A Culture Whose Speech Was Rich In Metaphors Was The

figure of speech

The term “figure of speech” refers to any intentional variation from a literal statement or standard use that is used to accentuate, clarify, or enrich both written and spoken language. Figures of speech are present in oral literatures as well as refined poetry and prose, as well as in ordinary speech, and they are considered vital parts of the language. Many commonplace items such as greeting-card rhymes, commercial slogans, newspaper headlines, cartoon captions, and the mottoes of families and institutions make extensive use of figures of speech.

Symbolic language abounds in the jargon of sports, jazz, journalism, commerce, politics, and any other type of specialized grouping.

Common figures of speech and their use

In ordinary conversation, most figures are generated by expanding the vocabulary of what is already familiar and more known to include what is less familiar and better recognized. So metaphors (implied resemblances) derived from humanphysiology are frequently applied to nature or inanimate objects, as is the case with the expressions “the mouth of a river,” “the snout of a glacier,” “the bowels of the earth,” and “the eye of a needle,” among other examples. A similarity to natural occurrences is commonly drawn from other fields, as seen by the phrases “a wave of enthusiasm” and “a ripple of excitement,” as well as the phrases “a storm of abuse” and “a ripple of abuse.” Simile (a comparison, usually indicated by the words “like” or “as”) can be seen in phrases such as “We were crammed into the room like sardines” and “He moves as slowly as molasses.” The expression “Money talks” exemplifies personification (speaking of an abstract quality or inanimate object as if it were a person); metonymy (using the name of one thing for another closely related to it), as in “The power of the crown was mortally weakened,” where “crown” refers to “king” or “queen”); and synecdoche (using a part to imply the whole), as in “brass” refers to high-rank Britannica Quiz Literary Terms (Part Three) (Part Three) Quiz Do you know what figure of speech relies on the terms like or as to compare two things?

If you do, take this quiz and see how much more you know about literary words.

While their use in serious poetry and prose is more fully conscious, more artistic, and significantly subtle, its impact on the reader is stronger intellectually and emotionally.

Both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible serve as important literary influences because they are examples of works that are rich in simile, metaphor, personification, and parallelism (which is frequently used in Hebrew poetry).

The Art in Adrienne Rich’s Activism

According to Adrienne Rich’s article “A Communal Poetry,” on a wet day in the spring of 1960, the San Francisco poet Robert Duncan knocked on my door and introduced himself. Duncan was a daemonic bard with a Homeric demeanor, who donned a black cape and a broad-brimmed hat on a number of occasions. Duncan, whom Rich hesitantly adored, “began conversing nearly as soon as he entered the home” and “never paused.” Rich served him tea while attempting to console her ailing son, who alternated between the high chair and her lap; Duncan, whom Rich nervously admired, While driving him to Boston in the storm, Rich saw that her car’s petrol tank was nearly empty and turned into a gas station to fill it up.

“Poetry,” “the function of the poet,” and “myth” were all topics on which Duncan’s oracle spoke during the entire episode.

The author concluded, graciously, that Duncan’s “strong devotion to a legendary Feminine” made it difficult for him to deal with “a person as unarchetypal as a real suffering mom caring for a sick kid,” as described by Rich.

From an early age, her father, an eminent doctor and professor at the Johns Hopkins medical school, insisted that she copy out verses from Blake and Keats and grade them; her mother, who had trained in Vienna as a concert pianist and composer, gave up her career to care for her children and raise the family.

  1. (Her mother, who lived to be 103, passed away in 2000 at the age of 103.) Rich’s debut novel, “A Change of Life,” was published in 1951, when she had just graduated from Radcliffe College.
  2. H.
  3. Even Randall Jarrell, the top poetry critic of the day, praised Rich’s work as “lovely,” noting that she appeared “to us” to resemble “a princess from a fairy tale” in her writing.
  4. “You just vanished!” her buddy said.
  5. “I have no idea what occurred,” said Elizabeth Hardwick, a powerful feminist who sings in a different tone than the others.

She purposely made herself unattractive in order to write such outrageous and absurd poetry.” Rich’s rejection to be an icon of femininity transformed her into an archetype of feminism, a brave transaction that brought her face to face with aesthetic issues that were nearly unparalleled in American poetry at the time of her death.

Creating poetry that articulated her political commitments—particularly those related to women’s consciousness and power—while still maintaining their own creative force was a difficult task.

