A condensation reaction is also known as a dehydration reaction. This type of reaction forms an addition product and water in the presence of a catalyst or under acidic or basic conditions. The opposite of a condensation reaction is a hydrolysis reaction.
- 1 What is another name for a condensation reaction quizlet?
- 2 Why is it called a condensation reaction?
- 3 What is one word example of condensation?
- 4 What are the names of the three types of condensation?
- 5 Is sweating a condensation reaction?
- 6 What is another term for the condensation reaction that makes lipids?
- 7 Is condensation reaction the same as hydrolysis?
What is another name for a condensation reaction quizlet?
What is another name for a condensation reaction? Condensation, also called dehydration, refers to the removal of a water molecule during the linking of monomers.
What is another example of a condensation reaction?
Condensation reaction Chemical reaction in which two molecules are combined and a small molecule, usually water, is lost In, a condensation reaction is a type of in which two are to form a single molecule, usually with the loss of a small molecule such as,
- If water is lost, the reaction is also known as a,
- However other molecules can also be lost, such as,, and,
- The addition of the two molecules typically proceeds in a step-wise fashion to the addition product, usually in, and with loss of a water molecule (hence the name ).
- The reaction may otherwise involve the of the molecule, and is a versatile class of reactions that can occur in or conditions or in the presence of a,
This class of reactions is a vital part of life as it is essential to the formation of between and to the, Idealized scheme showing condensation of two amino acids to give a, Many variations of condensation reactions exist. Common examples include the and the, which both form water as a by-product, as well as the and the (intramolecular Claisen condensation), which form alcohols as by-products.
What are the two types of condensation reactions?
A condensation reaction is a reaction in which two molecules combine to form a single molecule. An esterification is a condensation reaction in which an ester is formed from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. An amidation is a condensation reaction in which an amid is formed from an amine and a carboxylic acid.
Why is it called a condensation reaction?
A condensation reaction is a reaction in which two molecules combine to form a single molecule. A small molecule, often water, is usually removed during a condensation reaction.
Which is a condensation reaction?
Condensation reaction: A reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule, with the simultaneous loss of a small molecule such as water or methanol.
What are other words to describe condensation?
Thesaurus results for CONDENSE How is the word condense different from other verbs like it? Some common synonyms of condense are,,,, and, While all these words mean “to decrease in bulk or volume,” condense implies a reducing of something homogeneous to greater compactness without significant loss of content.
- Condense the essay into a paragraph Where would compress be a reasonable alternative to condense ? While in some cases nearly identical to condense, implies a pressing into a small compass and definite shape usually against resistance.
- Compressed cotton into bales When would constrict be a good substitute for condense ? The meanings of and condense largely overlap; however, constrict implies a tightening that reduces diameter.
the throat is constricted by a tight collar In what contexts can contract take the place of condense ? The words and condense can be used in similar contexts, but contract applies to a drawing together of surfaces or particles or a reduction of area or length.
- Caused her muscles to contract When is it sensible to use deflate instead of condense ? The words and condense are synonyms, but do differ in nuance.
- Specifically, deflate implies a contracting by reducing the internal pressure of contained air or gas.
- When could shrink be used to replace condense ? Although the words and condense have much in common, shrink implies a contracting or a loss of material and stresses a falling short of original dimensions.
the sweater will shrink when washed Style MLA Chicago APA Merriam-Webster “Condense.” Merriam-Webster.com Thesaurus, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/condense. Accessed 10 May.2023. : Thesaurus results for CONDENSE
What is one word example of condensation?
Condensation is the process in which gas converts into its liquid state. Few examples of condensation are given below: Morning dew on the grass. Water droplets on the outer surface of cold drink bottle.
What is the opposite of a condensation reaction?
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- Distinguish between condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
- Identify the products of an acidic hydrolysis of an ester.
- Identify the products of a basic hydrolysis of an ester.
- Generate products of the hydrolysis of amides.
Condensation and hydrolysis reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. These opposite reactions involve the building up or breaking down of organic molecules. As with other chemical reactions involving organic compounds, these processes result in a change in the class of organic compound represented. Figure \(\PageIndex \): General reaction scheme of a hydrolysis reaction. FrozenMan, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
What are the 3 types of condensation?
