Artisans Of Which Culture Created The Great Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound is the world’s biggest remaining effigy mound (a mound in the shape of an animal) from the prehistoric era, and it is located in the United States of America. It has been excavated several times since the late 1800s at Serpent Mound, which is 411 meters long (1348 feet long) and is located in southern Ohio, but the origins of the Native American building are still a mystery. Construction of the National Historic Landmark, also known as the Great Serpent Mound, is thought to have begun about 300 B.C.

What Is Serpent Mound?

Like a large sinuous snake, Serpent Mound has a coiled tail at the west end, a head at the east end, and seven twisting coils in between, as suggested by its name. In all, the snake spans a quarter-mile and measures 1.2 to 1.5 meters (3.9 to 4.9 feet) in height and 6.0 to 7.6 meters (19.7 to 24.9 feet) in width. Its length is 1.2 to 1.5 meters (3.9 to 4.9 feet) and its breadth is 6.0 to 7.6 meters (19.7 to 24.9 feet). A high plateau overlooking OhioBrush Creek in Adams County, Ohio, Serpent Mound is about 73 miles east of Cincinnati on a high plateau overlooking OhioBrush Creek.

The crater is known as Serpent Mound crater and it measures 8 to 14 kilometers (5.0 to 8.7 kilometers) in diameter.

Purpose of Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound may have had a spiritual function, considering that snakes were adored by many indigenous civilizations throughout North and Central America, with many believing that the serpentine reptiles possessed magical abilities. Additionally, the presence of tombs and burial mounds in the vicinity of the site suggests that Serpent Mound’s architects may have built the construction to serve a significant burial or funerary purpose, such as guiding spirits. In contrast, the mound itself does not contain any tombs or archaeological items.

In this way, it is possible that ancient peoples utilized the building to record the passage of time or the seasons.

This alignment shows that Serpent Mound may have had another purpose, such as serving as a type of compass to assist in determining true north.

Great Serpent Mound Excavations

A Harvard archaeologist named Frederic Ward Putnam excavated at Serpent Mound in the late nineteenth century, marking the beginning of modern scientific digs at the site. Because of these early excavations, archaeologists have determined that Serpent Mound belonged to one of two Native American cultures: the Early Woodland Adena culture (500 BC to 200 AD) and the Late Prehistoric Fort Ancient civilization (500 B.C. to 200 AD) (1000 to 1650 A.D.). When Putnam first began digging trenches in Serpent Mound and its surrounding earthen mounds in 1887 to 1889, the archaeologist recognized that people from two different time periods had occupied the Serpent Mound area.

He ascribed the effigy to a previous set of people (the Adena).

Serpent Mound, on the other hand, does not contain any items that may be used to identify it, although the surrounding conical mounds do.

In the 1940s, archaeologist James Bennett Griffith examined these objects and determined that they belonged to the Adena culture, so attributing the effigy to that civilization.

However, Griffith concluded that the more recent civilisation was unlikely to have erected Serpent Mound, especially given the effigy’s resemblance to other Adena earthworks in the Ohio Valley, such as Portsmouth Works (a mound complex in Scioto County, Ohio).

Adena Culture or Fort Ancient?

When a study team reopened one of Putnam’s excavations in the mid-1990s, they were able to gather charcoal from three different areas above and below what they believed to be the mound base. They used radio carbon dating to discover that the samples—as well as Serpent Mound—date back to around 920 A.D., which is approximately 1400 years later than previously assumed. Because this new information is based on the first direct dating of the edifice, it is believed that the effigy was created during the Late Prehistoric (Fort Ancient) era.

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and 44 B.C.

based on a number of different charcoal samples.

Considering that other neighboring monuments have also shown indications of repair or modification by prehistoric tribes, including the Fort Ancient people, the study team concludes that the Fort Ancient people most likely modified and/or renovated it.

Serpent Mound Preservation

Additionally, Putnam was in charge of the restoration and preservation of the effigy, which he oversaw alongside his excavation work at Serpent Mound. More specifically, his efforts assisted in raising funds for Harvard University to acquire the land, which was later transformed into a public park by the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History until 1900. Eventually, Serpent Mound was purchased by the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, which is now known as the Ohio History Connection, and the site is continuously maintained by the organization.

