- 1 Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society – Wikipedia
- 2 Excerpts
- 3 What Is Culture?
- 4 The Meaning of “Culture”
- 5 Is this the most powerful word in the English language?
- 6 Language: The Essence of Culture
- 7 10 most difficult words in English
- 8 language – Language and culture
- 9 Transmission of language and culture
Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society – Wikipedia
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Raymond Williams’ book A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, published in 1976 by Croom Helm, is a collection of essays by the Welsh Marxist professor Raymond Williams. The author’s 1958 book Culture and Society was originally intended to be published alongside this work, which examines the history of more than a hundred words that are both familiar and confusing, including: art, bureaucracy, culture, educated, management, masses, nature, originality, radical, society, welfare, and work, among many others.
It is possible that the roots of a word will provide light on its meaning, but it is more common to discover that the term originally signified something quite different.
Fontana issued a revised and extended version ofKeywords in 1983, which was altered and expanded from the original.
Williams opens his article on “Culture” withinKeywords by examining the origins and history of the term “culture.” Not just because of its convoluted historical evolution, but also because of its continued relevance and undeniable influence on other systems of thinking, it is one of the most difficult words in the English language, according to Mr. Smith. Afterwards, Williams traces the treatment that the term has had (in Latin and French), as well as the variety of meanings that it has been the host to, up until it was adopted by the English language.
This, together with the meaning in husbandry, was the primary sense until the first and second centuries of the twentieth century.
Culture as a distinct term began its tortuous contemporary history, complete with a tangle of meaning latencies, from this point forward.
Clayton), which Williams quotes from John H.
Afterwards, he mentions Mark Akenside(1744), William Wordsworth(1805), and Jane Austen(1816) on their employment of the word ‘culture’ to demonstrate that “culture was growing in English towards some of its contemporary connotations before the crucial consequences of a new social and intellectual revolution.” Williams then examines the changes in other languages, particularly German, in order to track the formation of ‘culture’ in English as a result of this.
It was French who first coined the term “cultur,” which was later spelled “kultur.” Its primary meaning is synonymous with “cultivation,” and it has two meanings in German: first, in the abstract sense of the general process of becoming “civilized or cultivated,” and second, in the sense that had already been established forcivilizationby the historians of the Enlightenment as a description of the secular process of human development.
In his unfinishedIdeas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind(1784—91), Johann Gottfried von Herder, according to Williams, brought about a decisive change in the use of the word when he challenged the universal histories’ assumption that civilization or culture – the historical self-development of humanity – was a unilinear process; an assumption that led to the “high and dominant point of C18 European Culture” and thereby attacking that very dominant claim to a scholastic education “Cultures in the plural,” to use a phrase from Herder, were investigated; specifically, “cultures in the plural: the specific and varied cultures of various nations and times, but also the specific and variable cultures of social and economic groupings within a nation” were investigated.
It was during the Romantic movement that this idea of culture was extensively formed as an alternative to the traditional and dominating notion of “civilization.” And it was at this point that the new idea of ‘folk-culture’ evolved, stressing national and traditional cultures rather than contemporary ones.
- However, throughout the 1840s in Germany, the term “Kultur” was frequently employed in the meaning of “civilization,” as it was in the C18 universal histories.
- “General Cultural History of Mankind” (1843–52)– to demonstrate how culture is used in the sense of charting human evolution from savagery through domestication to freedom.
- When it comes to physical processes, such as sugar-beet culture or germ culture, there is a literal continuity to be found in them.
- According to Herder and Klemm, an independent noun is a word that denotes a particular way of life, whether of a people, a period, a group, or mankind in general, and may be used either generically or explicitly.
- Along with the complicated history of the word and its still-active senses, “the word reflects a complex dispute concerning the links between general human progress and a specific way of life, and between both and the works and practices of art and intellect,” according to the dictionary.
The complexity of usage, rather than being reduced, is advocated by Williams, who believes that “the complexity is not ultimately in the term but in the difficulties which its variations in use significantly reflect.”
What Is Culture?
