Context of Cultures: High and Low
|1.4.6 – Context of Cultures: High and LowContext ofCultures: High and LowHere is another concept that will help you pull togethera lot of the material you have read so far about culture. It is called “highcontext” and “low context” and was created by the sameanthropologist who developed the concepts of polychronic and monochronic time.They complement each other and provide a broad framework for looking at culture.The list below shows the kind of behavior thatisgenerally found inhigh and lowcontext cultures within five categories: how people relate to each other, howthey communicate with each other, how they treat space, how they treat time,and how they learn. One thing to remember is that few cultures, and the peoplein them, are totally at one end of the spectrum or the other.Theyusually fall somewhere in between and may have a combination of high and lowcontext characteristics.|
- Relationships are based on trust, which develops gradually and is stable. One makes a distinction between persons who are within and those who are outside one’s circle. The ability to work with others and pay attention to the group process are essential for getting things done. One’s identity is anchored in groups (family, culture, and place of employment)
- The social structure and authority are centralized, and accountability is at the top of the hierarchy of power. The person in charge is concerned with the well-being of the group.
- Relationships begin and end in a blink of an eye. A large number of persons can be found within one’s circle
- The circle’s perimeter is not clearly defined. By following processes and keeping an eye on the end objective, things get accomplished. One’s sense of self and accomplishments serve as the foundation of one’s identity. The social structure is decentralized
- Responsibility is distributed more widely (rather than being concentrated at the top)
- The use of nonverbal aspects is extensive
- The tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures, and eye movement all contribute to the overall meaning of the discourse. When communicating verbally, the message is implicit
- The context (situation, people, nonverbal aspects) is more significant than the words themselves. It is indirect to communicate verbally
- One speaks around the topic and embellishes it. Communication is regarded as an art form apart from the act of engaging someone. Disagreement is unique to the individual. One is sensitive to the expression of conflict in nonverbal communication by another person. In order for work to develop, either conflict must be resolved or conflict must be avoided since it is personally threatening
- There is a limited usage of nonverbal components. The verbal communication is more explicit than the nonverbal message
- The verbal message is more direct. Language is more significant than context
- A verbal communication is straightforward
- One lays out exactly what they want to say. A method of exchanging information, ideas, and opinions, communication is considered to be a sort of exchange. Disagreement is depersonalized in this manner. One withdraws from a quarrel with another in order to focus on the work at hand. The emphasis is on logical answers rather than personal ones. It is possible to express one’s dissatisfaction with another’s troublesome conduct
- People stand near to one another and share the same space since space is common.
- Space is segregated and privately owned
- Privacy is paramount, thus individuals are separated by a greater distance.
- Everything moves at its own pace. Time is difficult to schedule
- People’s wants may interfere with the ability to stick to a timetable. What is crucial is that something is done
- Change is slow to happen. Things are firmly entrenched in the past, are difficult to change, and are steadfast. Time is a process
- It belongs to others as much as to nature
- It is cyclical.
- Things are set to be completed at specific times and one at a time, according to a timetable. What matters is that task be completed efficiently, and that change occurs quickly. When one changes his or her behavior, one may witness instant benefits
- Time is a commodity that can be spent or saved. One’s time is his or her own
- Knowledge is integrated in the context
- Things are interconnected, synthesized, and global in nature, There are a variety of sources of information used. Deductive reasoning is a process that moves from the general to the specific. Learning comes through observation of others as they model or demonstrate, followed by practice. When it comes to learning and problem solving, groups are favored
- Accuracy is highly regarded. It is crucial to assess how well something has been learnt.
- Realism has been divided and isolated for many years. When developing knowledge, one source of information is employed. Inductive reasoning is the process of moving from the specific to the general. Individual orientation is favored for learning and problem solving because it allows for greater attention to detail
- Learning happens by following specific directions and explanations from others
- And The importance of speed cannot be overstated. It is crucial to consider how quickly something may be taught.
anthropologist Edward T. Hall’s writings, all of which were published in New York by Doubleday in the 1950s and 1960s: The Silent Language(1959), The Hidden Dimension(1969), Beyond Culture(1976), and The Dance of Life(1979) (1983). The 1993 Annual: Developing Human Resources is the source of this information. PfeifferCompany. Let’s try out the following task to see where you fall on the low and high context continuum.
