba in origin.

The carving of ivory is very essential, and wooden heads of rams and people with rams’ horns are used on ancestral altars, as are human heads with rams’ horns.

These effigies, however, were evolved from wickerwork forms that are still in use today other Benin and in Igbotowns that were previously under Benin influence.

A huge number of clay sculptures were discovered during excavations in 1971 that are definitely connected to those of Ife but also have certain Benin characteristics. Carbon-14 dating revealed that the site dates back to around the 15th century.

Edopeoples

Nigeria’s southwestern region is home to the Yoruba people, who live in huge numbers. A significant amount of time has passed since the establishment of their artistic heritage. In Ife, central Yorubaland (the place of the beginning of the world in certain Yoruba mythology), excavations have revealed that realistic sculpture in brass and earthenware was being made somewhere between 1100 and 1450ce, according to the results of the research. A number of life-size portrait heads in brass were possibly employed as part of burial effigies, and the sculptures might depict royal people and their retinue.

  • Human figures are shown in a basically realistic manner across Yorubaland, with the exception of bulging eyes, flat, projecting, and frequently parallel lips, and stylised ears, which are common in western art.
  • Sculpture from IfeBrass statue of the anoni(king) of Ife, c.
  • 47.7 centimeters in height.
  • A variety of regional styles may be differentiated within the core canon of Yoruba sculpture, down to the particular artist’s hand.
  • The emblem of a double ax is seen on the staffs of Shango, the thunder deity, among other things.
  • Given that Shango was the ruler of Oyo, the biggest of the Yoruba kingdoms, his religion is mostly concentrated in territories that were formerly under Oyo control.
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The superstructure, which may be 4 feet (120 cm) or more in height and contain a king on horseback surrounded by two tiers of attendant warriors and musicians, is often of great complexity, as in the case of a king on horseback surrounded by two tiers of attendant warriors and musicians, for example, Among the Yoruba, the most widely dispersed cult is that of the twins, known as ibeji, whose birth is especially common among the population.

  • Among all kinds of African art, their effigies, which were created in accordance with the oracle’s directions, are among the most frequent.
  • Bowls for kola nuts, which are used to greet guests, ayoboards for the game wari, which is played with seeds or pebbles in two rows of cuplike depressions, and chairs, spoons, combs, and heddle pulleys are examples of objects that serve solely secular use.
  • From Efon Alaye, Nigeria, is a pair of Yoruba twin figures (ibeji), made of wood.
  • Frank Willett is an American actor and director.
  • Because of their ambiguous origins, it is impossible to say if they are Yoruba or not.
  • Wooden heads of rams and of humans with rams horns are utilized on ancestral altars, and ivory carving is particularly prominent.

A huge number of clay sculptures were discovered during excavations in 1971 that are definitely connected to those found in Ife but also include certain Benin characteristics as well. Carbon-14 dating revealed that the site dates back to around the 15th centuryCE.

Ijo

On the Niger Delta, Ijofishermen live, who carve masks in the shape of aquatic creatures for use in cults of water spirits, particularly hippopotamus and crocodile, which they sell to tourists. It is customary in the western Ijo to depict the head of the household riding on a highly stylized quadruped, which is thought to represent the family’s guardian spirit (ejirifigures). An Urhobo tribe speaking Edo, to the north of the Ijo, makes artifacts like this, which are used by the warriors to worship aggression in a cult that they have developed.

Men of the Ekine culture also wear masks that are similar to those worn by the western Ijo, which are comparable to those worn by the western Ijo.

The frontal group of rectangular screens in some Kalabarian communities is fashioned by carpentry into a low-relief frontal group in which a commemorated ancestor is flanked by supporting figures—much like the king in Benin plaques, which the screens may have been inspired by approximately 200 years ago.