Rich, on the other hand, never did.

The formalist of the 1950s was always there within her, having been raised “within the perimeter of white language and metaphor,” as she put it.

“However, first and foremost, we’re going to watch your phone die.” Rich’s “Collected Poems: 1950-2012” (Norton) confronts us with what she called “the battle / poetry wages against itself,” which she described as “the struggle / poetry wages against itself.” Through self-refutation, she developed as a poet, reinventing motherhood while also disowning, with genuine regret, her allotted duties as wife and mother, straight woman, and privileged white American.

Her protests against various sorts of tyranny were also protests against social roles that were so firmly embedded that they seemed to her to be unavoidable.

And, despite the fact that she saw life in polar terms, she was able to seek the antipodes within herself.

The secret to Rich’s brilliance, in fact, is Yeats’s famous adage, which is maybe the finest thing anybody has ever said about the arts: “We build rhetoric out of our disagreements with others, but poetry out of our disagreements with ourselves.” In the 1960s, some have suggested that Rich’s conscience transformed her poetry into an act of evangelism, serving as an auxiliary to her politics, which ranged from women’s rights to black power, indigenous sovereignty, and environmental activism.

  • This book ought to put an end to that supposition.
  • Aunt Jennifer is embroidering a needlepoint panel, in which “Bright topaz” tigers “do not fear the men beneath the tree,” according to the text on the panel, which she is working on.
  • She was still scarred from the ordeals that she had through.
  • In this case, the parameters are plain enough: a tyrannical uncle, a sainted aunt, and the awkward shunting of Aunt Jennifer’s creativity and rage into forms that are wordless, restricting, and domestic in their expression.
  • Poetry has the ability to convey both the creator and the artifact, as well as to quantify the differences in irony between one and the other.
  • Rich quickly grew dissatisfied with this type of simple literary metamorphosis, which she perceived as exempting her from the harsh subjugation she depicted in her writing.
  • After thirty years, I still have difficulty understanding the underpinning metaphor of this poem.

However, I was drawing on a lengthy heritage of dominance that I was completely unaware of, in which the precious resource is surrendered into the hands of the dominator as if it were a normal occurrence.

I bring this up because this type of metaphor is still commonly accepted, and I find myself having to fight against it in my own writing on sometimes.

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Rich could have repressed the poetry or allowed it to fade into obscurity.

Instead, she turned it into a defining moment in her own and our education: the “battle” against metaphors that were artistically tempting but politically dishonest was to be waged in plain front of her readers, with equal airtime given to both the poem and the poem’s cancellation.

She enters the cage like the others, is flung downward by gravity like them, and must change her body like the others in order to fit a crevice to work a lode on her.

The pick hangs heavy, the bad airlies thick, and the mountain presses in on her with boulders, timber, and fog, slowly allowing the mountain’s dust to seep into the fibers of her lungs, causing her to collapse.

Ai Weiwei Art, Bio, Ideas

“When we are creative, we have the ability to reject the past, to modify the status quo, and to look for new possibilities. Simply said, creativity, in addition to the ability to use one’s imagination – and probably more crucially – is the ability to take action.” 1 of a total of 10 “The art always comes out on top. Anything may happen to me, but the work will always be there.” 2 of 10″I always want people to be perplexed, astonished, or to discover something afterwards,” says the author. 3 out of 10 “Technology is a means of achieving emancipation.

Today, you have an equal chance to arm yourself with information and knowledge, and to express yourself as an individual with a distinct point of view.” “If there is no freedom of expression, every single life has been lived in vain.” – 4 of 10 5 out of 10 “When we are creative, we have the ability to reject the past, to modify the status quo, and to look for new possibilities.

It is about the freedom of speech and the development of a new mode of communication.

Art should be a part of every person’s daily life.” 7 out of 10 “There is no way, in my opinion, to divorce art from politics.

Timidity is a dismal strategy for moving forward.” 10/10″If my art has nothing to do with people’s suffering and sadness, what is the point of having art?” 10 out of 10

Summary of Ai Weiwei

Ai Weiwei is the most well-known Chinese artist currently active in the world. Activistically, he brings global attention to human rights abuses on a grand scale, and artistically, he broadens the idea of art to incorporate new forms of social participation. In a country where free expression is not recognized as a fundamental right, the authorities have battered him, placed him under house arrest, destroyed his freshly constructed studio, and subjected him to constant monitoring. In the eyes of many, he represents a danger to “harmonious society.” Revolutionaries were not created by the Western world.