Condensation: Dew, Fog, and Clouds CHAPTER7 Condensation: Dew, Fog, and Clouds Dew: the water droplets formed by condensation of water vapor on a relatively cold surface of an object. It forms when the temperature of an object drops below the dew point temperature.
Dew point temperature: the temperature to which moist air is cooled at constant pressure and at constant water vapor to reach saturation with respect to water. It is not directly measured, rather it is obtained from measurements of the dry-bulb temperature and the wet-bulb depression. The dew point temperature differs from the wet-bulb temperature, which is determined by inducing evaporative cooling.
The wet-bulb temperature is higher than dew point temperature except at saturation where both temperatures are the same as the ambient temperature. The dew point temperature is a measure of humidity, and therefore, it is an comfort index. It becomes a factor for human health when the dew point temperature exceeds 20C (68F).
- Table D-1, page #A-8 (Ahrens)
- Figure 4.14, page #102 (Ahrens)
- Figure 4.15, page #103 (Ahrens)
Frost: the ice crystals formed by deposition of water vapor on a relatively cold surface of an object. It forms when the temperature of an object drops below the frost point temperature. Frost point temperature: the temperature to which moist air is cooled at constant pressure and at constant water vapor to reach saturation with respect to ice.
It differs from the dew point temperature as the air temperature is at or below 0 C (32 F). Both dew and frost occurs as a result of nocturnal radiative cooling. The length of the night plays an important role on the degree of radiative cooling and therefore, on the possibility of formation of dew or frost.
They most likely form on blades of grass, branches of trees etc. during a clear and calm night following a rather warm clear day typically late spring or early autumn. Frost is a very important factor for the growing agricultural products. Several methods have been developed to protect crops from freezing: locating on hillslopes, spraying a fine water mist, covering with plastic hot caps, circulating he warm air aloft down the ground with a motor-driven fan.
Fog: a suspended tiny water droplets or ice crystals in an air layer next to the Earth’s surface that reduces the visibility to 1000 m (3250 ft.) or lower. For aviation purposes, the criterion for fog is 10 km (6.2 mi.) or less. If the visibility is higher than those limits, the suspension is called mist,
Radiation fog: a ground-level cloud induced by nocturnal radiative cooling. It forms when radiative cooling of a ground surface cools the overlying air below its dew point. It is more common on a clear night with light winds over marshy areas or soil saturated by a recent heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt.
- Radiation fog is usually a few meter deep and typically lasts for only a few hours after sunrise.
- The duration and the thickness of the radiation fog depends on the local conditions as well as the solar heating.
- The fog is thick and persistent in low-lying areas such as river valleys, valley fog, and in the presence of weak rays of sun during late autumn and early winter.
Upslope fog: a ground-level cloud induced by expansional cooling. It forms when moist air flows upon windward side of hillsides or mountain slopes. It can persist for many days over an extensive area. Advection fog: a ground-level cloud induced by advective cooling.
- It forms when relatively warm air is chilled to saturation by over-running a sufficiently cool surface.
- Advection fog is usually thicker (tens of meters deep) and lasts longer than the radiation fog.
- It is more common for the following three conditions: i) when mild, humid air flows over relatively cold, snow-covered ground in early spring, if the ground is extremely cold, ice crystals form, ice fog,
ii) when warm, humid air flows over relatively cool ocean and lake water in late spring and early summer, coastal fog iii) when an advected warm, humid air is subjected to nocturnal radiative cooling, advection-radiation fog, Evaporation (Steam) fog: a ground-level cloud induced by mixing.
It occurs when cold, dry air comes in contact with the relatively warm water. Over the ocean in polar regions where the air is extremely cold during winter, stream fog is referred to as arctic sea smoke, Stream fog also develops on a cold day over a heated outdoor swimming pool or over a warm lake in early autumn.
In general, fog creates pollution, health, and transport problems. The foggiest place near sea level in the United States is Cape Disappointment, Washington, which has an average of 106 foggy days per year. Figure 5.11, page #123 (Ahrens) Cloud: a visible aggregate of tiny water droplets or ice crystals or a mixture of both suspended in the air.