The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.
The anthropologist Cristina De Rossi of Barnet and Southgate College in London told Live Science that culture encompasses “religion, food, what we wear, how we wear it, our language, marriage, music, what we believe is right or wrong, how we sit at the table, how we greet visitors, how we behave with loved ones, and a million other things.” “Culture encompasses religion, food,” she said.
According to Arthur Asa Berger, the word “culture” comes from a French phrase that, in turn, comes from the Latin word “colere,” which meaning to tend to the ground and flourish, or to cultivate and nourish, or to cultivate and nurture.
The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.
- Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
- 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
- According to Ohio State University historian John L.
- As a result of elites being compelled to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more influence.
Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.
Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Three Buddhist monks are seen here on their way to the Angkor Wat temple. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.
- This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
- Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.
- In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.
- During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms.
Da de los Muertos costumes for children in traditional attire (Image courtesy of Getty/Sollina Images.). The geographical territory that encompasses “Latin culture” is large and diverse. For the sake of this definition, Latin America is comprised of the regions of Central America, South America and Mexico where Spanish or Portuguese is the main language. Beginning in the 1400s, Spain and Portugal colonized or influenced a number of locations across the world, including those listed above. Some historians (such as Michael Gobat, “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race,” American Historical Review, Vol.
- Because of this, Latin cultures are extremely diverse, and many of them combine indigenous customs with the Spanish language and Catholicism brought by Spanish and Portuguese invaders to form hybrid cultures.
- These impacts are particularly evident in Brazil and the countries of the Western Hemisphere’s Caribbean region.
- A notable example is Da de los Muertos, also known as Day of the Dead, which is a celebration dedicated to commemorating the fallen that is observed on November 1st and 2nd.
- According to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Mexican immigrants to the United States carried the festival with them, and in the 1970s, artists and events focused attention on Da de los Muertos as a way of expressing their Chicano (Mexican-American) ancestry.
In recent years, the holiday has gained widespread recognition in the United States.
Middle Eastern culture
A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together (Photo courtesy of Getty/Jasmin Merdan). The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.
- Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
- According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
- Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
- Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.
- Areas that were once part of the Ottoman Empire are known for distinctive architecture that is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles.
African woman from the Maasai tribe, sitting with her infant close to her home in the African country of Kenya (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. According to the Natural History Museum in London, humans started there approximately 400,000 years ago and began to spread to other parts of the world around the same time period. Researchers led by Dr. Tom White, who works as a Senior Curator of Non-Insect Invertebrates at the Smithsonian Institution, were able to find this by analyzing Africa’s ancient lakes and the species that lived in them.
- African culture differs not just across and within country borders, but also inside those borders.
- According to Culture Trip, Nigeria alone has more than 300 tribes, which is a significant number.
- Because of this, large urban centers sprung up along the Eastern coast, which were frequently linked together by the transportation of raw resources and commerce from landlocked portions of the continent.
- According to Britannica, Northwest Africa has significant linkages to the Middle East, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa shares historical, geographical, and social traits with North Africa that are considerably distinct from those of the former.
- The traditions of these cultures developed in a variety of contexts that were vastly diverse.
The Batwa, for example, are a tribe of indigenous people that typically live a forager’s lifestyle in the jungle, and they are one such group. Maasai herders, on the other hand, herd their sheep and goats on broad pastures and rangelands.
What is cultural appropriation?
Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as follows: “A phrase used to describe the taking over of creative or artistic forms, concepts, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today.
As well as jewelry influenced by Zuni, Navajo, and Hopi styles from the desert Southwest, the model wore turquoise, demonstrating how cultural appropriation can group tribes with vastly distinct cultures and histories into a single stereotypical image through the usage of turquoise.
Sikh restaurateur and social media influencer Harjinder Singh Kukreja responded to Gucci on Twitter, noting that the Sikh Turban is “not a hip new accessory for white models, but rather an object of religion for practicing Sikhs.” Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.
One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.
A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.
It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.
Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.
Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
The Meaning of “Culture”
There’s something inherently amusing about Merriam-announcement Webster’s earlier this month that “culture” has been named the 2014 Word of the Year by the dictionary company. Language this year has been dubbed the “Scary Movie” of words since it has terms that appear to reflect culture (“vape,” “selfie”) but aren’t really about culture (“selfie”). The editors of Merriam-Webster go to considerable lengths to emphasize that they were not attempting to be meta (which, incidentally, would’ve been a fantastic word of the year back in the year 2000).
This year’s culture was characterized by a great deal of ambiguity regarding culture.
Photograph courtesy of Spencer Platt / Getty Images It goes without saying that the term “culture” is a difficult one to grasp, whether in this year or any other.
There is an issue with this definition since “culture” is more than the sum of its meanings.
Culture, according to the critic Raymond Williams, has three distinct meanings: it can refer to a process of individual enrichment, such as when we say that someone is “cultured” (in 1605, Francis Bacon wrote about “the culture and manurance of minds”); it can refer to a group’s “particular way of life,” such as when we talk about French culture, corporate culture, or multiculturalism; and it can refer to an activity, such as when we talk about museums (or covered on a blog like this one).
- These three perceptions of culture are actually extremely distinct, and, according to Williams, they are in direct competition with one another.
- Another meaning in which the word “culture” is contentious is in its historical connotation.
- In this view, civilization was a homogenizing set of efficient, rational norms that were intended to inspire discipline and “development” among its members.
- The term “the cultural industry” has an oxymoronic ring to it as a result of this.
- The fact that “civilized” living appears to simultaneously foster and deaden culture is something we can’t help but notice.
- The sound of rock and roll is better at a club than it is in a symphony hall.
- How come more people than usual looked it up this year, you may wonder.
Only that “the phrase suggests a type of scholarly attention to systematic conduct” is mentioned by the authors.
“Culture” used to be considered a positive thing.
That is not to claim, however, that American culture has deteriorated.
To put it another way, the word “culture” has acquired a bad connotation.
The concept of culture as unconscious groupthink has taken its position as the dominant concept.
However, today’s “culture” has a shadowy, enigmatic, and absurd quality to it.
At other cases, the term “culture” is employed in an aspirational manner that is blatantly counterfactual: institutions that boast about their “culture of transparency” or “culture of accountability” are frequently found to have neither of these.
While this is true, it is difficult to envision attaching the term “culture” to even the most legitimate “cultural institutions” in our society.
Founded in 1954, the magazineFilm Culture was named in such a way that it made cinema enthusiasts appear attractive.
This year saw the birth of the strong term “rape culture,” which has become more popular.
The term “rape culture,” among other things, refers to the usage of the word “culture” in a way that does not refer to, or even imply, the concept of personal enrichment.
Williams’ other two aspects of culture are described as follows: The word is effective in part because to the conflict in its meaning.
Those occurrences, on the other hand, have prompted us to consider “culture” as a cruel and malicious phenomenon.
That is not to suggest that music culture, art culture, or book culture have become worse—or that our collective way of life has gone downhill—but it does imply that these things have.
That may even be a symptom, in a manner, of a shift in our society’s attitudes toward homosexuality.
Confusion over the developing meaning of the term “culture” is a valid reason to check it up in the dictionary, but so is an interest in better understanding the world and making it a more beautiful place.
Perhaps not; many individuals, according to Williams, have referred to “culture” as a “loose or confusing” phrase.
It is possible that such terms, whatever they are, would be narrower and simpler—but they would also be less true.
In addition, they would be less significant.
The hope is that a group of people will discover a good way of life together; that their good way of life will manifest itself in their habits, institutions, and activities; and that these, in turn, will assist individuals in flourishing in their own ways.
The culture we have at the present is not like that; our culture is fragmented, and our understanding of the term “culture” is fragmented as well.
However, it is feasible to envision a society in which our communal attitudes and institutions contribute to the personal development of everyone. If we lived in such a world, we may not have to search up the definition of “culture” since it would be more evident.
Is this the most powerful word in the English language?
