- 1 Fruit Flies Are Essential to Science. So Are the Workers Who Keep Them Alive. (Published 2020)
- 2 Tiny Bug, Huge Impact
- 3 Don’t Flip Out
- 4 The Coronavirus Pandemic: Key Things to Know
- 5 Center for Phlebotomy Education: The Order of Draw:
- 6 Specimen Requirements/Containers
- 7 Order of Blood Draw Tubes and Additives
Fruit Flies Are Essential to Science. So Are the Workers Who Keep Them Alive. (Published 2020)
Vials that had previously held fruit flies were discovered “flipped” at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center at Indiana University. The New York Times’ Kaiti Sullivan contributed to this report. The Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center at Indiana University is comprised of a series of rooms that are lined wall to wall with shelves that are identical in design. A uniform rack is placed on each shelf, and each rack contains a glass vial that is indistinguishable from the other vials. The tens of thousands of fruit flytypes contained within the vials, on the other hand, are all strikingly distinct from one another.
When you flash a red light on them, some people start to jump.
Each variety serves as a distinct research instrument, and it has taken decades to develop the characteristics that make them helpful for scientific inquiry.
Through the Covid-19 epidemic, employees from a variety of businesses have kept the globe together, putting their lives in danger to care for sick patients, manage supply systems, and keep the world’s population fed.
At the Stock Center, dozens of staff arrive each day to work through a lockdown and then to minister to the flies that serve as the foundation for scientific study.
Tiny Bug, Huge Impact
To most casual onlookers, fruit flies are small specks with wings that linger out near rotting bananas. Scientists have, however, transformed the fly — known to science as Drosophila melanogaster — into a kind of genetic switchboard over the course of the previous century. Biologists create new “strains” of flies on a regular basis, with certain genes switched on or off as they see fit. Because we share more than half of our genes with Drosophila, studying these minor mutations might provide insight into how those genes operate in other organisms, including humans.
- Further research into the gene has revealed that such abnormalities may play a role in the unregulated cell proliferation that results in the development of cancer in humans.
- Drosophila has become the most well-characterized animal model we have because to more than a century of tinkering with fruit flies and cataloguing the consequences.
- “When I tell people what I do, the first thing they generally say is, ‘Why would you want to keep fruit flies alive?'” says the author.
- Sylvester, who has worked as a stockkeeper at Bloomington since 2014, stated, “I try to kill them!” If a couple of her co-workers come to her house from the grocery store, her children scold her, saying, “‘Mom, you brought your co-workers home from work again,'” she explained.
- Featured image courtesy of Kaiti Sullivan of The New York Times Featured image courtesy of Kaiti Sullivan of The New York Times Located in Bloomington, Indiana, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center is the only such facility in the United States, and it is also the biggest in the world.
- According to Annette Parks, one of the institute’s five senior investigators, the center distributed 204,672 vials of flies to labs in 49 states and 54 countries in 2019.
- coli cultures, among other things.
- Caring for the critters entails “flipping” them on a regular basis, which involves transferring them from an old vial to a new one that has been stocked with a little amount of food.
- The eggs hatch, pupate, and reproduce, allowing the cycle to continue.
A total of 64 stockkeepers are employed at the facility, along with one media preparator (think fly-food cook), a kitchen assistant, and five dishwashing employees, in order to keep their millions of Drosophila alive and happy.
Don’t Flip Out
The early stirrings of the pandemic were worrisome in the stock center, as they were everywhere. In a group setting, Ms. Sylvester recalls saying, “We’re the folks at the beginning of the dystopian story, and we have no idea what’s going to happen,” she said. As the number of cases increased, Dr. Whitworth prepared a go-bag with a pillow and a toothbrush, preparing for the worst. It was like a movie scene when everyone was ill and you were the last guy on Earth. “It was really intense,” he continued.
Instead, the stock center remained open when Indiana University closed its doors on March 15 for the semester.
Despite the fact that they eat the same thing every day — a yeasty mush of largely corn-based items — flies may be finicky about what they consume.
Gabbard was taking no chances.
“However, it isn’t if it isn’t correct.” Featured image courtesy of Kaiti Sullivan of The New York Times Featured image courtesy of Kaiti Sullivan of The New York Times Featured image courtesy of Kaiti Sullivan of The New York Times Doctor Whitworth and his co-directors devised a more robust Hail Mary strategy that, if absolutely required, would allow them to “keep most of the flies alive with only eight personnel,” according to the doctor.