- It forms when the condensation (or deposition) of water vapor meets supersaturation conditions (that is, relative humidity greater than 100%) within the air that is free of dust and other aerosols.
- Within the atmosphere, at most, only a slight supersaturation conditions are necessary for cloud development.
Curvature effect: At a given temperature, the saturation vapor pressure is higher in the air surrounding a spherical water droplet than in the air over a flat surface. As water surface increases its curvature, more water molecules evaporate. Water molecules that form a curved surface have fewer neighboring molecules and hence, they are weakly bound than the molecules over a flat surface.
- The curvature effect increases with decreasing radius of a water droplet.
- Thus, water molecules are more readily escape small droplets than large droplets.
- The saturation vapor pressure and the degree of supersaturation needed for cloud development increases rapidly as the radius of the droplet decreases.
Nuclei: tiny solid and liquid particles of matter on which condensation or deposition of water vapor takes place. They are products of both human and natural activity such as forest fires, volcanic eruptions, soil erosions, saltwater spray and the discharge from domestic and industrial chimneys.
There are typically about 10,000 nuclei per cm3 of air. Hygroscopic nuclei: tiny particles of matter that have a special chemical composition for water molecules such that condensation may begin on these nuclei at relative humidity less than 100%. For example, magnesium chloride, a salt in sea spray, is a hygroscopic substance that can initiate condensation at relative humidity as low as 70%.
Hydrophobic nuclei: tiny particles (oil and gasoline) of matter that resist condensation even if the relative humidity is above 100%. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN): tiny particles that promote the formation of water droplets. CCN are active at temperatures both above and below freezing.
If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), supercooled water droplets will form. Ice-forming nuclei (IN): tiny particles that promote the formation of ice crystals. They are much less abundant than CCN and become active only at temperatures well below freezing. There are two types of ice nuclei: i) freezing nuclei, on which water droplet freezes.
They are active only at temperatures below -9 C (16 F). ii) deposition nuclei, on which water vapor deposits directly to ice. They do not become fully active until temperatures drop below -20 C (-4 F). Table 5.1, page #117 (Ahrens) Haze: a later of dust or salt particles that reduce visibility through scattering sunlight.
- The dry haze particles are smaller than the wet haze particles.
- Dry haze is responsible for bluish sky color under dark background or yellowish color under light-color background.
- Wet haze results in gray or white color sky.
- Classification of clouds: Clouds are given special Latin names and are classified by appearance and by altitude of occurrence.
Latin names, which describe appearances and characteristics of clouds, are given by an English observer, Luke Howard (1803). Based on appearance, clouds are divided into three categories: i) cirrus clouds are fibrous, ii) stratus clouds are layered, and iii) cumulus clouds are heaped or puffy.
- Convective clouds: are heaped or puffy in appearance with exhibiting significant vertical development that could exceed 30 m/sec (70 mi/hr) over a relatively narrow area.
- Stratiform clouds: are layered in appearance with exhibiting weak vertical development such that it is typically less than 5 cm/sec (1 mi/hr) over a broad area.
On the basis of altitude, clouds are categorized into four classes: i) high clouds are found at altitudes above 7000 m (23,000 ft.), at temperatures below -25 C (-13 F), and are composed of almost exclusively ice crystals, ii) middle clouds are found at altitudes between 2000 and 7000 m (6600 and 23,000 ft.), at temperatures generally between 0 to -25 C (32 to -13 F), and are composed of supercooled water droplets, or a mixture of supercooled water droplets and ice crystals, iii) low clouds are found at altitudes below 2000 m (6600 ft.), at temperatures above -5 C (23 F), and are composed of mostly water droplets.
- Tables 5.2, and 5.3, page #127 (Ahrens) Figure 5.23, page #132 (Ahrens) iv) clouds with vertical development : They are mainly convective clouds in which the cloud development is driven by solar heating.
- Therefore, convective clouds are formed middle to late morning and become more extensive by mid-afternoon, following the daily variation of insolution.