What is the most powerful word in the English language? Is this the case? The most widely used term in the English language may only be three letters long, but it delivers a powerful punch nonetheless. ‘The’. It’s everywhere; we can’t imagine English being spoken without it. However, it is not really attractive. It’s not descriptive, emotive, or motivating in any way. Technically speaking, it has little significance. Despite this, this bland and innocuous-appearing phrase might be one of the most powerful words in the English language, according to some experts.
More along the lines of: • The strange history of the term “dude” • The history of handwriting as told via twelve items – What a single sound may reveal about your personality The word ‘the’ is at the top of the list of the most commonly used words in English, accounting for 5 percent of every 100 words that are written.
- But why is this the case?
- linguist and philologist who lived in the twentieth century, George Zipf articulated the notion of the least amount of effort.
- It is also important to note that the preposition “the” is at the heart of English grammar, serving a function rather than having a meaning.
- The word ‘the’ can be used in a variety of ways.
- The preposition ‘the’ makes meaning of nouns as either a subject or an object, so assisting us in understanding what is being referred to.
- (Image courtesy of Alamy) However, despite the fact that the word ‘the’ has no meaning in and of itself, “it appears to be able to accomplish things in subtle and magical ways,” according to poet and novelist Michael Rosen.
- Or perhaps it was the game-winning goal that secured the championship?
Using the definite article is not always necessary, as is the case when dealing with proper nouns, for example.
The usage of the pronoun ‘the’ might have risen as commerce and manufacturing flourished in the run-up to the Industrial Revolution, when we needed to refer to goods and processes in a referential manner.
This might rise to the misconception that the word ‘the’ is a workhorse of the English language, one that is both useful and dull.
While elementary school students are encouraged to utilize ‘wow’ words, with the phrase ‘exclaimed’ being preferred over the word’said,’ he believes that no one word has a greater or lesser ‘wow’ effect than another; it all depends on how the word is used.
“The word ‘the’ may be a real show-stopper,” he explains.
In Hamlet, the first line “Long live the King” is quickly followed by the apparition of the ghost, who asks, “Looks it not like the King?” at the beginning of the play.
Is it the King who is still alive or the King who is no longer alive?
“‘The’ is putting forth a lot of effort here,” Rosen explains.
According to the Austrian philosopher Alexius Meinong, a designating term such as ‘the round square’ introduced that object; there was now such a thing to be found.
“The word ‘the’ has a mystical quality in philosophy,” argues Barry C Smith, head of the Institute of Philosophy at the University of London.
(Image courtesy of Alamy) In 1905, the British philosopher Bertrand Russell published a dissertation titled On Denoting, which was entirely dedicated to the subject of the definite article.
He found it unbearable that terms like ‘the man in the Moon’ were used as if they were real and that he believed they were a fabrication.
Every generation since then, this subject has been debated in a philosophical setting.
At the Boring Conference in 2019, which celebrated issues that seem banal, common, and disregarded, but which are shown to be intriguing, Lynne Murphy, professor of linguistics at the University of Sussex, gave a speech.
And how incredible it is that English speakers are able to grasp the plethora of ways in which the language is employed.
The demonstrative – terms such as ‘this’ and ‘that’ – is used to perform the function of ‘the’ in Latvian or Indonesian.
Each language has its own set of function words that are particularly peculiar to that language.
Murphy has seen, for example, that some of her Chinese pupils may hedge their bets by including ‘the’ in places where it is not necessary, according to Murphy.
The Atlantic Ocean divide Even within the language, there are small changes in how the word ‘the’ is employed in British and American English, for example, when referring to the act of playing a musical instrument in one country against another.
However, there are some instruments where both nations would be happy to remove the pronoun ‘the,’ such as ‘I play the drums.’ Either way, it is perfectly acceptable for the same individual to refer to their playing of any specific instrument with or without the definite article – both are proper and both make sense.
- (Image courtesy of Alamy) The word ‘the’ has a somewhat different meaning in the sentences “I play piano” and “I clean piano,” which is in line with a musical theme.