- They also decided to cease all shipping in order to devote all of their resources to fly care.
- According to one email, “you are all fantastic.” “I believe the fly community is strong as a result of the outstanding work that you perform.” Around the same time, the employees were presented with a decision.
- The university assured them full salary even if they chose to stay at home, or time and a half if they chose to come into work on time.
- Birthday parties and group lunches are common occurrences at the center, which makes it a highly friendly place to work.
- People are now required to wear masks and operate in separate rooms.
- “You can be working alone for a long period of time, even the entire day,” said Roxy Bertsch, who has worked as a stockkeeper since last year.
- According to Mrs.
- After her kid was potentially exposed to the coronavirus and she was forced to self-quarantine, she began counting down the 14 days until she could return to her home country.
- The care of flies with mutations, for which Ms.
She also worked full-time during the closure, bolstered by her concern for the well-being of her employees. “I primarily care about the flies because I don’t want them to perish,” she explained. “I never imagined that I would have such a strong affection for larvae.”
The early stirrings of the pandemic were worrisome in the stock center, as they were everywhere else. Mr. Sylvester recalled joking with friends that they were “the folks at the beginning of a dystopian story, and we didn’t know what was going to happen.” Doctor Whitworth prepared for the worst as the number of cases increased and packed a pillow and toothbrush in his go-bag. In his words, “I was in the full-on, ‘Everyone’s ill, last man on Earth’ kind of situation.” “For example, ‘How many flies can I flip in a 20-hour period, then sleep for four hours, and then flip again the next day?'” Instead, the stock center remained open after Indiana University closed its doors on March 15.
- They can be finicky about what they eat, even though they consume the same food every day —a yeasty mush of largely corn-based items — By placing an order for two months’ supply of their favorite brands, Mr.
- It was his way of saying, “You believe cornmeal’s just cornmeal.” If something isn’t right, it isn’t right,” says the author.
- Kaiti Sullivan for The New York Times provided the image for this article.
- When it came to developing a more thorough Hail Mary strategy, the co-directors decided to go with “keeping most of the flies alive with only eight individuals,” as Dr.
- Also, they made the decision to stop shipping everything and concentrate their efforts on fly care.
- Another said, “You are all incredible.” “It is due of your outstanding work that the fly community is so strong.” Employees were faced with a decision about the same time.
- When they choose to stay at home, the university assured them full salary, or time and a half if they chose to come in.
Birthday parties and group lunches are common occurrences at the center, which makes it a particularly sociable place of employment.
Individuals are now required to wear masks and operate in different rooms, if not entirely separated.
The stockkeeper, Roxy Bertsch, has been in the job since 2018.
The stockkeepers, many of whom also undertake extra jobs such as packing, shipping, and training, were forced to spend all of their time flipping flies, which is tedious and taxing on the hands for the first several weeks.
Bertsch, “all we were doing was coming in, feeding flies, and then leaving.” Kaiti Sullivan for The New York Times provided the image for this article.
Kaiti Sullivan for The New York Times provided the image for this article.
As a result of her son’s possible exposure to the coronavirus and the need to self-quarantine, she began counting down the 14 days until she could return home.
“There is no way you are keeping me from work if I am here,” she stated.
Sylvester is a specialist, is her passion. As a result of her compassion for her employees, she worked full-time throughout the shutdown as well. For the most part, she stated, “I really really like flies and don’t want them to die.” The larvae have piqued my interest to an unprecedented degree.
Center for Phlebotomy Education: The Order of Draw:
Yes. Yes, you do. Despite the fact that evidence supporting the necessity for a certain order in which blood collection tubes should be filled was first published more than 30 years ago, the notion of sample collection order remains elusive to many healthcare professionals who are responsible for sample collection. It is explained in this article how additive carryover during the collecting procedure might influence the test result reported by the laboratory. It also outlines what might happen if the order of the draws is not followed in the game.
Both syringe and vacuum draws have the potential to cause this problem.
(According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, blood taken by syringe should be transferred to the tubes using a safety transfer device, rather than the same needle used to execute the venipuncture, as previously stated.) When tubes are replaced in a tube holder draw, carryover from the needle within the tube holder happens as the tubes are exchanged.
