What Sugar Is Found In Dna?

What Sugar Is Found In Dna
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

d -Ribose


/td> Names IUPAC name (2 R,3 R,4 S,5 R )-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-2,3,4-triol Other names d -Ribose Identifiers CAS Number


3D model ( JSmol )

aldehydo form D-(−)-Ribose: Interactive image




4470639 aldehydo form D-(−)-Ribose



EC Number


PubChem CID
  • 5779
  • 5311110 aldehydo form D-(−)-Ribose


InChI SMILES Properties Chemical formula C 5 H 10 O 5 Molar mass 150.13 Appearance White solid Melting point 95 °C (203 °F; 368 K) Solubility in water 100 g/L (25 °C, 77 °F) Chiral rotation ( D ) −21.5° (H 2 O) Related compounds Related aldopentoses Arabinose Xylose Lyxose Related compounds Deoxyribose Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa). verify ( what is ?) Infobox references

L-Ribose Fischer Projection Ribose is a simple sugar and carbohydrate with molecular formula C 5 H 10 O 5 and the linear-form composition H−(C=O)−(CHOH) 4 −H. The naturally-occurring form, d -ribose, is a component of the ribonucleotides from which RNA is built, and so this compound is necessary for coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes,

  1. It has a structural analog, deoxyribose, which is a similarly essential component of DNA,
  2. L -ribose is an unnatural sugar that was first prepared by Emil Fischer and Oscar Piloty in 1891.
  3. It was not until 1909 that Phoebus Levene and Walter Jacobs recognised that d -ribose was a natural product, the enantiomer of Fischer and Piloty’s product, and an essential component of nucleic acids,

Fischer chose the name “ribose” as it is a partial rearrangement of the name of another sugar, arabinose, of which ribose is an epimer at the 2′ carbon; both names also relate to gum arabic, from which arabinose was first isolated and from which they prepared l -ribose, β- d -ribofuranose α- d -ribopyranose d -ribose l -ribose Like most sugars, ribose exists as a mixture of cyclic forms in equilibrium with its linear form, and these readily interconvert especially in aqueous solution, The name “ribose” is used in biochemistry and biology to refer to all of these forms, though more specific names for each are used when required.

In its linear form, ribose can be recognised as the pentose sugar with all of its hydroxyl functional groups on the same side in its Fischer projection, d -Ribose has these hydroxyl groups on the right hand side and is associated with the systematic name (2 R,3 R,4 R )-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentanal, whilst l -ribose has its hydroxyl groups appear on the left hand side in a Fischer projection.

Cyclisation of ribose occurs via hemiacetal formation due to attack on the aldehyde by the C4′ hydroxyl group to produce a furanose form or by the C5′ hydroxyl group to produce a pyranose form. In each case, there are two possible geometric outcomes, named as α- and β- and known as anomers, depending on the stereochemistry at the hemiacetal carbon atom (the “anomeric carbon”).

At room temperature, about 76% of d -ribose is present in pyranose forms : 228  (α:β = 1:2) and 24% in the furanose forms : 228  (α:β = 1:3), with only about 0.1% of the linear form present. The ribonucleosides adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, and uridine are all derivatives of β- d -ribofuranose. Metabolically-important species that include phosphorylated ribose include ADP, ATP, coenzyme A, : 228–229  and NADH,

cAMP and cGMP serve as secondary messengers in some signaling pathways and are also ribose derivatives. The ribose moiety appears in some pharmaceutical agents, including the antibiotics neomycin and paromomycin,

What sugar is found in RNA?

ribonucleic acid / RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a linear molecule composed of four types of smaller molecules called ribonucleotide bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U). RNA is often compared to a copy from a reference book, or a template, because it carries the same information as its DNA template but is not used for long-term storage.

Each ribonucleotide base consists of a ribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Adjacent ribose nucleotide bases are chemically attached to one another in a chain via chemical bonds called phosphodiester bonds. Unlike DNA, RNA is usually single-stranded. Additionally, RNA contains ribose sugars rather than deoxyribose sugars, which makes RNA more unstable and more prone to degradation.