- According to Culpeper, the word ‘the’ appears roughly a third less frequently in spoken language.
- A topic that is more personal and emotive may include fewer uses of the word ‘the’ than a topic that is more formal.
- Novels employ the word ‘the’ the least, in part because they contain elements of speech.
- An American linguist named Deborah Tannen believes that males deal more in report and women deal more in rapport; this might explain why men use the pronoun ‘the’ more frequently than women.
- However, any such gender-based generalizations will also be dependent on the nature of the issue under investigation.
- And when we refer to a person as “the prime minister” or “the president,” we are implying that they have more authority and influence.
Using terms such as ‘the greenhouse effect’ or ‘the migration problem,’ for example, gives substance to those concepts and implies their existence.
Because of the way people spoke about ‘the Jews’ in the run-up to World War II, they were perceived as othering and objectifying.
It is for this reason that Trump was chastised for using the phrase in that context during a 2016 presidential debate in the United States.
The Anglo Saxons did not use the word ‘the,’ but instead used a different word.
The definite article t’ is still used in some regions of Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cumberland, as a vestige of Old English inflective forms of the definite article (as in “going to the bar”).
The letter ‘th’ has only been in existence for a very short period of time, since the advent of the Roman alphabet.
It is a three-letter word that has a lot of weight in terms of impact and the range of meaning it may convey in different contexts.
More information on the word ‘the’ may be found on BBC Radio 4’s Word of Mouth: The Most Powerful Word.
And if you like this story, you should subscribe to The Essential List, a weekly features email published by BBC.com. The BBC Future, Culture, Worklife, and Travel newsletters are delivered to your email every Friday and include a chosen selection of articles.
Language: The Essence of Culture
Kelsey Holmes, Greenheart Club Program Assistant, contributed to this article. “If culture were a home, language would be the key to the front door, as well as the key to all of the rooms within.” — Khaled Hosseini, author and physician of Afghan descent who lives in the United States. One of the most significant aspects of every culture is the use of language. It is the method through which individuals connect with one another, form relationships, and foster a sense of belonging. There are around 6,500 spoken languages in the world today, each of which is distinct in a variety of ways from the others.
- During the early stages of language development, distinct cultural groupings used sounds to piece together common understandings.
- In intercultural communication, social reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and modified via the use of symbolic symbols and processes.
- Take a look at the picture below, which illustrates how language has changed over time!
- Culture is described as “a system of symbols, meanings, and standards that has been historically transmitted.” A person’s ability to identify with individuals who speak the same language is automatically enhanced by knowing the language in question.
- Watch the video below for some inspiration — this 17-year-old can communicate in over 20 different languages!
- Watching movies or television shows in a variety of languages is an excellent way to get started.
- What are some of the ways that you connect with people from different cultures?
10 most difficult words in English
When it comes to language, English can be a genuine pain in the neck, and even native speakers might find themselves baffled by certain persistently difficult terms. In some cases, they are difficult to comprehend, while in others, they have been misinterpreted so many times that their original meaning has been forgotten.
Pronunciation can also be a challenge for certain people. After reading our post on perplexing words, here are 10 of the most difficult words to pronounce in the English language.
If you happen to know a linguistic purist, be on the lookout. People’s blood pressure has been observed to rise as a result of the misuse of this term. ‘Literally’ denotes “in the most literal meaning,” or “what I’m saying is not something I’m making up, but something that really happened while I’m saying it.” As a result, common expressions such as “I practically died laughing” and “He was so ashamed his cheeks actually burnt up” are incorrect. Interestingly, because of the widespread misuse of the word ‘literally,’ the Oxford English Dictionary has incorporated an informal definition for the word, enabling it to be used as a tool to emphasize certain points, such as in the instances above.
Listed below is a term that has baffled virtually all English speakers, native or non-native alike: (Actually, we could develop an entire course on how to use irony correctly!) Despite the fact that irony is commonly thought to refer to a coincidental or bizarre sequence of events, this does not adequately describe its entire meaning. Coincidences and tragic circumstances alone aren’t enough, as demonstrated by Alanis Morissette’s renowned song, Ironic, which contains around 10 terrible examples of irony.