Cirrus clouds – high, thin wispy clouds up at jet stream level in the troposhere. They are almost always composed of ice crytals and are associated with fair weather.
- Figure 5.12, page #128 (Ahrens)
- Cirrostratus clouds – high, thin, sheet-like clouds, produce halos around the sun or moon, and weather is often 12/24 hours away.
- Figure 5.14, page #128 (Ahrens)
- Cirrocumulus clouds – high clouds, rounded white puffs.
- Figure 5.13, page #128 (Ahrens)
- Altocumulus clouds – puffy or wave-like clouds.
- Figure 5.15, page #129 (Ahrens)
- Altostratus clouds – grayish blue-gray thin layer covering entire sky uniformy, found ahead of storms, the sun can be seen through but no halo will be observed.
- Figure 5.16, page #129 (Ahrens)
Stratus clouds – uniform grayish cloud covering entire sky. It is related to the fog. Figure 5.19, page #130 (Ahrens) Nimbostratus clouds – darker gray looking low clouds. They procude light/moderate rain over a large region.
- Figure 5.17, page #130 (Ahrens)
- Stratocumulus clouds – low, lumpy, puffy clouds in patches or rounded masses, visually appear larger than altocumulus.
- Figure 5.18, page #130 (Ahrens)
Cumulus clouds – look like cotton balls, cauliflower in the sky. Cumulus humilis is slightly developed cumulus. Cumulus congestus is moderately developed cumulus cloud.
- Figure 5.20, page #131 (Ahrens)
- Figure 5.21, page #131 (Ahrens)
- Cumulonimbus clouds – related to thunderstorms, can entend up to upper troposphere, can contain both ice and water, precipitation in forms of rain, hail, snow, produce lightning and severe weather, produce anvil cloud at the top of the storm.
- Figure 5.22, page #132 (Ahrens)
- Contrail: are formed by mixing hot and humid exhaust and dry and cold ambient air.
Figure 5.28, page 135 (Ahrens) Nacreous clouds : colorful clouds that occur in the upper stratosphere. They are best viewed at high latitudes in winter. They may be composed of ice crystals and/or supercooled water droplets. Figure 5.29, page #135 (Ahrens) Noctilucent clouds: wavy, cirrus-like clouds that occur in the upper mesosphere.
- They are seen only at high latitudes during the twilight just after sunset or before sunrise.
- They may be composed of ice deposited on meteoric dust particles.
- Figure 5.29, page #135 (Ahrens) Ceiling: height of the lowest layer of clouds above the horizon that are either broken or overcast.
- Ceiling (pilot) balloon: a small balloon filled by hydrogen or helium that rises at fairly constat and known speed.
The time required to enter to the lowest cloud layer will be ceiling. A battery-operated light can be attached to the balloon for the night operation. Pilots can provide the direct information regarding cloud base. Rotating beam ceilometer: a ground based projector that rotates vertically from horizon to horizon.
As it rotates, it sends out a powerful light beam that moves along the cloud base. A light sensitive detector points upward and picks up the light from the cloud base. Knowing the projector angle and its distance from the detector, the cloud base is calculated. Laser ceilometer: fixed laser beam ceilometer whose transmitter and receiver point straight up at the cloud base.
The transmitter sends out short and intense pulses of infrared radiation that strikes the cloud base. A portion of this radiation is reflected back to the receiver. The time interval between the transmmision and its return determine the cloud base. It is used in ASOS.
What are the names of the three types of condensation?
The different forms of condensation are frost, dew, fog, mist, and clouds.
What is the best definition of condensation?
Condensation is the process where water vapor becomes liquid, It is the reverse of evaporation, where liquid water becomes a vapor, Condensation happens one of two ways: Either the air is cooled to its dew point or it becomes so saturated with water vapor that it cannot hold any more water.
- Dew Point Dew point is the temperature at which condensation happens.
- Dew is simply condensed water in the atmosphere.) Air temperatures can reach or fall below the dew point naturally, as they often do at night.
- Thats why lawns, cars, and houses are often coated with water droplets in the morning.
- Condensation can also produce water droplets on the outside of soda cans or glasses of cold water.