Ai himself is from from a long line of free-thinkers and authors who have been ignored by both the right and the left throughout history.

Also, he is one of the first conceptual artists to make extensive use of social media platforms, particularly Instagram and Twitter, as a key medium of expression.


  • Ai came of age as a young art student in New York in the 1990s. When and where it is appropriate to make a remark that is grossly anti-authoritarian and oppositional. He subsequently returned to China, which is a far more conservative atmosphere in which to have such ideas. Ai describes China and the United States as “two societies with very different approaches toward opinion and criticism,” respectively. He saw the distinction and refused to conform. Originally from Taiwan, Ai was a professional blackjack player for a brief period of time early in his career. He is an artist who has literally placed his life on the line to preserve freedom of speech. His work is concerned with danger (personal, professional, and political). It is also about pushing the boundaries of one’s own independence. His work is intended to serve as a reminder that risk-taking is a vital kind of exercise in a free society
  • Government espionage, which has recently been a popular theme in modern art, is not some futuristic concept but rather a reality for Ai. Although he has been under government monitoring for almost a decade, he has produced some of the most profound work on this modern issue that is just as relevant in current popular culture as the counterculture movement was in the 1960s or feminists were in the 1970s
  • Ai, who was educated in the West, is well-versed in both conceptual and minimalist traditions, and he successfully integrates the two. He is the polar antithesis of Jeff Koons, another similarly well-known contemporary, in that he does not want to please the sight. The visual austerity of Ai’s pieces places them in close proximity to the work of other global activists such as David Hammons, Robert Gober, and Doris Salcedo, whose large-scale projects draw attention to important social issues by breaking free from the confines of the gallery and the museum and bridging the gap between the visual and the social.

Biography of Ai Weiwei

a circle of animals or the heads of the zodiac by He credited his father, the poet Ai Qing, with being his single greatest influence. He was installed at the Pulitzer Fountain on Grand Army Plaza in New York City in May 2011.” data-initial-src=”/images20/neo/new design/bio box/bio box aisweiler.jpg” src=” he attributed his father, the poet Ai Qing, with being his single greatest influence. Upon birth, the artist’s family was sent first to a work camp, then to a remote town, where Ai Qing was forced to clean community restrooms.

I believe that the only satisfying sensation he could receive was from having the toilets so thoroughly cleaned.

So, as you may be aware, I was born radical and did not choose to become radical.”

The Marginalian

We have an unpleasant sensation of the conveyance of some universal truth that lies just beyond our grasp. the ultimate mystery of Life itself,” the lyrical marine biologist Rachel Carson wrote as she grappled with both the ocean and life’s purpose while contemplating the ocean and life’s meaning. She had invited the human imagination into the wonders of the underwater world — a world that was then more mysterious than the Moon — in an unexampled essay that later blossomed into her 1951 bookThe Sea Around Us, which won her the National Book Award and established her as the most renowned science writer on the planet.

Bathysphere with William Beebe in the water (Wildlife Conservation Society Photo Collection) It had only been a generation since the German oceanographer Carl Chun’s pioneeringValdivaexpedition had emerged with stunningly illustrated evidence that defied humanity’s limited imagination, which had long assumed that life below 300 fathoms was impossible, and that humanity’s shallow imagination had been proven wrong.

  • However, for all of the wonders theValdivasaw, it was unable to escape the blind spots of its day – the species it found were taken from their underwater habitats and dug out for examination on the surface, where they were rendered dead.
  • The Bathysphere is being circled by a hitherto undiscovered huge dragonfish (Bathysphaera intacta).
  • This design is available as a poster, a face mask, and stationery cards.
  • “It’s one of the most difficult things I’ve ever attempted,” he reflected, likening the splendid irreducibility of it all to asking a foreigner who has only spent a few hours in New York City to describe the city.
  • Bolstelmann’s artwork was preserved in the Wildlife Conservation Society’ Bermuda, 1934: A saber-toothed viper fish (Chauliodus sloanei) chases after the larvae of an ocean sunfish (Mona mona), Bermuda.

Born in Germany, where she had already established herself as an artist before marrying an American cellist and emigrating to New York in her late twenties, Bostelmann was approaching fifty years old when she learned that the National Geographic Society was sponsoring a trailblazing oceanographic expedition to explore the wonders of the deep, launching from Beebe’s research station off the coast of Bermuda’s marvelously named Nonsuch Island.