In African art aesthetics

In African art aesthetics, there are clearly standards of beauty. These standards are for precise qualities that describe sculpture and indicates what is “good” “bad”: resemblance to a human being, luminosity, self-composure, and youthfulness. The Yoruba of SW Nigeria have a particularly well-articulated and studied set of standards, and one that seems generalizable to other West and Central African cultures.They not only distinguish between artist and craftsman, literally the carver of images or art vs. carvers of undecorated objects, but they have a word for someone particularly knowledgeable about art, comparable to our word ‘conoisseur.’The most important way to ‘praise’ a figure sculpture is to comment on its “resemblance to a human being.”This quality is valued because African artists seldom create “likenesses” of particular people, actual animals, or the actual form of invisible spirits in their sculptures. Rather sculptures were intended to be “like” their living subjects, recognizable for what they are though not mirror images or “likenesses.”This is especially true of sculptures representing particular individuals, as Yoruba Queen Victoria carvings illustrate(Fig.1).Even when a sculpture re likenesses, as in the Owo Yoruba Ako memorial portrait figures, they are often idealized or transformed according to cultural conventions (Fig.2).To look at how these qualities inform sculpture, Belton uses the example of “Ibeji” or memorial figures for twins (Fig.3)- although almost any Yoruba canonical sculpture would serve this purpose.Yoruba describes a number of semi-independent peoples loosely linked in geography, language, history and religion. Art and sculpture in the Yoruba culture were made to be used. Many writers and critics on Yoruba art long believed that African languages provide no specific vocabulary or elements for aesthetics, although Robert Thompson’s research concerning the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria, (Black Gods and Kings, 1971, and African Art in Motion, 1974), suggests they have precise vocabulary that describes and evaluates their art aesthetically. Thompson discovered nineteen criteria, the most frequent being”Jijora” – a moderate resemblance to the subject, a balance between the extremes of portraiture and abstraction. (This is visible not only in 19 th20 thcentury canonical Yoruba sculpture but in the past.Compare two works from 12 thcenturyIfe – Fig.4– where a choice is made to idealize the ‘king’ and render the ‘captive’ in grotesquely realistic terms. Compare also, the photograph of Queen Victoria with the sculpted portraity inFig.1)Other Yoruba aesthetic ideas visible in any piece of canonical Yoruba sculpture and glossed by the following terms include: Ifarahon or visibility, with the various parts of a sculpture clearly formed both in the initial state of blocking out of the masses and in the fine detail(Fig.5) Didon or luminosity, the shiny smoothness of a surface, so that the whole sculpture offers a play of light and shadow(Fig.6) Gigun or a straight, upright posture with the symmetrical arrangement of the parts of the sculpture around the strong, vertical axis.(Fig. 6)Odo, or representing the subject “in the prime of life”(Figs. 12) Tut, or serenity, coolness, composure(Fig. 46)Looking at memorial figures for twins (ere Ibeji):Yoruba sculptures “Ere Ibeji or Twin Figures”(Fig.3)symbolize the birth of special children whose births can bless their parents with good fortune. The Yoruba have one of the highest rates of twin births in the world, and if a twin dies, it is considered a great misfortune. After the death, the mother commissions a memorial figure (two if both twins die), and the soul the deceased twin is transferred to it. In the figure, emphasis is placed on human resemblance rather than photographic likeness. The facial features, though stylized, are carefully delineated and delicate. The mother dresses the statuette in cloth, adorns it with jewelry, and keeps it near her bed. She also offers it good food and weekly prayers, and performs more elaborate rituals on the occasion of birthdays and annual festivals.The Ibeji statuettes are ones that conform to the Yoruba aesthetic of physical proportion focusing on the straight upright posture and symmetrical arrangement. The head is on third the size of the body, disproportionately large and infantile in representation. An infantile representation is an apt expression of the desire for children. More importantly, perhaps, since this disproportionate relationship between head and body characterizes much Yoruba (as well as African) sculpture, the head is associated with the person’s destiny or inner head, which determines success and failure in life. Carefully looking at “Ere Ibeji or Twins,”the following observations can be made. First, the objects are 10 inches tall, and approximately 3 feet and 3/4 inches wide. The primary material used is wood, but there are some metal pieces located on the objects. There are also some small plastic materials located on the left and right sides.The object consists of three separate parts – head, body and feet. The lower section below the body is a square shape, the upper part a cone shape. The middle section of the object is a rectangle with two elongated cylinders on the left and right that are attached to the upper portion. The objects are somewhat rounded in form. The larger portion suggests the head, and contains smaller shapes that could indicate facial features, such as bulging pupils indicates by nails, scarification marks on both cheeks, and small lips. The rectangular middle section is the body and exhibits various body parts, including cylinder shapes for arms, and representations of clothing. If one speculates about these objects, the strong, noble poses speak of the power of the twins. This is also a metaphor of the aesthetic element of self-composure. It suggest that these objects present themselves as composed proud, dignified, and reserved. Secondly, the smoothed surface of the Ere Ibeji Twin Figures which is difficult to achieve without sand paper, expresses the desired quality of light and shade over the entire sculpture.The lustrous and smooth appearance of the objects is an indication of healthy skin. In the Yoruba context specifically, the luminosity of the surface suggests as well the value placed on good character, a quality that illuminates a person from within.These surfaces are also often embellished with decorative scarifications – exploiting the use of line and cast shadow to vary the surface (and give visual credence to the large number of verbs in Yoruba language for discussing line and shadow in sculpted forms)See Figure 7. Figures with rough surfaces and deformities are intended to appear ugly, and thus morally flawed, or hideously powerful – as in the case of grotesque egungun(Figure 8) or the grotesque face of the ‘spirit’ that is the face on the helmet part of an Epa mask as opposed to the human tableau represented above (Figure 9).Adapted from Val-Jean Belton – African Art and Aestheticsaccessed July 22, 2008andGeorge Landow: Yoruba Aesthetics, Theory and Attitudes.accessed July 22, 2008
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Africa and Oceania