- Patient posture is such that the tubes are inclined upright with relation to a horizontal plane, allowing them to fill from bottom to top as a result of this tilting.
- When utilizing a tube holder, people who take blood samples may find that they are unable to maintain complete control over the position of the tubes as they are filled.
- However, due to the fact that patients come with a broad variety of arm postures and that contamination of the needle that punctures the stopper cannot always be avoided, a court order is required.
- As an illustration:
- If the EDTA from a lavender-stopper tube, which has a high concentration of potassium, contaminates a potassium-testing tube (a green-, red-, gold-, or speckle-top tube), the potassium level may be mistakenly raised, resulting in potentially life-threatening medical errors
- The prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may be fraudulently reduced if a clot activator is carried over into a tube to be examined for coagulation tests (blue stopper)
- In the event that blood cultures are obtained at the same time as other lab work and are not filled first, germs from the non-sterile stoppers of the tubes might contaminate the bottles used to collect blood cultures.
Due to our knowledge of which additives are detrimental to certain tests, we are able to arrange the tubes and blood culture bottles in such a way that any carryover is rendered irrelevant. That is the sequence in which the draws will take place. When tubes are filled in the approved order of draw, any additive carryover that may occur will have no major influence on the test findings when tubes are filled in the appropriate order of draw.
The sequence is universally applicable to both glass and plastic tubes, and it is not dependent on whether samples are pulled using a tube holder or a syringe or both. The following is the suggested sequence:
- The following are examples of tubes: blood culture tubes
- Sodium citrate tubes (e.g., blue-stopper)
- Serum tubes with or without clot activator, with or without gel separator (e.g., red-, gold-, speckled-stopper)
- Heparin tubes with or without gel (e.g., green-stopper)
- EDTA tubes (e.g., lavender-stopper)
- Glycolytic inhibitor tubes (e.g., gray-stopper)
The sequence of the draws has varied several times throughout the years, with the most recent alteration being in 2003. The move was necessitated by the industry-wide transition away from glass blood collecting tubes in favor of plastic. Plastic, on the other hand, is not a natural clot activator, although glass is. Enable this reason, in order for blood to coagulate in safer plastic tubes, manufacturers coat the interior of the tube with a chemical that facilitates clotting, such as silica particles, to make the tubes more clotting friendly.
- When the venipuncture standard was amended in 2003, CLSI made a single adjustment to the sequence of draw based on the unanimous agreement of all major U.S.
- This transformation was only achievable as a result of the debunking of a popular myth concerning tissue thromboplastin.
- However, because several studies have demonstrated that tissue thromboplastin values are unaffected when the citrate tube is the first tube drawn, it was considered safe for NCCLS (now CLSI) to relocate the serum tube immediately after the citrate tube in the sequence of draw.
- If this fundamental idea is overlooked, it can lead to medical errors that can be potentially fatal to the patient.
- Is it mandatory to follow the order of the draw?
- Note: To find any of the several articles we’ve published about the order of draw in our newsletter archives, simply type “Order of Draw” into the search box at the top of this page.
More materials to help you promote the proper order of draw in your facility or training program:
GUIDELINES FOR EVACUATED BLOOD COLLECTION TUBE. Blood collection tubes and syringe collections are listed in the order in which they were drawn.
|Blood Culture Bottlesare ALWAYS drawn prior to other labs to reduce contamination.|
|Royal Blue||No additive (serum); special glass and stopper material||7.0 mL||Most drug levels, toxicology screens, and trace elements|
|Red||No additive||7.0 mL||Cryoglobulins and CH 50|
|Light Blue||3.2% Sodium Citrate||4.5 mL||PT, PTT, TCT, CMV buffy coat, Factor ActivityTube MUST be filled 100% – No exceptions!|
|Gold Top (Serum Separator, “SST”)||Contains separating gel and clot activator||6.0 mL||Most chemistry, endocrine and serology tests, including Hepatitis and HIV|
|Light Blue -Yellow Label on Tube||Thrombin||2.0 mL||For FDP testONLY; Obtain tube from Core Lab Coag; Allow to Clot|
|Green||Sodium heparin(100 USP Units)||5.0 mL||Ammonia, Lactate, HLA Typing|
|Tan||K 2EDTA||5.0 mL||Lead levels|
|Yellow||ACD Solution A consists of trisodium citrate, citric acid and dextrose||8.5 mL||DNA Studies, HIV Cultures|
|Pink||(K 2)EDTA||Draws 6 mL – Minimum 4 mL||Blood typeScreen, Compatibility Study, Direct Coombs HIV Viral Load|
|Pearl Top (Plasma Preparation, “PPT”)||Separating gel and (K 2)EDTA||4.0 mL||Adenovirus PCR Toxoplasma PCR HHV-6 PCR|
|Lavender (“Purple”)||(K 2)EDTA||3.0 mL||CBC/Diff/Retic/Sed Rate, FK506, Cyclosporin, Platelet Ab, Coombs, Flow Cytometry|
PLEASE NOTE: All tubes are sterile. The following is the standard order of draw: BLOOD CULTURES, royal blue, red, light blue, SST (Gold), green, tan, yellow, pink, pearl, lavender, SST (Gold), green, tan, yellow, pink, pearl, lavender, SST (Gold).