In addition to several other Ohio American Indian earthworks, Serpent Mound is being evaluated for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List.


Herrmann and colleagues (2014). “A new multistage construction chronology for the Great Serpent Mound, located in the United States of America.” The Journal of Archaeological Science is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the study of archaeology. Keith A. Milam is the author of this work (2010). In southern Ohio, an impact crater known as Serpent Mound has had its diameter increased. The Ohio Journal of Science is a publication dedicated to scientific research in Ohio. The Serpent Mound has a connection to Ohio history.

Ohio History Central, Serpent Mound, and the Ohio History Connection are all located in Columbus, Ohio.

Serpent Mound Crater, Ohio; Meteorite Impact Craters in the United States of America.

Artisans of which c…

Art HistoryOpenStudy (anonymous): Which culture’s artisans were responsible for the construction of the Great Serpent Mound? Still in need of assistance? Join the QuestionCove group and learn while studying with your classmates! Become a member OpenStudy (under the guise of anonymity): Artist who creates realistic images I discovered OpenStudy (rockinhood) while doing research. “It is not known who constructed the Great Serpent Mound. The Adena culture constructed constructions similar to this one, as well as burial sites that are located close to the Great Serpent Mounds.

As a result, it is possible that the mound was constructed by the Fort Ancient peoples, who lived in the Ohio Valley between 1000 and 1550 CE.” The Great Serpent Mound is a prehistoric effigy mound in Adams County, Ohio, that is 1,348 feet long and three feet high.

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Week 5 Flashcards

Aesthetics in Pre-Columbian Central and Southern America Peru’s Nazca lines are located in South America. They were the first to be seen from the air in the 1930s. In dry sand, perfectly straight lines are crisscrossed by geometric lines and patterns that are perfectly straight. Scholars have hypothesized that the Nazca people may have constructed the lines using basic tools and surveying technology, according to their theories. Between 400 and 650 AD, the Nazca civilisation flourished. Studies have discovered wooden pegs in the earth at the ends of certain lines, lending weight to this notion.

  • Using this approach, the Nazca “drew” several hundred curvilinear animal and human figures that were basic but enormous in scale.
  • A dry, windless climate has maintained them, as have the runways of an old airport that was utilized by extraterrestrials who were mistaken by the locals for being their gods.
  • In order to serve as a form of observatory, the lines were supposed to point to locations on the horizon far away from where the sun and other celestial bodies rose and set.
  • The development of human presence in Asia followed the same path as that of other areas of the world.

India is geographically and culturally in the center of the Asian continent. Ideas that originated in India spread to other Asian countries. However, because each region had its own distinct culture, concepts had to be altered and adjusted to match their own environments. ​