RNA is synthesized from DNA by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase during a process called transcription. The new RNA sequences are complementary to their DNA template, rather than being identical copies of the template. RNA is then translated into proteins by structures called ribosomes.

  1. There are three types of RNA involved in the translation process: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
  2. Although some RNA molecules are passive copies of DNA, many play crucial, active roles in the cell.
  3. For example, some RNA molecules are involved in switching genes on and off, and other RNA molecules make up the critical protein synthesis machinery in ribosomes.

: ribonucleic acid / RNA

What is the sugar of DNA and RNA?

1.1 DNA basics / structure – DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genomic material in cells that contains the genetic information used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA, along with RNA and proteins, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for life.

  • Most of the DNA is located in the nucleus, although a small amount can be found in mitochondria (mitochondrial DNA).
  • Within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes.
  • The complete set of chromosomes in a cell makes up its genome; the human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes.

The information carried by DNA is held in the sequence of pieces of DNA called genes. DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel.

Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called nucleobases (bases). It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. The sequence of these bases comprises the genetic code, which subsequently specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins.

The ends of DNA strands are called the 5′(five prime) and 3′ (three prime) ends. The 5′ end has a terminal phosphate group and the 3′ end a terminal hydroxyl group. One of the major structural differences between DNA and RNA is the sugar, with the 2-deoxyribose in DNA being replaced by ribose in RNA. What Sugar Is Found In Dna The structure of DNA Bases are classified into two types: the purines, A and G, and the pyrimidines, the six-membered rings C, T and U. Uracil (U), takes the place of thymine in RNA and differs from thymine by lacking a methyl group on its ring. Uracil is not usually found in DNA, occurring only as a breakdown product of cytosine.

What is DNA made of?

DNA is made up of four building blocks called nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). The nucleotides attach to each other (A with T, and G with C) to form chemical bonds called base pairs, which connect the two DNA strands.

What sugar is found in DNA but not RNA?

There are two types of nucleic acids that are important to living things.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid)

These molecules are also polymers of smaller units called nucleotides; each nucleotide consist of a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and one of several “bases” that are either purines or pyrimidines. Alternating sugar molecules and phosphate groups are bonded together to form the backbone of the nucleic acid, and a purine or pyrimidine base is bonded to each of the sugars, as illustrated below. There are several differences between DNA and RNA.

DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, while RNA contains the sugar ribose. DNA consists of two nucleotide chains that are bonded to together by weak hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs. The double strands are wrapped to form a double helix. The bases found in DNA are limited to adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine; RNA has adenine, cytosine, and guanine, but hase another base called uracil instead of thymine.

The cells of living organisms have chromosomes which contain an inherited code for synthesizing all of the proteins that the organism produces. In essence, each chromosome is a gigantic molecule of double stranded DNA wound tightly into a double helix.

  • A single chromosome contains thousands of genes, segments of DNA that encode for specific proteins.
  • In a highly regulated process, cellular enzymes can unwind a particular segment (gene), and other enzymes move along a gene using one strand of DNA as a template to synthesize a complementary strand of messenger RNA.

This newly synthesized messenger RNA will then leave the cell nucleus and move to the cytoplasm of the cell where the RNA will in turn be used as a template to synthesize a specific protein. This process will be clearer when we explore it in more detail in another online module.

Is ribose in DNA or RNA?

While DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose, characterised by the presence of the 2′-hydroxyl group on the pentose ring (Figure 5).

Does DNA differ from RNA in only sugar?

DNA differs from RNA in No worries! We‘ve got your back. Try BYJU‘S free classes today! No worries! We‘ve got your back. Try BYJU‘S free classes today! Nature of sugar and pyrimidines Right on! Give the BNAT exam to get a 100% scholarship for BYJUS courses No worries! We‘ve got your back. Try BYJU‘S free classes today! Open in App Suggest Corrections 1 : DNA differs from RNA in

What base is found in RNA but not in DNA?

Nitrogenous Base – The five-carbon sugar ring and the content of the nitrogenous base between DNA and RNA are slightly different from each other. Four different types of nitrogenous bases are found in DNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). What Sugar Is Found In Dna Fig.1.5, (A) Chemical structure of pyrimidines and purines nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA. (B) Chemical structure of ribose and 2-deoxyribose that are found in RNA and DNA, respectively. Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128028230000018

Is DNA A sperm or egg?