  • Bostelmann immediately signed up, despite the fact that she was approaching Having been widowed for nearly a decade, she was eager to put her artistic gift of beauty to work in the service of scientific truth.
  • Beebe — who believed that fine arts could render nature’s mysteries and scientific abstractions real — was immediately taken by her exuberant precision, with the striking colors emanating from a single ray of sunlight.
  • After two centuries of hard work, a Dutch engraver and atlas-maker presented the world the half-imaginedfantastical fishesof the first marine encyclopedia printed in color, Bostelmann brought the whimsy of reality to life.
  • Bermuda, 1930, with a leather-fish (Monacanthus ciliatus) in its mouth.
  • Bermuda, 1930s, with a spookfish (Opisthoproctidae).
  • The astonishing thing is that Bostelmann never went underneath herself; she subsequently explained that this was because she was a single mother with a teenage daughter, and Beebe could not bring himself to put her in peril.
  • She served as the marine biologist’s prosthetic eye, a human periscope in reverse, bringing to life the strange and wondrous creatures of the deep in watercolor, gouache, and pencil, as well as bringing to life the strange and wondrous creatures of the deep.
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The two of them would gather in a “artistic huddle” after Beebe’s return to the surface, and they would slowly refine the “proportions, size, color and lights,” as well as other details of his “brain fish,” integrating his memory of the sight with the artwork, until a “splendid finished painting” emerged.

In addition, she gave them names such as the “Big Bad Wolves of an Abseiling Chamber of Horrors,” and she became particularly fascinated by the saber-toothed viper fish.

Bermuda, 1930s: A saber-toothed viper fish approaches a shrimp in preparation for an assault.

Bermuda in the 1930s, with a saber-toothed viperfish attacking shrimp.

While illustrating Beebe’s books and essays for the general public and paying for her daughter’s education, Bostelmann’s artwork found its way into magazines and museums, including National Geographic and The New York Academy of Sciences, inspiring generations of scientists and awaking millions of ordinary people to the otherworldly enchantments of our home planet.

  • Bermuda, 1930s, with a post-larval tropical fish.
  • The stomach contents of the black swallower fish.
  • Bermuda, 1931, with a blue and orange nudibranch.
  • The artist and scientist Bostelmann accompanied Beebe on his expeditions during a time when women, including trained scientists like Carson, were still barred from traveling on government research vessels.
  • The fact that Beebe, who is universally known as a man of warmhearted candor and generosity of spirit, promoted women to positions of leadership tells much about his beliefs, which were decades ahead of their time.
  • While visiting Beebe’s “small group of naturalists,” Theodore Roosevelt saw them engaged in that “unique combination of working hard at a task that their spirits relished in, and also participating in a thrilling type of picnic,” as described by the president.
  • Bermuda, 1930s: Predatory fish chasing for a little squid.
  • Although Bostelmann appreciated her unusual opportunity to witness the world’s hidden beauties, she could not reconcile her admiration for the magnificence of life with the cruelties of science as it was frequently practiced in her day, as she did in her youth.
  • At sunset, as she watched them emerge from the trawl nets into the rose-tinted waters, she was filled with sorrow for the “little captives” and eulogized their plight with an uncommon amount of compassion.

challenged our human consciousness and conscience to imagine the creaturely experience of beings radically different from ourselves but also endowed with sentience and sensitivity, Bostelmann wrote: “The fish have traveled an extensive distance to reach my table and, far from their home in eternal night, they have discovered an unexpected destiny.” They had been dragged around in one of the huge silk nets that trailed behind the stern of a sea-going tugboat, maybe for hours at a time.

There was no way out of the net, nor could anyone get away from the Mason jar that was connected to the very end of the net.

As a result, they are motionless on the ground in front of me.

Bostelmann never went underwater, but she did take her own dives closer to the surface, dressed in sneakers, a red bathing suit, and the most cutting-edge aquanaut equipment available at the time, which appears to us today as a specimen from the lost continent of Atlantis, as exotic as Lancelot’s armor.

I could still see the coastline, with its white sand, leaning cedars, and small houses, one of which was my island home, through the clear glass of the helmet’s window.

I descended, cautiously and step by step, my heart racing with excitement at the prospect of the vast unknown.