The continent of Africa, which is the origin of the human race and the second-largest continent on the planet, has 50 countries and 1,000 languages. The art in this gallery shows the traditional civilizations that may be found south of the Sahara Desert, with examples dating back to the 6th century CE and earlier. However, because African art is usually composed of perishable organic materials such as wood, fabric, and plant fibers, many of the artifacts on display are far more recent in origin.

It was animist religion that played a vital role in society, with belief in the presence of spirits that needed to be appeased via ritual controlling all parts of life.

As a material embodiment of religion, sculpture served as a physical instrument for interacting with deities and spirits, as well as ancestors and other spirits.

Western Africa

The western coastal region of Africa was and continues to be one of the most densely inhabited regions on the continent. Wood was employed in non-royal art, such as secret society masks and ancestor figures, as well as in royal art. These played a major part in the adornment of shrines, the celebration of coming-of-age rites, the control of supernatural forces, and the preservation of societal order in ancient Japan. In the gallery, you can see an example of this in the ancient mother figurine of the Baule people from Ivory Coast, which was discovered and preserved over time.

She is depicted as the perfect woman: her elegant hairstyle implies grooming, her prominent forehead denotes intelligence, and her scarred body denotes her capacity to tolerate pain and suffering.

Constructed in the shape of an elephant, which was a strong emblem for the Bamana people, with the long nose signifying the elephant’s trunk, Kono masks were made of carved wood.

Akan people in the region stretching from Liberia to Nigeria were the southernmost players in the trans-Saharan trade network, with the Ghanaians dominating gold mining and gold commerce from the 15th century to the 19th century, according to historians.

Symbolic in nature, Ashanti weights are usually associated with not just their social lives, but also with their rich fabric of folklore, in that many weights depict stories and proverbs, many of which are profound and funny in nature.

Eastern and Southern Africa

Peoples from a number of ethnic groups dwell in Eastern and Southern Africa. Because many are herders who travel by nomadic means, their visual arts must be portable and take the shape of jewelry, body decoration, and everyday utensils. Large carved wooden memorial statues are widespread among sedentary populations such as Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Madagascar, all of which have sedentary populations. When it comes to the Mahafaly peoples of Madagascar, funeral sculpture is not meant to be a direct or literal image of the departed, but rather as a point of connection with the ancestral world, according to their beliefs.

In Tanzania, the Nyamwezi created an extensive masking practice, as well as figurative carved statues that were used as royal regalia.

As an illustration, consider the majestic throne used by the Nyamwezi chief, who would be hoisted to the seat during rituals while the rest of the tribe members would be seated on the ground below.

Rock drawings were used in healing rites, as well as to pray for game animals and to bring rain, and are considered one of South Africa’s greatest cultural assets.

Central Africa

The wide region of Central Africa contains a diverse range of ecosystems, from tropical jungle to savannah grasslands. This region is home to a diverse range of ethnic groups, including the Fang, Kota, Kuba, Luba, Mangbetu, Kongo, and Chokwe, to mention a few. The belief in the power of ancestral spirits played an important influence in the lives of all of the different ethnic groups. It resulted in the creation of sculptures that acted as conduits between the material world and the spirit realm.