An additional 5 milliliters must be pulled from a coag tube (light blue) if it is the lone tube or first one drawn from the coag tubing. Different Types of Blood Cultures (Specify the culture type when placing your order.)
|Culture Type||Patient Population||Test ID||Test||BottleType/Comments|
|Culture,Blood, Routine||All Patients not Meeting Criteria BelowNOTE:This culture will recover HACEK organisms with no change in collection or incubationconditions. If Brucella or Francisella are in the differential, extended incubation may be required. Please contact the Microbiology Lab (966-4056).||BROU||9500||BD BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F(Grey Cap/Blue Ring)(Optimal Volume 8-10 mL)Lawson052346(UOM box of 50 bottles)BD BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10(Purple Cap/Maroon Ring)(Optimal Volume 8-10mL)Lawson052347(UOM box of 50 bottles)|
|Culture,Blood, AFB||HIV+patients with CD 4Count100;Suspected MAC infections||AFBB||9684||BD BACTEC Myco/F Lytic(White Cap/Red Ring)Available from Phlebotomy Lab(Optimal Volume 1-5 mL)|
|Culture,Blood, Pediatric||Patients Weighing40 kg||BPED||9548||BD BACTEC Plus aerobic/F(Grey Cap/Blue Ring)(Optimal Bolume 8-10 mL)For Patients20 Kg, 1-4 mL is acceptable For Patients 20-40 Kg, 4-8 mL in one bottle. For Patients40 Kg (See Routine above)|
|Blood Culture Mould||Suspected infections due todimorphic(endemic) fungi,Fusarium sp., Trichosporon sp.,Malassezia furfur (Specify at Collection).||BPATH||9507||Isolator Yellow Top(10 mL Volume)Available from PlebotomyBD BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F(Grey Cap/Blue Ring)(Optimal Volume 8-10 mL)Lawson052346(UOM box of 50 bottles)BD BACTEC Myco/F Lytic(White Cap/Red Ring)Available from Phlebotomy Lab (Optimal Volume 1-5 mL)|
The quality of the specimen supplied to the laboratory has an impact on the outcomes of the tests. Any time there is a concern or a query about the sort of specimen that should be collected, it is critical that the laboratory be contacted so that the order and specimen requirements may be clarified. The vast majority of laboratory tests are done on serum, anticoagulated plasma, or whole blood as a starting point. Please go to the individual test directory entries for further information on the prerequisites for each.
- Inverting the blood collection tube 8-10 times soon after collection will help to gently mix the blood.
- There are, however, just a few assessments that necessitate separation within 15-30 minutes of the start of the test.
- Specimens must be presented to the laboratory within 4 hours of collection in order to be considered valid.
- Invert the tube 5-10 times to get the clotting process started.
- NOTE: Avoid hemolysis at all costs.
- Inverting the blood collection tube 8-10 times soon after collection will help to gently mix the blood.
- The specimens of all patients must be placed in biohazard bags before being transported to the lab.