Swapping legs – Let’s start with sperm, the simpler of the two. Inside the testis of an adolescent male, we look for a regular cell that is about to become a sperm cell. We race past the complex structures that bring this dynamic cell to life and enter its nucleus, the command center of the cell which contains the chromosomes.

We focus on chromosome 1. There are two of them, joined at the hip. Let’s call them Dwayne and Matthew. Matthew was inherited from the teenage boy’s mom (hence the “M” name), while Dwayne was a gift from his dad. They are, in a manner of speaking, fraternal twins: the same age, with similar enough features, but with important differences.

Cells, which contain Dwayne and Matthew and nearly two dozen other pairs of chromosomes, divide, like a soap bubble being pinched into two. In order to make sure that the cells that result from this division both carry Dwayne and Matthew, Dwayne and Matthew need to be copied.

And so, through the magic of molecular biology, Dwayne and Matthew, joined at the hip, find themselves next to Dominic and Marc, also joined at the hip and looking like clones of Dwayne and Matthew. We have now doubled the amount of DNA inside this cell in preparation for that bubble pinch. But before this can happen, a critical event takes place.

It does not happen in any other cell of the boy’s body, but strictly in those that are to become sperm cells. Matthew, originally inherited from Mom, and Dominic, a copy of Dwayne which was inherited from Dad, get together. It’s not exactly love, but more akin to one of Dr.

Frankenstein’s experiments. A part of Matthew goes to Dominic and vice versa, creating new chromosomes: Matthinic and Domew. What happens next is simple. Dwayne and the new chromosome Matthinic move to one end of the cell, while Domew and Marc shuffle over to the other side. The cell splits into two, and these cells then each split into two, creating four sperm cells.

There is a name for this entire process of a cell swapping material between Mommy’s and Daddy’s chromosomes after it has doubled up its DNA, then twice halving its content. It’s called meiosis (pronounced “my-OH-sis”) and it means a “lessening.” It takes place in cells that are meant to become sex cells, i.e. What Sugar Is Found In Dna Figure 1: A simplified illustration of meiosis, using the development of sperm cells as an example.1) Each chromosome consists of two halves, one inherited from Daddy (labelled Dwayne here) and the other inherited from Mommy (labelled Matthew), and identical copies of them are made at the beginning of this process (Dominic and Marc).2) One of the halves inherited from Mommy swaps material with one of the halves inherited from Daddy.3) This creates new recombinant chromosomes.4) Eventually, each one of these chromosomes finds itself in a single sperm cell.

Created with BioRender.com, Cells which contained both Dwayne and Matthew now only contain either Dwayne or a modified version of Matthew. Where once there were two chromosomes 1 in the same cell, there is now only one. The same process concurrently affects chromosomes 2 to 22 and the sex chromosomes as well.

Sperm cells thus have half as much DNA as any other cell in the body. Meiosis also takes place in females, though the process stops-and-goes over the course of many years to eventually create egg cells that also contain half as much DNA as any other cell.

To be more accurate, some cells in our body actually contain even more DNA than regular cells, for example up to half of our liver cells,) This is why, when a sperm penetrates an egg, we do not get 46 pairs of chromosomes. The 23 single chromosomes of the sperm are matched with the 23 single chromosomes of the egg, and this creates a new combination of 23 pairs of chromosomes in the embryo.

Only Dwayne becomes part of the embryo, or Marc, or Matthinic, or Domew, or any one of a near-infinite combination of Matthew and Dominic chromosomes, or of Dwayne and Marc recombined chromosomes—all depending on which sperm wins the race. And the egg they will fertilize will contain May, or Dawn, or Darilyn, or Marlene, or any combination of Marilyn and Darlene and of May and Dawn.

  • And these recombinations—creating Matthinics and Darilyns—are critical events because they engender genetic diversity.
  • Without these DNA swaps, the same chromosomes would get passed down, intact, from generation to generation.
  • Instead, a mother’s and father’s genetic contributions are scrambled inside their children when the latter start making sexual cells.

