According To Culture Of Honor, Research Helps Explain Why

Culture of Honor

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Synonyms

When it comes to one’s self-worth, one’s reputation (typically that of a male) and one’s own judgement of what others think are both important factors. Cultural traditions that place a high value on a man’s willingness and ability to react brutally, and often fatally, against anybody who insults his honor, family, or ideals are referred to as “honor cultures.”

Introduction

Wyatt-Brown, an American historian, invented the phrase “Southern Honor” to define the culture of White, non-Hispanic males in the Southern states of the United States during the nineteenth century. As a result of their encounters with ineffective law enforcement that failed to offer enough security for their property and families, masculine honor became increasingly important to them. As a result, according to this view, male honor arose out of the desire for security and protection that Southern White men experienced.

Keywords

Behavioral Patterns of Mate Retention Stress caused by parasites Hone Loss is an abbreviation for Hone Loss Honor in the South Cultures Should Be Honored These keywords were not added by the writers, but rather by a computer program. Considering that this is an experimental procedure, the keywords may be modified as the learning algorithm becomes more refined.

References

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Authors and Affiliations

It has been described as a “culture of honor” among the traditional cultures of the Southern United States, which means that individuals avoid purposefully upsetting others and preserve a reputation for not allowing wrong behaviour from others. According to one idea, this culture developed or may have developed in the American South because of an alleged regional belief in revenge in order to defend one’s rights and discourage predation against one’s family, house, and property.

Background

It is theorized by some social scientists that the “culture of honor” that exists in the Southern United States has its roots in the lifestyles of early immigrants who first settled in the region hundreds of years ago. Unlike settlers from agricultural backgrounds (primarily from densely populated areas such as South East England and East Anglia) who settled in New England, the Southern United States was settled by herders from Scotland, Northern Ireland, Northern England, and the West Country, who came to the region from the north and west of the country.

According to the hypothesis, creating a reputation for wreaking havoc on people who stole herd animals was one method of discouraging theft.

According to some critics, poverty or religion, which have been distinctive in the American South since the Second Great Awakening in the nineteenth century, may be a more significant cause of this cultural phenomena.

Other ideas suggest that the culture of honor may have its origins in the establishment of the region by members of British aristocratic families, which would explain the existence of the honor code today.

Gender roles

It is also part of the Southern tradition of honor to believe that females should not be disrespected by gentlemen. In addition, southern gentlemen are supposed to be chivalrous toward ladies, both verbally and physically. Although characteristics linked with the “culture of honor” have traditionally been associated with men in the southern United States, women in this region have also been influenced and have even demonstrated some of the same characteristics. In the book Culture of Honor, it is mentioned that women have an important role in the culture, both “by their involvement in the socialization process, as well as via their active engagement.” It is via the transmission of these notions to their children that parents are participating in social conditioning.

Psychology

Several studies in the laboratory have indicated that males from honor cultures are more sensitive to interpersonal threats than men from other cultures, as seen by rises in cortisol and testosterone levels in the aftermath of insults. High school students in culture-of-honor states were found to be more likely than their peers to carry a weapon to school in the previous month, and during a 20-year period, there were more than twice as many school shootings per capita in these states. Individuals (particularly Whites) living in honor states are at an extremely high risk of committing suicide, according to Lindsey Osterman and Ryan Brown’s book Culture of Honor and Violence Against the Self.

Sociology

In the four main chapters of his bookAlbion’s Seed, the historian David Hackett Fischer, a Professor of History at Brandeis University, makes the case for an enduring genetic basis for a “willingness to resort to violence” (citing in particular the finding of high blood levels of testosterone, as discussed above). The genetic alterations caused through centuries of living in traditional herding cultures in Northern England, the Scottish Borders, and the Irish Border Region, he contends, have resulted in a Southern proclivity for violence that may be passed down.

Honor cultures, on the other hand, were and continue to be widespread in Africa and many other parts of the world.

He thinks that the violence frequently perpetrated by Southerners was a product of societal tensions in the region.

Southerners, according to his argument, were in a state of tension, possibly as a result of poor Whites being marginalized by rich Whites, free and enslaved Blacks being denied basic rights, and rich and politically powerful Whites having their power threatened by Northern politicians pushing for more federal control of the South, particularly through overabolition.

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He examines historical records of violence from throughout the United States and Europe to demonstrate that violence is frequently associated with feelings of political powerlessness and the inability to progress oneself in society.

Low homicide rates, barring underreported violence against certain groups, might simply reflect gentlemen’s self-restraint at a time when social order was solid, a tendency that would change in the 19th century and afterwards.

War

According to a study conducted in 2016, honor culture increases the likelihood of conflict. According to the findings of the study, international conflicts under Southern presidents are more common “The use of force is twice as likely as it is under non-Southern presidents, and disputes under Southern presidents last on average twice as long. They are also three times more likely to end in victory for the United States. Other features of southern presidential administrations do not appear to be able to explain this pattern of results.”