  • In the exhibit, there is a power figure from Congo that has been filled with nails, with the intention of reawakening magical abilities and harnessing the spirits of the ancestors.
  • Relics were gathered together in bark containers or baskets to protect them from the elements.
  • It was believed that the polished metal surface would deflect evil.
  • Their whereabouts were kept a secret in a specially constructed facility, and they were only revealed during the initiation rites.
  • In the northern Fang and other people to the southeast of them, this culture was widely practiced and seen as normal.

They served as police officers and judges, exposing sorcerers and punishing those who broke the rules of the game. (Death was the most common punishment for sorcery.) They also acted as peacekeepers, mediating conflicts between clans and competing villages, as well as between rival villages.

Oceania

Despite covering one-third of the earth’s surface, the Pacific Ocean, which has long served as a hub of exploration, colonization, and contact for the peoples who lived in its immediate vicinity as well as, much later, for the countries of Europe. Migrations from Southeast Asia began to populate the South Pacific from 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, encompassing big landmasses such as Australia as well as small islands. It resulted in the formation of thousands of tiny, largely isolated communities, many of which continued to bear the impact of early Southeast Asian tribal cultures.

Art was a vital part of everyday life for the indigenous people of these places, and it was inextricably linked to religious belief and ritual, which were in turn founded on the concept that the natural and supernatural coexisted in the same domain as the human being.

Every media available to them was used by the craftsmen, from wood and stone to leaves and feathers, to create their masterpieces.

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Australia

The lives of Aboriginals, who are descended from the settlers who arrived on the continent in primitive watercrafts some 40-60,000 years ago from Southeast Asia, are rooted in and determined by “the dreaming,” a powerful concept that refers to a mythical sacred past – a time, according to Aboriginal belief, when the Spirit Beings established the pattern for the entire world and its inhabitants – and is rooted in and determined by “the dreaming.” For Aboriginals, art may serve as a link between the past and the present, allowing them to coexist side by side as if they were two different realities.

Aboriginal people discovered a means to communicate their history and customs via their art, which is packed with geometric patterns or naturalistic motifs that are imbued with a complex symbolic context.

The Tiwi Basket on exhibit is an excellent example of such an artefact, with its old tribal emblems, which are rich in significance, and which was intended to be used to transport ceremonial gifts during traditional burial ceremonies.

Activities like as dancing, singing, crafting utensils, and weaving baskets were not regarded to be separate activities referred to as “art” in ancient Aboriginal civilizations, but rather were thought to be part of regular everyday life.

A boat-shaped ritual object, which bears symbolic symbols and ornamentation from the old world, is an excellent example of professional craftsmanship.

Polynesia

Polynesia, which literally translates as “many islands,” is represented by Hawaii, New Zealand, Easter Island, Samoa, Tonga, and the Austral and Cook Islands, among other places. An ancestral class system, headed by a holy chief, serves as the foundation of Polynesian society. sculptures showing chiefly gods and ancestor figures; self-decoration; bark cloth (tapa) painting; feather work; and weaving are the primary mediums of Polynesian creative expression. Artists are constrained by stringent, formal aesthetic norms, which are enforced by religious ritual, which regulates every stage of their creative process.

  1. The twofold sexuality of the super-natural parallels the dualism of the natural world.
  2. A Poupou borad from the nineteenth century is another intriguing ceremonial piece on display in the collection.
  3. The quality of the materials used and the aesthetic appeal of Polynesian artefacts are a reflection of the social standing of its owners.
  4. For Polynesians, the whale held a unique significance.

Melanesia

When Europeans arrived in Melanesia, they were greeted by an entirely different visual experience composed of beautiful figures and incredibly intricate decorations, which blew them away. Three-dimensional human forms predominated in the arts of this region, reflecting the crucial role played by ancestor spirits, whose dwelling place is the sculpture and whose kindness may be provoked by ritual or magic, in this region’s culture. Among the secret societies that predominate in Melanesia are the men’s cult and clan home, which serves as their gathering location.

Each ethnic group had its own repertory of styles in both life and art, which were distinct from one another.