|CULTURAL-CONTEXTINVENTORY ClaireB. Halverson|
|Instructions:Foreach of the following twenty items, check 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 to indicateyour tendencies and preferences in a work situation.|
|Hardly Ever||Sometimes||Almost Always|
|1.||Whencommunicating, I tend to use a lot of facialexpressions, hand gestures, and body movementsratherthan relying mostly on words.|
|2.||Ipay more attention to the context of a conversation�who said what andunder what circumstances�thanIdo to the words.|
|3.||Whencommunicating, I tend to spell things outquickly and directly rather than talking around and addingto the point.|
|4.||Inan interpersonal disagreement, I tend to be more emotional than logicaland rational.|
|5.||Itend to have a small, close circle of friends rather thana large, but less close, circle of friends.|
|6.||Whenworking with others, I prefer to get the job donefirst and socialize afterward rather than socialize first andthen tackle the job.|
|7.||I would ratherwork in a group than by myself.|
|8.||Ibelieve rewards should be given for individual accomplishment ratherthan for group accomplishments.|
|9.||Idescribe myself in terms of my accomplishmentsratherthan in terms of my family and relationships.|
|10.||Iprefer sharing space with others to having my own private space.|
|11.||Iwould rather work for someone who maintains authorityandfunctions for the good of the group than work for someone who allowsa lot of autonomy and individual decisionmaking.|
|12.||Ibelieve it is more important to be on time than to letotherconcerns take priority.|
|13.||Iprefer working on one thing at a time to working on avariety of things at once.|
|14.||Igenerally set a time schedule and keep to it rather than leave thingsunscheduled and go with the flow.|
|15.||Ifind it easier to work with someone who is fast andwantsto see immediate results than to work with someone who is slow and wantsto consider all the facts.|
|16.||Inorder to learn about something, I tend to consult many sources of informationrather than to go to the one bestauthority.|
|17.||Infiguring out problems, I prefer focusing on the whole situation to focusingon specific parts or taking one step at a time.|
|18.||Whentackling a new task, I would rather figure it out on my own by experimentationthan follow someone else’s example or demonstration.|
|19.||Whenmaking decisions, I consider my likes and dislikes, not just the facts.|
|20.||Iprefer having tasks and procedures explicitly defined tohaving a general idea of what has to be done.|
Chapter 2 Quiz Flashcards
COMM 145 Interpersonal Communication is a course in which students communicate with one another. Valparaiso University is located in Valparaiso, Indiana. This is the term used to describe the process through which cultural traditions are passed down from one generation to another. -enculturation-adaptation to a new cultural environment -the transmission of cultural traditions -acculturation Individuals raised in a low-context society are trained to do the following: -speak in an unclear manner-avoid upsetting others -only criticize people in private -none of the above As an illustration of what, consider a group of high school kids who all attend the same school and are all members of the school’s computer club.
- -social and cultural norms -a process of enculturation -a co-culture -adaptation to a certain culture Among strongly collectivist societies, which of the following statements is true: Conflict is handled in a non-direct manner because people are supposed to look out for their own interests.
- -individual success is more essential than group unity in the workplace.
- According to research, women are more likely than males to refer to themselves in the third person, such as “me” or “I.” Transsexual persons are invariably born with one or more chromosomal abnormalities, regardless of their sexual orientation.
- It is more usual for youngsters to engage in same-sex touching than than opposite-sex contact.
- -both boys and girls are equally susceptible to being touched -all of these statements are correct Which of the following statements concerning touch behavior among adults is correct?
- When it comes to sexual contact, opposite-sex contact is more prevalent than same-sex contact.
- There are no symbols or values, and there are no conventions.
Which of the following claims regarding high-context cultures is not correct?
People are distinguished by their culture, which is comprised of their common symbols, language, values, and conventions that differentiate them from other groups of people.
People in a low-power-distance society are expected to pick companions or partners from within their own social class, rather than from beyond it.
-a culture of long-distance power -culture in a high-contextual setting -culture characterized by short ranges of power -culture in a low-context a culture of low power distance Those living in a low-context society are expected to be direct and communicate exactly what they mean.
Idiomatic phrases are communication protocols that are very specialized to a certain situation, such as those used by doctors and dentists.
-it is okay to engage in aggressive conduct in order to gain personal success-it is unacceptable to challenge a supervisor, especially in front of coworkers-it is appropriate to dig for the deeper meaning in someone else’s comments -it is everyone’s unique right to raise concerns about authority It is everyone’s unique right to raise concerns about power.
- For example, “kick the bucket” or “shake a leg” are both linguistic phrases whose meaning is entirely metaphorical, but not literal.
- -androgyny -asexuality -androgyny In the majority of studies, it has been discovered that femininity is favorably associated with affectionate communication, but masculinity is adversely associated with it.
- -values -symbols -language -ethnicity Which of the following claims regarding feminine cultures is not correct?
- The quality of life is highly valued in feminine cultures, and there is little distinction between male and female duties in feminine civilizations.
- -cultural adages that are unavoidable -the formation of cultural discourse -the ability to communicate -distance According to your text, which of the following statements is correct in regards to sex variations in verbal behavior?
Disclaimers and hedges are used more frequently by males than by women. Women ask fewer questions than men. -Men talk more than women do.-Women interrupt more often than men do.