When warm air hits the cold surface, it reaches its dew point and condenses. This leaves droplets of water on the glass or can. When a pocket of air becomes full of water vapor, clouds form. The point at which condensation starts can be easily viewed in cumulus clouds, which have flat bottoms.
- Those flat bottoms are where vapor begins to condense into water droplets.
- Saturation Clouds are simply masses of water droplets in the atmosphere.
- Molecules in water vapor are far apart from one another.
- As more water vapor collects in clouds, they can become saturated with water vapor,
- Saturated clouds cannot hold any more water vapor,
When clouds are saturated with water vapor, the density, or closeness, of the molecules increases. The vapor condenses and becomes rain. Cold air holds less water vapor than warm air. This is why warm climates are often more humid than cold ones: Water vapor remains in the air instead of condensing into rain.
Is combustion a condensation reaction?
Summary – Chemical reactions may be classified as an a cid–base reaction, an exchange reaction, a condensation reaction and its reverse, a cleavage reaction, and an oxidation–reduction (or redox) reaction. To keep track of electrons in chemical reactions, oxidation states are assigned to atoms in compounds.
The oxidation state is the charge an atom would have if all its bonding electrons were transferred completely to the atom that has the greater attraction for electrons. In an oxidation–reduction reaction, one atom must lose electrons and another must gain electrons. Oxidation is the loss of electrons, and an element whose oxidation state increases is said to be oxidized,
Reduction is the gain of electrons, and an element whose oxidation state decreases is said to be reduced, Oxidants are compounds that are capable of accepting electrons from other compounds, so they are reduced during an oxidation–reduction reaction.
- In contrast, reductants are compounds that are capable of donating electrons to other compounds, so they are oxidized during an oxidation–reduction reaction.
- A combustion reaction is a redox reaction in which the oxidant is O 2 (g).
- An amide bond is formed from the condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine; it is the essential structural unit of proteins and many polymers.
A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing a net chemical change itself. A biological catalyst is called an enzyme, Catalysis is an acceleration in the rate of a reaction caused by the presence of a substance that does not appear in the chemical equation.
Is sweating a condensation reaction?
Condensation and Evaporation The Macroscopic View Condensation is the change from a vapor to a condensed state (solid or liquid). Evaporation is the change of a liquid to a gas. The Microscopic View of Condensation
|Microscopic view of a gas.||Microscopic view after condensation.|
- Example: Water vapor condenses and forms liquid water (sweat) on the outside of a cold glass or can.
- Example: Liquid carbon dioxide forms at the high pressure inside a CO 2 fire extinguisher.
- The Microscopic View of Evaporation
|Microscopic view of a liquid.||Microscopic view after evaporation.|
- Example: The sweat on the outside of a cold glass evaporates when the glass warms.
- Example: Gaseous carbon dioxide is produced when the valve on a CO 2 fire extinguisher is opened and the pressure is reduced.
: Condensation and Evaporation
Is condensing a chemical reaction?
Physical changes to matter Many of the activities in this topic focus on counter-intuitive effects, or at least effects that have an element of surprise and charm. Sometimes they are common phenomena, but students are challenged to look at them in new ways.
Melting, evaporation and condensation are examples of physical change, or change of state, and are distinct from changes that cause new materials to form through a chemical reaction. Distinguishing between physical and chemical changes is not always easy, particularly if you do not have access to the concept of atoms and molecules.
Some curricula talk of physical changes as being reversible, and chemical change being irreversible. Examples of irreversible chemical changes would be the burning of wood, or a candle, or the reaction of vinegar and baking soda to form carbon dioxide, water and a salt.
What is a condensation reaction quizlet?
Condensation reaction. A chemical reaction in which two molecules bond by removal of a hydroxyl (OH) group from one subunit and a hydrogen (H) group from another. (The OH and H combine to form a free water molecule.) Also called a dehydration reaction.
What is another term for the condensation reaction that makes lipids?