This diversity benefits us: it gives us a better chance to survive when our environment changes and helps reduce the chances of our children inheriting certain genetic diseases. And this perk is not just for us. Meiosis takes place in plants and animals more broadly.

One of the core principles of toxicology is that it’s the dose that makes the poison. In a way, it holds true in genetics. We could not withstand a growing accumulation of chromosomes from generation to generation. Meiosis is thus key in keeping the number of chromosomes constant and helping ensure diversity.

Take-home message: – Without a special process in place, every child would receive all of its mother’s and father’s DNA and thus end up with twice as much DNA as each parent – What actually happens is that sperm cells and egg cells wind up with half of the DNA of regular cells through a process called meiosis – During meiosis, equivalent chromosomes inherited from different parents swap parts of each other, which contributes to genetic diversity @CrackedScience

What converts DNA into mRNA?

Video Transcript – A single strand of DNA undergoing transcription reads three prime to five prime AATCCGATCG. Reading five prime to three prime, what will the sequence on the complementary strand of mRNA be? (A) TTCGGATCGA, (B) GGAUUCGAUC, (C) UUAGGCUAGC, (D) AATCCGATCG, or (E) TTAGGCTAGC.

This question is asking us to transcribe a sequence of DNA into mRNA. You’ll recall that when a gene needs to be expressed as a protein, it first needs to be transcribed or copied into mRNA. This process is called transcription. This mRNA transcript can then be converted into a sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide.

This is called translation, and once the polypeptide is formed, it can go on to fold into a protein with a specific function. The enzyme that converts DNA into mRNA is called RNA polymerase, which attaches to the DNA double helix as shown here. Once attached, RNA polymerase can unwind the helix and begin copying one of the DNA strands to form an mRNA transcript of the gene.

  • RNA polymerase moves along the DNA until it reaches the end of the gene and the mRNA transcript is released.
  • Let’s look at this process of transcription in a bit more detail to see how this looks in the DNA sequence.
  • The sequence we’ll use is the sequence in the question.
  • Here you can see the two strands of DNA.

You’ll recall that DNA has directionality. So, one strand is in the five prime to three prime direction, while the opposing strand is in the three prime to five prime direction. The sequence in this question is on the three prime to five prime strand. The three prime to five prime strand is actually what’s used as a template during transcription.

So, once RNA polymerase binds and unwinds the helix, which is now represented here, RNA polymerase can start adding nucleotides to build the mRNA molecule. Since the three prime to five prime strand is used as a template, the corresponding mRNA, shown here as this green arrow, will be assembled in the five prime to three prime direction.

mRNA is synthesized using the same complementary base-pairing rules as in DNA. In DNA, guanine or G pairs with cytosine by forming hydrogen bonds indicated here as these black dots, and adenine pairs with thymine. There is one exception. In RNA, there is no thymine, and thymine is actually replaced by another nucleotide called uracil or U for short.

  • Now, let’s start filling in the mRNA sequence by adding the complementary bases.
  • Adenine normally base-pairs with thymine, but since we’re forming mRNA and there is no thymine, uracil is used instead.
  • Thymine in DNA pairs with adenine in mRNA, cytosine in DNA pairs with guanine in mRNA, and guanine pairs with cytosine.

Why don’t you pause the video and see if you can work out the rest of the sequence? Alright, now let’s fill it in. Therefore, the sequence of mRNA read in the five prime to three prime direction is UUAGGCUAGC.

Is all DNA made of protein?

Posted February 4, 2021 – Answer No, DNA is not a protein. The major relationship between DNA and protein is that DNA encodes the information that is necessary to synthesize proteins. But DNA itself is not a protein. DNA is composed of long chains of nucleotides.

Each nucleotide molecule is made up of three components – a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous base could be either cytosine, guanine, thymine, or adenine. DNA is structured as a double helix and is usually located in cell nucleus. DNA replication also takes place inside the cell nucleus.

Proteins are large molecules made up of one or more long sequences of amino acids. Each amino acid molecule is made up of a basic amino group, an acidic carboxylic group, a hydrogen, and an R group. There are twenty different amino acids that form protein.