156. Great Serpent Mound – AP Art History

  • Adams County, Ohio (made by the Fort Ancient peoples of the Middle Ohio River Valley)
  • Great Serpent Mound
  • Unknown Artists
  • Earthwork/effigy mound
  • C. 1070 C.E.
  • Adams County, Ohio (built by the Fort Ancient peoples of the Middle Ohio River Valley)
  • It has not moved from its original site.
  • Snakes, which were thought to possess magical abilities, were frequently integrated into religious ceremonies. Although it is not certain whether or not the snake served as a seasonal indicator, its astrological alignment—the head of which coincides with the summer solstice sunset and the tail with the winter solstice sunrise—indicates that it did. In a similar vein, the curves in the serpent’s body may correspond to lunar phases or equinoxes, for example. Alternatively, the ovoid form at its head, which might be representative of the sun, might be swallowed by the snake. The sun being swallowed by the moon might have been intended to chronicle a solar eclipse. The orientation of the (North) Pole Star is aligned with the first curve of the snake’s tail, suggesting that the serpent may have acted as a natural compass in ancient times. Alternatively, it might have signified the constellation Draco, which featured the Pole Star
  • Or It is possible that this astronomical event was memorialized by the creation of this sculpture around the same time as the appearance of Haley’s Comet. Although burial sites from the previous Adena civilization in the area imply that the serpent may have served as a burial object, there is no archaeological evidence to support this. There is still a scholarly discussion about what the mound was built for (obviously).
  • Before immigrants of European origin arrived in the region in the nineteenth century, Native American tribes (particularly those of the Fort Ancient civilization) resided in the valleys of the Ohio, Missouri, Mississippi, and Illinois rivers. The people who built this mound were members of established agricultural communities that produced squash, maize, and beans (the “three sister” crops)
  • They lived in a tiered social order with a huge work force
  • And they did not leave any written records behind them. In the Upper Midwest, effigy mounds including animal representations were widespread among the tribes
  • Unfortunately, many of these mounds were destroyed by the plows of European invaders. Many of these societies thought that snakes have mystical abilities
  • Tribes of the Middle Ohio Valley, for example, were known for making copper serpentine sculptures
  • And many other cultures. Its location on a high plateau above Ohio Brush Creek is dictated by the geography of the mound
  • The serpent’s head points to a precipice jutting down into the creek below. It is claimed that the lizard-like shape of the plateau suggested (and perhaps even inspired?) the creation of the snake. Geology: 250-300 million years ago, a meteor impacted the location, causing folded bedrock to form. They lived in densely populated agricultural communities with 100-500 individuals, which were made up of circular or rectangular dwellings that were arranged around an open plaza.
  • In addition to agriculture, some members hunted and went with hunting parties throughout the hunting season, supplementing their nutrition with deer, elk, turkey, bear, small game, nuts, fruits, and berries
  • Others worked in the fields. This time (after 1000 A.D.) saw a transition in the civilization, which saw burial mounds being replaced with cemeteries surrounded by rubbish and storage pits instead.
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The Fort Ancient civilization coexisted with the Mississippian culture, which created Cahokia and placed a strong emphasis on the subject of the rattlesnake throughout their time on the continent. Perhaps this serpent mound is a witness to the impact of Mississippian rattlesnake-worshipping customs on the people who built it. (See also: Snake Mound.)

  • Some researchers believe that the Fort Ancient civilisation is just an outgrowth of the Mississippian culture
  • Others disagree.

The mound might be nothing more than a restoration or refurbishing of an older mound built by the Adena culture (c.1100 BCE-200 CCE) or the Hopewell culture (c.1100 BCE-200 CCE) (c. 100 B.C.E.-550 C.E.).

  • Dirt
  • The world’s largest snake effigy mound, which is almost 1300 feet long and made of dirt. This structure has an average height of 4-5 feet and a typical width of 20-25 feet.
  • Dust
  • The world’s biggest snake effigy mound, measuring over 1300 feet in length, made of dirt This structure has an average height of 4-5 feet and a typical width of 20-25 feet

The mound is built in accordance with the natural topography of the area. The head is oriented toward the east, and the tail is oriented toward the west.

  • The head is aligned with the summer solstice sunset, and the tail is aligned with the winter solstice dawn.

Although the building date is largely guesswork and no one is totally convinced of it, the structure was built about 1070. It is designated as a national historic landmark.

  • A snake with a little crescent form to it
  • The snake’s head is oriented to the east, while its tail is oriented to the west. A solar eclipse is considered to be represented by the ovoid form at the eastern end of the serpent, which is thought to be its head, eye, or even an egg or even the sun that the snake is devouring (perhaps depicting a solar eclipse?). A huge snake, maybe a rattlesnake, is seen in this painting. Many Native American civilizations east of the Mississippi thought that the snake was a great deity of the underworld, and many of these societies still do today.

Vocabulary: Comparative studies between cultures:

  • Incorporating the solstice and equinox into the design of the building, as well as its link to the lunar cycle Both constructions were quite vast and would have necessitated the development of a well-organized design as well as the development of novel approaches.
  • Both of these renderings of animals (in terms of detail) are fairly simplistic. Both words have extremely confusing and unclear connotations
  • Demonstration, power-authority, representations of the Divine, animals in art, myth, sacred spaces


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