- The quality of the specimen supplied has an impact on the outcomes of laboratory tests. Any time there is a concern or a query about the sort of specimen that should be collected, it is critical that the laboratory be contacted so that the order and specimen requirements may be confirmed. In most laboratory tests, serum, anticoagulated plasma, or whole blood is used as a source of specimen. Specific criteria can be found in the various test directory entries. Plasma: Plasma: Draw a sufficient amount of blood containing the appropriate anticoagulant to give the required amount of plasma. Immediately after collection, gently flip the blood collection tube 8-10 times to mix the blood. After collection, the bulk of samples need to be separated into plasma and cells within two hours. But there are just a few examinations that require separation within 15-30 minutes of the time required for the rest. To find out more about our laboratory tests, please see our laboratory tests directory. Specimens must be presented to the laboratory within 4 hours of collection in order to be considered complete. Draw a sufficient amount of blood to provide the required serum volume before proceeding. To initiate clotting, invert the tube 5-10 times. 30-minute period of time should be allowed for blood to clot. NOTE: Avoid hemolysis if at all possible! Draw a suitable amount of blood and mix it with the anticoagulant of your choosing. Immediately after collection, gently flip the blood collection tube 8-10 times to mix the blood. CAUTION: It is not recommended to centrifuge and separate tubes meant for whole blood analysis. Patient samples must be placed in biohazard bags prior to being transported to the laboratory for analysis. Sample Collection Tubes are a type of tube that is used to collect specimens.
- Plastic tube with a red tip There are no anticoagulants, preservatives, or separator materials in this plastic Vacutainer, which contains only a clot activator and no other ingredients. It is utilized for the collection of serum for certain laboratory tests that have been prescribed. Do not use gold-top/SST® tubes if the specimen required for a test is red-top tube(s), since the gel separator may interfere with the analysis.
- Glass tube with a red tip In this tube, which is made of clear glass, there are no clot activators, anticoagulants, preservatives, or separator materials. It is possible to utilize these tubes for Blood Bank testing.
- Tube with a pink top (EDTA) The anticoagulant EDTA is included within this tube. These tubes are the most often used for blood bank testing. NOTE:Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, invert the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee sufficient anticoagulation of the specimen.
- The top of the tube has a light green color (lithium heparin) This tube includes lithium heparin as well as a gel separator, which is used to collect heparinized plasma for use in regular chemical examinations. NOTE:Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, invert the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee sufficient anticoagulation of the specimen.
- Tube with a dark green top (sodium heparin) It includes sodium heparin and is used to collect heparinized plasma or whole blood for the purpose of performing specialized testing. NOTE:Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, invert the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee sufficient anticoagulation of the specimen.
- Tube with a grey top (potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride). This tube includes potassium oxalate, which acts as an anticoagulant, as well as sodium fluoride, which acts as a preservative. It is used to preserve glucose in whole blood as well as for some specialized chemical testing. NOTE:Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, invert the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee sufficient anticoagulation of the specimen.
- Tube with a lavender top (EDTA) This tube contains EDTA, which acts as an anticoagulant and is utilized in the majority of hematologic operations. These tubes are the most commonly used for molecular testing. NOTE: Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, flip the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee proper anticoagulation of the specimen before discarding it. Ideally, the tubes should be filled with the appropriate volume of blood for the size of tube being used to minimize RBC shrinkage owing to excess EDTA (with subsequent changes in HCT and RBC indices values) and a possible dilutional impact, as described above. Tubes with varying draw capacities are available (2.0 mL, 3.0 mL, 5.0 mL, and 0.75 mL microvettes)
- It is advised that the tubes contain no less than one-half of the specified amount in order to ensure that the right ratio of EDTA to blood is achieved
- Tube with a royal blue top There are two varieties of royal blue-top Monoject® tubes available – one that contains the anticoagulant EDTA and another that does not include it. When whole blood or serum is collected for trace element analysis, these are the tubes that are utilized. The specific metals in the individual test listing should be consulted in order to identify which tube type is required.
- Tube with a yellow top (ACD) This tube contains ACD, which is used to collect whole blood for the purpose of performing specific testing. NOTE:Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, invert the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee sufficient anticoagulation of the specimen.
- Tube with a pearl white top used for plasma preparation (PPT) In this tube, you’ll find EDTA as well as a particular polyester material, which will be utilized to collect plasma for molecular (PCR) testing. NOTE:Immediately after the tube has been filled with blood, invert the tube 8-10 times to mix the specimen and guarantee sufficient anticoagulation of the specimen.