What is the 5 carbon sugar in DNA?

The five-carbon sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose, while in RNA, the sugar is ribose.

What is pentose sugar in DNA?

The pentose sugar present in DNA is ribose.

What is in DNA that is not in RNA?

One of the most important differences between DNA and RNA apart from the sugar molecule is the nitrogenous base Uracil, which is seen only in RNA. Instead of Uracil, DNA has Thymine, while the other three nitrogenous bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine) are the same in both RNA and DNA.

Why doesn’t DNA have ribose?

The lack of that one oxygen molecule that makes deoxyribose instead of ribose means that the backbone of the DNA molecule is more stable and less likely to breakdown. This is good for us as the DNA in our cells is essential for them to survive.

Why is DNA ribose?

Abstract – During evolution ribose was selected as the exclusive sugar component of nucleic acids. The selection is explained by using molecular models and by eliminating most of the other common sugars by looking at their chemical structure and envisioning how they would fit in a nucleic acid model.

What is mRNA made of?

Definition. Messenger RNA (abbreviated mRNA) is a type of single-stranded RNA involved in protein synthesis. mRNA is made from a DNA template during the process of transcription.

Does DNA and mRNA have the same sugar?

Figure 6-4 – The chemical structure of RNA. (A) RNA contains the sugar ribose, which differs from deoxyribose, the sugar used in DNA, by the presence of an additional -OH group. (B) RNA contains the base uracil, which differs from thymine, the equivalent base in DNA, (more.)

Why does DNA and RNA have different sugars?

The pentose sugar – The pentose sugar contains five carbon atoms. Each carbon atom of the sugar molecule are numbered as 1′, 2′, 3′, 4′, and 5′ (1′ is read as “one prime”). The two main functional groups that are attached to the sugar are often named in reference to the carbon to whch they are bound.

For example, the phosphate residue is attached to the 5′ carbon of the sugar and the hydroxyl group is attached to the 3′ carbon of the sugar. We will often use the carbon number to refer to functional groups on nucleotides so be very familiar with the structure of the pentose sugar. The pentose sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose, and in RNA, the sugar is ribose.

The difference between the sugars is the presence of the hydroxyl group on the 2′ carbon of the ribose and its absence on the 2′ carbon of the deoxyribose. You can, therefore, determine if you are looking at a DNA or RNA nucleotide by the presence or absence of the hydroxyl group on the 2′ carbon atom—you will likely be asked to do so on numerous occasions, including exams.

How much sugar is in DNA?

(The Double Helix) – DNA is made up of six smaller molecules – a five carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate molecule and four different nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine). Using research from many sources, including chemically accurate models, Watson and Crick discovered how these six subunits were arranged to make the the structure of DNA.

What type of sugar is ribose?

Ribose & deoxyribose sugars Deoxyribose versus Ribose sugars Ribose is a single-ring pentose sugar. The numbering of the carbon atoms runs clockwise, following organic chemistry rules. Note the absence of the hydroxyl (- OH ) group on the 2′ carbon in the deoxy -ribose sugar in DNA as compared with the ribose sugar in RNA, All text material © 2014 by : Ribose & deoxyribose sugars

Is the sugar in RNA glucose?

RNA contains ribose (pentose) sugar.

Why is ribose important?

Abstract – Bioenergetic pathways in muscle provide high-energy compounds that are required for cellular integrity and function. Increased cellular demand for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or limitations in the rephosphorylation rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) can decrease the total adenine nucleotide (TAN) pool, which may take several days to recover or may not recover at all in cases of chronic ischemia.

  1. Total adenine nucleotide levels may be significantly decreased as a result of myocardial or skeletal muscle ischemia, certain metabolic diseases, repeated intense skeletal muscle contractions or in repetitive high-intensity exercise.
  2. Ribose, a naturally occurring pentose sugar, has been shown to enhance the recovery of myocardial or skeletal muscle ATP and TAN levels following ischemia or high-intensity exercise.

Furthermore, ribose has been demonstrated to modulate the production of oxygen free radicals during and following exercise. The following paper reviews skeletal muscle energetics and the potential role of ribose during and following exercise.