- Irony, on the other hand, is not intended to be hurtful, unlike sarcasm (which accomplishes the same thing).
- There are several types of irony, including dramatic irony, situational irony, historical irony, and others.
- So, what should you do if you find yourself in this state of confusion?
- Truth be told, irony is not a necessary component of a normal day, and no one will judge you if you choose not to use the term at all!
3. Irregardless (instead of regardless)
It’s possible that you’ve heard individuals say ‘irregardless’ when they really meant’regardless’ or the opposite. He maxed up his credit card regardless of the repercussions, which is totally fine. ‘Regardless’ is a slang term that indicates “without respect” or “in spite of anything.” However, contrary to popular belief, the word ‘irregardless’ is not a synonym! Because of its double negative (the prefix -ir means “not” and the suffix -less means “without”), it literally means “not without respect,” which is the polar opposite of what its users intended when they used it.
So keep this in mind: Despite the fact that the term ‘irregardless’ occurs in dictionaries, it is classified as a nonstandard word.
Who knew such a simple word could be so difficult to understand? In English, we employ the pronoun ‘who’ to refer to the subject of a sentence and the pronoun ‘whom’ to refer to the object of the statement. However, how can you know which one you require? Experiment with answering your own question with the pronouns ‘he’ or ‘he’. If ‘him’ is a possibility as a response, then ‘whom’ is your word.
(Another handy technique is that both terms finish in the letter inm.) “Can you tell me who/whom you’re traveling to Brazil with?” for example. Would you like to say “with him” or “with him and him”? You’d pickhim– and you’re absolutely right!
The majority of pupils make this mistake in their pronunciation! This term (which refers to the rank of officer in the army) may appear to be pronounced co-lo-nel if you look at it in the dictionary. Who could possibly blame you? However, it is not as straightforward as it appears, as it is pronounced kernel (as in corn kernel!). But how did the word ‘colonel’ come to be spelt in this manner? It’s a well-known story of word-borrowing that has occurred throughout history. The term “colonel” originated with the French, who had previously stolen it from the Italian, after which they altered a letter to make it their own (coronel).
Do you find yourself a little perplexed following our quick journey through linguistic history? Without a doubt, it’s doable. We’ve reached our sixth tough word, which is yet another example of a sly prefix being the issue. Because the prefix -non signifies “not,” some people misinterpret the word ‘nonplussed’ to imply ‘uninterested’ or ‘unfazed.’ In actuality, the term ‘nonplussed’ refers to someone who is “confused” or “at a loss for what to believe.” Unfortunately, because the word is so frequently used in both senses, it is often impossible to determine which meaning the writer meant, at least in written English.
Consider the following scenario: you’re in court. What type of a judge would you choose to preside over your case? Is a judge indifferent or uninterested in the case? I hope you went with the first option! While an indifferent judge would be yawning and fiddling with their phone, a disinterested judge would be significantly more likely to hear both sides of your case and decide objectively on the merits of your claim. Recall that a person who is disinterested is not prejudiced and does not take sides, but an uninterestedperson is not interested in something at all.
This one is a biggie, folks! It appears to be straightforward. The words ‘enormity’ and ‘enormous’ are so closely related that they must be considered synonyms. Right? Wrong! Enormity is defined as “extreme evil,” whether it be from medieval history or during the reign of a brutal tyrant. So the quite popular statement “the enormity of the issue.” is inappropriate in this instance. This is true unless you’re talking about a very heinous crime. (Which, we hope, is not the case!)
Another military jargon to add to our confusion! This is an example of how pronunciations change “over the pond,” or between the United States and the United Kingdom. However, leftenant is pronounced differently in British English while loo-tenant is pronounced differently in United States English.
The US pronunciation is becoming increasingly popular in other English-speaking nations, despite the fact that both areas have preserved the same spelling — you know, just to keep things interesting!