Special Collection Tubes: Some tests need the use of particular collection tubes in order to ensure correct analysis. Please contact the laboratory prior to drawing blood from the patient to ensure that the proper tubes for metal analysis or other tests, as specified in the particular test listings, are obtained. Microtainer ® tubes (pediatric bullet tubes)* are a kind of tube used in the medical field.
|Color||Gold||Red||Light Green (amber or clear)||Lavender||Light Green (without gel barrier)|
|Additive||No additive w/ gel barrier||No additive||Lithium Heparin w/ gel barrier||K 2 EDTA||Lithium Heparin without gel barrier|
|Volume||0.5 mL||0.5 mL||0.5 mL||0.5 mL||.04 mL|
*Microtainer is a trademark of Becton, Dickinson and Company, and is used with permission. Collection Containers for Microbiological Samples Anaerobic Transport Media: A tube containing soft agar and reducing chemicals, which is intended to sustain the viability of anaerobic organisms throughout transportation. The tube may be filled with fluid by injecting it through the diaphragm cover. In order to transfer swabs or tissue, remove the cap from the tube, insert the specimen into the tube (breaking off the swab stem if necessary), return the cap, and tighten the cap.
- To clean the top of each bottle before and after inoculation, use an alcohol prep to remove any residue.
- It is made of charcoal and contains a swab.
- To be considered for direct testing, the Culture SwabTM sample must be supplied.
- If the specimen transit is delayed, the specimen should be refrigerated after inoculation.
- It is used to collect specimens for analysis by the MicroTrak C trachomatis direct specimen test.
- The instructions for use are included with the box.
- This test is only for lesions on the outside of the body.
In the field of microbiology, collection kits are available.
The transport to the laboratory should be done at room temperature.
It is available in a variety of sizes.
The collection of urine should be random: For routine and microscopic assessment, a clean catch or midstream specimen is preferable.
Before voiding is done, collect the urine in a clean container and dispose of it properly.
Referrals and Outpatient Services The collection location should be responsible for transferring the urine into preservation tubes after it has been collected.
Fill the tubes in the following order: gray for culture sensitivity, yellow-red marble top for urinalysis, non-additive red top, gray for culture sensitivity.
Each tube is marked with a line that indicates the “minimum draw.” Urine Collection for Chlamydia/Gonorrhea PCR: The patient must have not urinated for at least 2 hours before to the collection.
Urine Collection Containers Available 24 Hours a Day: UCI Pathology Services provides urine collection containers available 24 hours a day. The following protocol should be followed to ensure proper specimen collection and preparation:
- Inform the patient that the collecting container contains preservatives that might be potentially dangerous to their health. Educate the patient on how to dispose of the first morning samples and how to record the time of voiding
- The patient should then collect every subsequent voided urine for the balance of the day and into the night. On day two, the first-morning specimen should be obtained at the same time as the specimen taken on day one. Prior to aliquoting, thoroughly mix the 24-hour urine collection and deliver the total volume of the 24-hour collection or send the entire 24-hour collection to the laboratory
For further information, please contact us at 1-888-UCI-LABS (toll free).
Order of Blood Draw Tubes and Additives
A certain order in which blood samples are obtained by phlebotomists must be followed in order to avoid cross-contamination of the sample by additives present in various collecting tubes. The sequence of draw in phlebotomy is the same whether the specimens are collected using a syringe, a tube holder, or into tubes that have been pre-evacuated at the time of collection. The following is the correct order of the draws:
- The following items are required: blood culture tube or bottle
- Sodium citrate tube (e.g. blue closure)
- Serum tubes, including those containing clot activator and gels (e.g. red, red-speckled, gold closures)
- Coagulation factor tubes (e.g. blue closure)
- Heparin tube with or without gel separator (e.g., dark green, light green, speckled green closures)
- EDTA tube with or without gel separator (e.g., lavender, pearl, pink closures)
- Sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate glycolytic inhibitor (e.g., gray closure)
- Sodium fluoride/potassi
Red, red-speckled, and gold closures are used for serum tubes, whereas blue closures are used for sodium citrate tubes. Red, red-speckled, and gold closures are used for serum tubes. Closures for heparin tubes with or without gel (e.g. dark green, light green, speckled green closures); closures for EDTA tubes with or without gel separator (e.g. lavender, pearl, pink closures); closures for sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate glycolytic inhibitor (e.g. gray closure); closures for sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate glycolytic inhibitor (e.g.