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The wonder of it all — “a magnificent valley with peaks of tall coral reefs, swaying sea-plumes, slender gorgonians, purple sea-fans” — washed away any memory of the pain, and she continued down until her feet touched “the softest, whitest sand imaginable, in which the gentle current had designed symmetrical ripples” She had finally arrived.

  1. Rather, she represented reality’s enchantment in its magical realism: she represented time as an origami of time, folding both the past and the future into a single form of total aliveness: I had gone into the realm of fairyland.
  2. Vertical sunbeams pierced through the absolute brilliance of these levels, illuminating the surrounding area.
  3. As I got closer, the bridges revealed themselves to be bent-over sea-plumes, with delicate corals sprouting out in the distance like phantom towers in the distance.
  4. Because all of these formations are made up of colonies of tiny living creatures that have been building their coral homes one on top of another for untold years, layering the new on top of the old.
  5. During her first dive, she brought along a tiny zinc engraver’s plate with a steel pencil attached to it in the hopes of capturing the rough features of the life-forms she encountered.
  6. Following that, she experimented with real oil paint and brushes down below, basing her confidence on the scientific fact that oil paint would retain both its consistency and brilliancy because it couldn’t mix with water.

This, too, turned out to be “very hilarious” a failure: After realizing that she could only paint by laying her supplies on the ocean floor and awkwardly kneeling over them, she realized that her human eyes were not adapted to judging even the smallest distances accurately underwater; finally, after reaching back to the palette for the correct color, she realized that she had forgotten to tie it and that the current had carried it away with her.

  1. She, on the other hand, was adamant.
  2. She tied her paintbrushes to her palette, which was filled with all the colors of the rainbow and weighed down with lead.
  3. The cartoon of Else Bostelmann’s underwater studio appeared in the Christian Science Monitor on July 18, 1935.
  4. Prior to this, no one had attempted anything like it, and no one had achieved anything like it afterwards.
  5. Nothing in the above world can compare to the richness of this nether realm of the sea, with its hues, its aura of mystery, poise, and tranquillity, or with the beauty of this nether realm of the sea itself.

Complement withthe daring life and art of pioneering plant ecologist Edith Clements, who a generation earlier did for mountain flowers what Bostelmann did for undersea fauna, then revisit the story of how the German marine biologist Ernst Haeckel turned his personal tragedy into transcendent art in hisotherworldly visual studies of jellyfish, in the course of which he coined the wordecology.

Summary of John Winthrop’s “Model of Christian Charity”

J. Winthrop (1630-1838) was an English author and poet. A shining example of Christian generosity. Series 7:31-48 of the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society The Massachusetts Historical Society is located in Boston. The struggle of the Puritans and their “errand into the wilderness” are described in John Winthrop’s Model of Christian Charity, which was presented on board the Arbella as members of the Massachusetts Bay Colony traveled for the New World. What is the source of their conflict?

  1. In the Puritan age, public life was dependent on the manner in which contradictions within a “community of perils” were maintained through the employment of the American Jeremiad, as we will learn.
  2. “Winthrop’s address has passed down to us as a cultural artifact, a vital part of our national inheritance, and the metropolis it portrays at its climax is a key to the social-symbolic game through which the United States has sustained itself as America,” argues Sacvan Bercovitch (n.p.).
  3. In his early years, John Winthrop (1588-1649) served as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which was founded by a group of European merchants in quest of commercial prospects in the New World.
  4. This group argued that the Church of England had been corrupted by greedy leaders and petty squabbles, and that this was the case.
  5. Despite their nearly singular focus on creating an ideal society based on biblical teachings, the Puritans achieved remarkable accomplishment in secular endeavors, which was ironic given their religious beliefs.
  6. Puritans also thought that they had the potential to be a blessed people, selected by God to serve as a model for other people to follow.
  7. The Puritan community must be united in this situation; public life and all of its expressions must act as if they are all members of a single individual seeking God.
  8. As you read the sermon and its summary material, think about the rhetorical methods that were used to build a society in which two opposing forces – individualism and community – had to be reconciled.
  9. Many people believe that the Puritans were just another group of wealthy white men attempting to establish a powerful central authority in the New World.
  10. As is customary, it is important to remember that even the Puritans had a history of killing those who, despite their religious beliefs, opposed the new state.

Winthrop asserts that God has ordered diversity among individuals (with money being simply one unit of differentiation) for three reasons.