See also

  • The range of civilizations characterized by guilt, shame, and fear
  • Southern hospitality

Notes

  1. Randolph Roth’s American Homicide traces the evolution of the nature and frequency of homicide in the United States from colonial times to the present. Roth contends that the United States is unique in terms of the quantity of violence experienced by people who are not tied to one another—friends, acquaintances, and strangers. Even in the slave South, America was extraordinarily homicidal in the mid-seventeenth century, but by the mid-eighteenth century, the country had become relatively non-homicidal, and by the early nineteenth century, rates in the northern United States and the mountainous South had fallen to extremely low levels. Nevertheless, following the American Revolution, the murder rate increased significantly among unrelated adults in the slave South, and it exploded across the United States from the late 1840s to the mid-1870s, although rates in most other Western countries remained stable or declined. In the aftermath of that spike, and all subsequent increases in the homicide rate, there was a strong correlation between four distinct phenomena: political instability, a loss of government legitimacy, a loss of fellow-feeling among members of society as a result of racial, religious, or political animosity, and a loss of faith in the social hierarchy. In Roth’s opinion, these four reasons best explain why murder rates in the United States and other Western countries have fluctuated over the last four centuries, and why the United States is now the most homicidal rich nation on earth.

References

  1. American Homicide is a historical study of homicides in the United States, beginning with the founding of the country and continuing to the current day. Roth contends that the United States is unique in terms of the quantity of violence experienced by people who are not tied to one another—friends, acquaintances, or strangers. Even in the slave South, America was extraordinarily homicidal in the mid-seventeenth century, but by the mid-eighteenth century, the country had become relatively non-homicidal, and by the early nineteenth century, rates in the Northern United States and the mountainous South had fallen to extremely low levels. Nonetheless, following the American Revolution, the murder rate increased significantly among unrelated adults in the slave South, and it exploded across the United States from the late 1840s to the mid-1870s, although rates in most other Western countries remained stable or declined. In the aftermath of that spike, and all subsequent increases in the homicide rate, there was a strong correlation between four distinct phenomena: political instability
  2. A loss of government legitimacy
  3. A loss of fellow-feeling among members of society as a result of racial, religious, or political animosity
  4. And a loss of faith in the social hierarchy. Roth contends that these four variables best explain why murder rates have fluctuated in the United States and other Western countries over the last four centuries, and why the United States is now the most violent rich nation on the planet.

Culture of Honor (CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY) iResearchNet

It is a culture of honor where a person (typically a man) feels obligated to safeguard his or her reputation by responding to insults, affronts, and threats in a polite and professional manner, frequently through the use of violence. Cultures of honor have been separately developed several times throughout history around the world. Three well-known instances of cultures of honor are cultures of honor in sections of the Middle East, cultures of honor in the southern United States, and inner-city neighborhoods (in the United States and elsewhere) that are dominated by gangs (in the United States and elsewhere).

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Some places a strong emphasis on female virginity, but others do not place such an emphasis.

But there is one thing that all honor cultures have in common: they place a high value on insult and threat, and they believe it is necessary to respond to them with violence or with the fear of violence.

In lawless circumstances where there is no central authority (such as a state) that can provide adequate protection to its population, such cultures flourish.

Affronts and insults are vital because they serve as probes, allowing us to determine who has the authority to do what to whom.

Consequently, a good response to an insult might dissuade future attacks, when the stakes are potentially much higher.

Such topics, on the other hand, are not insignificant to the participants in the debate since they are protecting (or developing) their own reputations.

Men’s reputation is closely associated with their masculinity in honor-based societies.

The facts of the situation were unambiguous.

One day, the man had had enough and opened fire on his coworkers, killing one and injuring two others.

According to Carter’s account, the case appeared to be a foregone conclusion, and thus Carter opened talks in the jury chamber by giving the obvious (at least to him) result of guilty.

According to Carter’s peers, the man couldn’t possibly be guilty since what sort of man wouldn’t have shot the other defendants?

Traditional masculinity is a virtue that must be defended in all cultures of honor, regardless of where they are found.

Among those who have written about the culture of honor in inner-city areas of the United States is sociology professor Elijah Anderson.

G.

Pitt-Rivers, Peristiany, and Pierre Bourdeau have all contributed chapters to the book, including Pitt-Rivers, who has written on honor and the significance of female virginity among the Kabyle of Algeria.

Such societies have girls who embarrass the family who may be slain by their male relatives in an attempt to restore the family’s good name to the community.

They demonstrate, among other things, that the homicide rate among Whites in the United States South is greater, but only for killings that include quarrels, lovers’ triangles, and other disagreements (i.e., those killings where honor is most likely to be at stake).

In laboratory research, they discovered that college students from the southern United States were more prone than college students from the northern United States to respond aggressively when they were insulted.

Students from the South were more than twice as likely as students from the North to get visibly enraged as a result of the insult (85 percent vs.

They were more mentally prepared for aggressiveness, as evidenced by their completion of situations that had more violent outcomes.

Additional to this, southerners were more hostile as they proceeded down the corridor and came into contact with another experimental confederate (who was 6 feet 3 inches tall and weighed 250 pounds).

This is significant because social policies may be one means by which the culture of honor is maintained long when the conditions that gave rise to it (the lawless environment of the frontier South) have largely faded from view.

References:

  1. Anderson, E., et al (1994, May). The unwritten law of the streets. Atlantic Monthly, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 81-94
  2. Daly, M., and Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY
  3. Gilmore, D. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter
  4. Gilmore, D. (1990). Culture’s conceptions of masculinity are in the process of being formed. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut
  5. Nisbett, R. E., and Cohen, D. (1996). The psychology of violence in the South is influenced by the culture of honor. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
  6. Peristiany, J. G. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
  7. Peristiany, J. G. (1966). Both honor and dishonor are involved. The University of Chicago is located in Chicago.

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