Classification of lipids – Lipids are basically classified into three groups
- Simple lipids
- Compound lipids
- Derived lipids
Simple lipids These are the esters of fatty acids with glycerol’s Fatty acids + glycerol’s ——- Lipids They are further subdivided into two groups a) Triglyceride b) Waxes a) Triglycerides Triglycerides are the combinations of fatty acids with glycerol’s (Figure 1) Oils are the liquid triglycerides at room temperature Fats are solid triglycerides at room temperature Oils and fats are most abundant lipids found in nature.
- It is the best kind of reserve food material in humans and source of energy.
- They also act as a insulator for body heat and also protect internal organs of the body as a padding material A triglyceride molecule is formed by joining of one molecule of glycerol to three fatty acids combined with glycerol.
Each fatty acid is joined and combined with the glycerol forming an ester bond in three condensation reaction. Hydrolysis causes the breakdown of the triglyceride and produces glycerol and three fatty acids. Triglycerides have key roles in respiration and energy storage due to its insolubility and its high carbon to hydrogen ratio Triglycerides have low mass to volume ratio making them good molecules for storage They do not affect water potential of cells since they are large in nature and insoluble in water b) Waxes These are the esters of fatty acids with alcohol (with higher molecular weight) other than glycerol.
- Waxes are present all over in nature.
- Many plant leaves have waxy coating which protects them from dehydration.
- These are also obtained from animal sources of which most common are bees wax and spermaceti.
- Spermaceti is obtained from sperms of whales and is mostly used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Compound lipids These are the esters’ of fatty acids with alcohol and some other additional groups because of which they have many types most common are as follows: a) Phospholipid
- They are found in animal tissues plasma membranes of animal and plant cell
- Phospholipids are the class of lipids which are made up of esters of fatty acid and glycerol’s with phosphoric acid and nitrogen base
- They form the major part of the cell membrane
- They form the lipid bilayer because of their amphiphilic character. The phospholipid molecules compose of two (‘water-repelling’) hydrophobic fatty acid “tail” and the hydrophilic (‘water-loving’) phosphate group “head” (Figure 4)
- Phospholipids are similar to lipids where a fatty acid molecule is replaced by a phosphate molecule. The fatty acids are hydrophobic and repel water whereas, phosphate molecules attract water and are known to be hydrophilic
Figure 4 schematic the structure of a phospholipid b) Plasmogens They occur in the heart and brain muscles c) Lipositol These are present in combination with phytic acid in brain, heart, kidneys and plant tissues d) Sphingomyelin These are the source of phosphoric acid in body tissues also present in nervous system and red blood cells Derived lipids – Fatty acids Fatty acids are comprised of hydrocarbon chains terminating with carboxylic group (-COOH).
There are around 70 fatty acids. These are obtained from the hydrolysis of natural fats and oils. The hydrocarbon chain in fatty acid may contain single or double bond. Those fatty acids that have single bond between carbon hydrogen and no double bonds they are called saturated fatty acids ; as all the carbon atoms are attached with the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
Those fatty acids that have double bond (C=C) between carbon hydrogen are called unsaturated fatty acids (Figure 5).
- These are the hydrolytic products of compound lipids
- These are present in animal and plant food
- They are obtained from hydrolysis of fats
- They are hydrocarbons derivatives
Figure 5 schematic illustrating different chemical structures of saturated, monounsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids
Is hydrolysis reaction also called condensation?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Generic hydrolysis reaction. (The 2-way yield symbol indicates an equilibrium in which hydrolysis and condensation are reversible.) Hydrolysis (; from Ancient Greek hydro- ‘water’, and lysis ‘to unbind’) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds.
- The term is used broadly for substitution, elimination, and solvation reactions in which water is the nucleophile,
- Biological hydrolysis is the cleavage of biomolecules where a water molecule is consumed to effect the separation of a larger molecule into component parts.
- When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose ), this is recognized as saccharification,
Hydrolysis reactions can be the reverse of a condensation reaction in which two molecules join into a larger one and eject a water molecule. Thus hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water.
Is condensation reaction the same as hydrolysis?
Hydrolysis reactions are used to break large molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, fats an and nucleic acids, into smaller molecules. The reverse reaction is called condensation, and condensation reactions are used to make these large molecules from smaller ones.