What does that prefix have to do with a term like “abash” that I’m unfamiliar with? While the word “abash” does exist (it meaning to shame or perplex), it hasn’t been frequently used in a long time (at least not in the United States). In contrast, the negative term, unashamed, is still in use today and refers to someone who is “not embarrassed.” If you want to improve your English, talk with unrestrained excitement the next time you practice!
language – Language and culture
The study of language has revealed that it is much more than the exterior manifestation and transmission of interior concepts that have been formed independently of their verbalization. For the purpose of demonstrating how such a perspective on language is insufficient and unsuited to the situation, attention has already been drawn to the ways in which one’s native language is intimately and in all sorts of details related to the rest of one’s life in a community and to smaller groups within that community.
Anthropologists are concerned in the relationships that exist between language and culture.
When the term culture is used here, as it is throughout this article, it is used in the anthropological sense to refer to all elements of human existence inasmuch as they are defined or conditioned by participation in a particular society.
The fact that they eat specific foods and refrain from consuming other substances, even if they are perfectly edible and nourishing, and that they eat and drink at specific times of day and in specific places are all matters of culture, which, according to the classic definition of culture by the English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, is something “acquired by man as a member of society.” As previously stated and intended, culture encompasses a vast range of aspects of human existence and behavior, of which language is unquestionably a component, if not the most essential component.
Language acquisition and use are innate and inherited faculties, and there is legitimate debate over the extent to which this innateness can be demonstrated, but every individual’s language is “acquired by man as a member of society,” along with and at the same time as other aspects of that society’s culture in which people are brought up, according to the theory of acquisition.
Human language can only have developed in a social setting, no matter how structured that setting may have been, and human society, in any form even remotely resembling what is known today or what has been recorded in history, can only be maintained among people who speak and understand the same language that is in common use.
Transmission of language and culture
Language is passed down through culture, or in other words, it is learnt. When parents, for example, purposefully encourage their children to talk and reply to conversation, correct their mistakes, and expand their vocabulary, this is a lesser degree of maltreatment. However, it should be noted that children learn their first language mostly through “grammar creation,” which occurs as a result of exposure to a random collection of utterances that they come across. What is classified as language teaching in schools either relates to second-language acquisition or, in the case of the pupils’ first language, is primarily directed at reading and writing, the study of literature, formal grammar, and alleged standards of correctness, which may or may not be the same as those of all the pupils’ regional or social dialects, among other activities.
It is true that language is transferred as a component of culture; but, it is also true that culture as a whole is conveyed very heavily through language, at least insofar as it is expressly taught.
To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, animals learn through spontaneous imitation or by imitation taught to them by other creatures.
However, it does imply that changes in structure and labor will occur gradually as a result of mutation cumulatively reinforced by survival value; those groups whose behavior changed in any way that enhanced their security from predators or starvation would survive in greater numbers than others.
No reason to believe that animal behavior has changed significantly during the time span available for the study of human history—roughly the last 5,000 years—except, of course, in cases where human intervention through domestication or other forms of interference has itself brought about such alterations.
Bird songs have been recorded to differ somewhat from one location to another within a species, although there is little further evidence of geographic variation in bird songs.
The next sections will discuss the mechanisms of linguistic change and the effects of these changes.
The vast majority of learnt behavior, which is what culture entails, is communicated by voice teaching rather than imitation, which is by far the most common method.
When any talents, procedures, goods, or mechanisms of social control are conveyed via the use of language, the end results of anybody’s ingenuity may be made available to anyone else who possesses the intellectual ability to comprehend what is being said.
The development and proliferation of writing accelerated this process almost instantly, and the relative durability of writing made the dissemination of knowledge much more straightforward.
Modern systems for broadcasting or virtually immediate transmission of communication over the world, together with instruments for fast translating between the languages of the world, have made it possible for anyone practically anywhere in the world to gain access to useful information of all kinds.
This explains the extraordinary velocity with which scientific, technical, political, and social change occurs in the current world. All of this must be traced to the dominant function of language in the transmission of culture, whether it is ultimately beneficial or detrimental to people.