  • The diversity of persons provides for a range of ways in which God might be praised
  • Acts of compassion by the rich toward the poor – and a spirit of obedience by the poor toward the affluent – serve to further express the spirit of ideal public life. It is vital for society to have a common need among individuals with varied characteristics – shared problems from different stages of life – in order to function.
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One important implication of this third assertion is that all individuals should consider their life circumstances to be the result of God’s will in their particular circumstances. Consequently, no one should take excessive pride or distress in their identity; it is a component part of a larger plan that could never have been devised by human hands: “noe man is made more honorable than another or more wealthyc., out of any particular and singular respect for himselfe, but for the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature, man” (No.

  1. (p.
  2. According to this viewpoint, the worldly attainment of better status is permissible in Puritan life – as long as this self-improvement is characterized as a manifestation of God’s will.
  3. In a spiritual culture, wealth is important.
  4. Is it possible that we have a spiritual commitment to help the needy, even if doing so results in our own poverty?
  5. Among other things, Winthrop presents a different philosophy than Plato, who, in Book Five of The Republic, displaces the family from his communist public life in order to further his political goals.
  6. Is riches, as a result, a negative thing?
  7. The fact that certain money can reflect the glory of God and should be preserved in order to provide for one’s family has already been established by him.


Make a note of the paradox: a religious society desiring prosperity in the New World must find a way to rationalize its actions.

As a result, public life must be robust in order to accommodate and explain the initial motivations that drove many people to the New World.

Members of the Puritan community are expected to love one another, to turn to one another, and to be prepared to give generously of their accumulated wealth.

It is necessary to demonstrate love for one’s community by one’s effort and sacrifice.

Nevertheless, Winthrop asserts that emotions, rather than logic, are required for this ideal community: “The way to drawe men to the workes of mercy, is not by force of Argument from the goodness or necessity of the worke; for though this cause may enforce, a rationall minde to some present act of mercy, as is frequent in experience, yet it cannot worke such a habit in a soule” (The Way to Drawe Men to the Workes of Mercy) (p.

  • 3).
  • “There is noe body, but consists of parts, and that which knits these parts together, giues the body its completeness, for it makes eache component soe contiguous to others as a result of which they doe mutually participate with one another,” writes Winthrop of the political body politic (p.
  • A community bound together by love (which to Winthrop is the ever-present divinity) requires its members to be prepared to sacrifice for one another – even if that sacrifice means giving up their money or their lives in the process.
  • Winthrop points out that Adam, after all, was expelled from God’s presence as a result of his selfish disobedience.
  • In spite of their material disparities, they may be reconciled if they have the same spirit, which they may do.
  • The newborn is regarded as a distinct entity, yet he or she is recognized as being of the same flesh as the mother.
  • The benefits of this love greatly transcend any economic cost that must be incurred in order to keep this community running.
  • Indeed, the majority of Winthrop’s speech is concerned with a society that is almost perpetually in danger, both from natural and human dangers from the outside and from inside, which includes a group that is admittedly wicked and divided.
  • It is necessary for them to stick together during difficult times.

In order for this government, like those of Plato and More, to be effective, it must have certain powers over its citizens, because “care of the public must overrule all private respects, by which, not only conscience, but meare civill policy, dothe binde us” (Care of the Public Must Overrule All Private Respects) (p.

A public life of this nature cannot be demonstrated by symbolic gestures such as weekly church attendance; rather, it must be observed in everyday life.

Failure to create this perfect community would be a shipwreck, which is an apt metaphor considering the position of this address on the ocean.


A city built on a hill cannot be hidden from sight.” This new Boston, like other public ideas, does not exist and will never be achieved, just as no other public ideal does.

Bercovitch provides the following explanation: Winthrop transforms this magnificent composition into a way of legitimizing a specific economic and social order as a result of this transformation.

What is being displaced is both visionary (a medieval utopia) and real (a medieval dystopia) (familial, communal, and geographical origins).

According to how things turned out, those new-fangled regulations also opened the door to something uniquely American: a corporate identity founded on a provisional-apocaleptic perspective of the course of human history.

During the 1980s, the city on a hill was used by a variety of speakers, including Ronald Reagan and Mario Cuomo, among others.

It has, of course, also appeared in more recent political advertisements as well. In a broader sense, any time the American experiment is framed as being somehow special and independent from the rest of human history, vestiges of John Winthrop’s vision for public life may be found.

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