[Solved] Which of the following statements are not correct regarding
In order to express our thoughts and ideas to our friends and acquaintances, we employ language to do so. The ability to discriminate between people and animals is considered to be based on this feature. However, we rarely pause to consider this exceptional talent that humans possess – the very foundation of our humanity. Normally, when we claim we know a language, we are implying that we are able to communicate with and be understood by others who are fluent in that language. This indicates that humans are capable of producing various sounds that may be mutually interpreted as having a certain meaning in different contexts.
- Language-communication and human needs are inextricably intertwined, as is demonstrated by numerous studies. Human beings have a wide range of requirements – individual, social, economic, political, and cultural – and language is required to meet these need. Language is a fully human and non-instinctive manner of conveying thoughts, feelings, and desires via the use of symbols that are intentionally formed by the one talking
- Language is the institution through which humans communicate and engage with one another via the use of arbitrary symbols that are frequently utilized in vocal and auditory communication. On the other hand, dictionary entries are created in response to the needs of speakers.
As a result, it is evident that there is no such thing as a language without speakers.
Practice Quiz for What is Culture?
|1.||Human culture is _.|
|a)||partly inherited genetically|
|c)||limited to relatively rich societies with sophisticated technologies|
|d)||all of the above|
|2.||Which of the following statements is true of culture?|
|a)||Languages are cultures.|
|b)||Archaeologists dig up culture in their excavations.|
|c)||Culture is a powerful human tool for survival.|
|d)||all of the above|
|3.||Who first defined culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society?”|
|a)||E. B. Tylor|
|b)||the author of this tutorial|
|d)||none of the above|
|4.||A _ isa regional, social, or ethnic group that is distinguishable from other groups in a society by the fact that its members share a common identity, food tradition, dialect or language, and other cultural traits that come from their common ancestral background and experience.|
|5.||Which of the following things would be cultural universals?(Think in term of the way “cultural universal” is used in this tutorial.)|
|a)||the language that you speak|
|b)||the kinds of clothes that you wear|
|c)||the specific knowledge that you acquired in school|
|d)||none of the above|
|6.||Culture is _.|
|a)||the same thing as society|
|b)||limited to humans|
|c)||possessed only by males|
|d)||none of the above|
|7.||Societies are _.|
|a)||groups of interacting organisms|
|b)||only found among humans|
|c)||created only by technologically sophisticated peoples such as those in the industrialized nations of the world|
|d)||none of the above|
Chapter 8: Nonverbal Communication and Culture
In the first instance, the expectation violation hypothesis implies that persons expect specific behaviors from others with whom they come into contact. Expectation violation theory asserts that which of the following statements is not true.
- An individual’s expectations may be generic to a community or unique to him or her. It is possible for expectations to be broken and for the breach to have a major influence on interaction patterns. Individuals’ definitions of personal space are established depending on the circumstances in which they find themselves, without taking into account their connection with other communicators. Based on what they expect from the contact, people judge their communication with others in either a favorable or negative light.
Correct answer:C2 – Which of the following assertions about evolutionary theory of emotion is NOT correct?
- Emotional expressions have a functional purpose
- They are adaptive. Emotions are physiologically intrinsic
- They are not learned. It is believed that some cultures’ people lack the ability to articulate their feelings. Nonverbal behavior such as facial expressions is one of the most often observed types of nonverbal behavior.
When having a conversation, individuals keep a closer space between one other in various cultures. Answer:C3. This refers to what kind of nonverbal behavior is being discussed. In which of the following statements is a proposition of expectation violation theory not included? Answer:A4.
- An individual’s expectations may be generic to a community or unique to him or her. Individuals’ perceptions of personal space are shaped by the environment in which they find themselves, regardless of their connection with other communicators
- And It is possible for expectations to be broken and for the breach to have a major influence on interaction patterns. Based on what they expect from the contact, people judge their communication with others in either a favorable or negative light.
Body language facial expressions go into which of the following groups, according to the answer:B5. Nonverbal experts examine if nonverbal clues are congruent with the verbal content in order to determine whether or not someone is lying. Which of the following notions most accurately characterizes the approach that was used? In terms of the complementing role of nonverbal codes, which of the following propositions is correct?
- A nonverbal communication can supplement a spoken statement by providing additional information. A nonverbal communication is in direct opposition to a spoken message. A nonverbal message can take the place of a spoken statement. A nonverbal communication reinforces the impact of a spoken statement.
Answer:A8. Which of the following assertions best describes societies with a high level of contextualization?
- The meaning is directly stated through the use of words. It is believed that listeners would understand how to interpret the message. Explanation of information to be conveyed is provided openly in written form
- Information regarding the technique is conveyed in an explicit manner
The answer is B9. To Arabs, speaking out loud symbolizes power. In this case, what form of nonverbal behavior is being demonstrated? Answer:C10. When someone is pouring tea into a customer’s cup at a yum cha establishment, it is usual for customers to tap the table with two or three fingers. What is the message being communicated by this nonverbal code?
- Please, more tea
- Thank you
- Please, no more
- The tea is too hot