The men’s cult and clan home served as a focal point for the fabrication of a wide range of carved figures, masks, and holy musical instruments, all of which were created with remarkable inventiveness by the clan members.

The custom of mask building was widely practiced and displayed in tribal celebrations, such as the Malanggan burial mask seen in this gallery.

During this rite, each of the males dons his own mask, which represents the ideal of masculine beauty through an enormous nose, an ornate hairstyle, and an aggressive temperament, among other characteristics.

Micronesia

Europ­eans were greeted upon their arrival in Melanesia with an entirely different visual experience, one that had beautiful figures and incredibly intricate ornamentation. Three-dimensional human forms predominated in the arts of this region, reflecting the crucial role played by ancestor spirits, whose dwelling place is the sculpture and whose kindness may be provoked by ritual or magic, in the region’s culture. In Melanesia, secret societies predominate, and the men’s cult and clan home serve as the primary gathering venue.

  • There was a distinct repertory of styles in both life and art that belonged to every cultural group.
  • Sacred musical instruments, carved figures, and masks were all produced in large quantities at the men’s cult and clan home, which was known for its creativity in the fabrication of these items.
  • It is fashioned like the spirit of an ancestor.
  • The masks worn by the men during this rite depict the ideal of male beauty, with the big noses, ornate hairstyles, and aggressive demeanors of each man embodying the ideal of male beauty.

Arts Of Africa

Over 900 pieces of African art, including masks, sculptures, fabrics, and ceramic and metal artifacts, are on display in our African art collection. The gallery for the arts of Africa, which is connected to the galleries of the Ancient World by a chamber devoted to Egypt, exhibits visual traditions from the continent’s western and central areas, which account for the majority of the collection’s visual traditions. Among the most notable pieces on display are masks and sculptural arts from the peoples of West Africa, including the Bamana, Baule, Bwa, Dan, Dogon, and Senufo, as well as masks and sculptural arts made of wood and ivory from the Kongo, Kuba, and Lega peoples of Central Africa.

During their first year in Paris, the de Menils acquired their first artefact from Africa, a face mask (mukuyiorokuyi) produced by the Punu or Sira peoples of Gabon, which they displayed in their home.

The 1931 Exposition Coloniale Internationale, which opened three days before the young couple’s wedding, was a large-scale celebration of western colonization that drew thousands of visitors.

Several members of the Surrealist group of artists, with whom the de Menils would later become close friends and patrons, publicly criticized the fair and mounted The Truth about the Colonies (La verité sur les colonies), a counter-exhibition to protest the corruption of their artistic muses, which were indigenous cultures from Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Americas.

As the collection grew, the de Menils engaged the help of experts to help them enhance their understanding of African art and to aid them with their art historical study as the collection expanded.

In 2008, the Menil Collection issued African Art from the Menil Collection, a compendium presenting choices from the collection.

The Kinsey African American Art & History Collection

Masks, sculptures, fabrics, and ceramic and metal artifacts are among the roughly 900 pieces of African art that we have on display. The gallery for the arts of Africa, which is connected to the galleries of the Ancient World by a chamber devoted to Egypt, exhibits visual traditions from the continent’s western and central areas, which account for the majority of its holdings. Among the most notable pieces on display are masks and sculptural arts from the peoples of West Africa, including the Bamana, Baule, Bwa, Dan, Dogon, and Senufo, as well as masks and sculptural arts in wood and ivory from the peoples of Central Africa, including the Kongo, Kuba, and Lega.

A face mask (mukuyiorokuyi) from the Punu or Sira peoples of Gabon was acquired by the de Menils when they were residing in Paris in 1932, marking their first acquisition of an artefact from Africa.

The 1931 Exposition Coloniale Internationale, which opened three days before the young couple’s wedding, was a grand celebration of western colonization on a grand scale.

Several members of the Surrealist group of artists, with whom the de Menils would become close friends and patrons, publicly criticized the fair and staged The Truth about the Colonies (La verité sur les colonies), a counter-exhibition to protest the corruption of their artistic muses, which were indigenous cultures from Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Americas.

In order to enhance their understanding of African art and to aid them with their art historical studies, the de Menils engaged the assistance of experts as the collection increased in size.

A catalogue emphasizing choices from the Menil Collection, African Art from The Menil Collection, was released in 2008 to accompany the exhibition.

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