Whose Culture Has Capital A Critical Race Theory Discussion Of Community Cultural Wealth

ERIC – EJ719269 – Whose Culture Has Capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 2005-Mar

ERIC Identification Number: EJ719269 Journal is the type of record that you are looking for. Date of publication: March 2005 Pages:23 Abstractor:Author ISBN:N/AISSN:ISSN-1361-3324 Whose Culture Is Worth Investing in? A Critical Race Theory Examination of the Cultural Wealth of a Community Tara J. Yosso, Race, Ethnicity, and Education, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69-91. In the month of March 2005, Critical racial theory (CRT) challenges standard conceptions of cultural capital in this essay, which conceptualizes communal cultural riches as a form of social capital.

Aspirational, navigational, social, linguistic, family, and resistive capital are just a few of the types of capital that may be developed via access to cultural riches.

This CRT approach to education entails a commitment to developing schools that recognize the varied capabilities of Communities of Color in order to serve a greater purpose of fight for social and racial justice on a more widespread scale.

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[PDF] Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth

When it comes to studying urban and mostly African American schools that demonstrate agency in the face of chronic racial inequities and poverty, the scholarly community has done a poor job. It is as a result that we are forced to question if anything positive can emerge from urban African American schools or from the areas in which they are located. This article is the result of an examination of two mostly African American primary schools in low-income communities: one in St. Louis, Missouri (1.

Studies of comprehensive school reform have found that such efforts frequently fail because educators are unwilling to examine the underlying causes of underachievement and failure among students from low-income and racially or ethnically diverse backgrounds, as well as because they have a tendency to place the problem within students, their families, and their communities.

  1. Race discrimination in America has decreased dramatically over the past three decades, and many African American families have witnessed stable increases in employment and yearly income over the same period of time.
  2. Shapiro explains how the absence of them has harmed him.
  3. The participants employed essential funds of knowledge in their contacts with students during teaching, in casual situations, and in the case of the present paraeducators, in order to enlighten the teachers with whom they collaborated in the community, according to the observations.
  4. Introduction: Who Are We?
  5. Being a scholar of critical race theory in difficult times is a difficult task for Charles R.
  6. Harris – Battles Waged, Won, and Lost: Critical Race Theory at the Turn of the Millennium Part I consists of the following sections: Histories 1.

Following the discovery that when Chicana/o college students associate with other Chicano/as, their socially conscious values are reinforced, they increase their likelihood of pursuing careers in service of their communities, and they are more inclined to become involved in community service activities after college, this article adopts the CRT model of community service participation.

  • Hochschild wrote the foreword to this book.
  • Selling Short: The Rise and Fall of African American Fortunes 10 Black Exceptionalism 11 Black Exceptionalism Sylvia R.
  • Lopez: Parent Involvement as a Form of Racialized Performance – Jenniffer L.
  • Lopez: Parent Involvement as a Form of Racialized Performance – Jenniffer L.
  • With its comprehensive examination of how the historical experiences and present realities of women of color have been deeply impacted by a legacy of racism and sexism that is not linear nor rational, the book provides a comprehensive picture of the history of women of color.
  • 1.
  • Valencia is an American businessman.
  • The Implications of the Rapid Growth of the Chicano/Latino Population for Educational Opportunity Richard R.
  • 3.

Valencia, Martha Menchaca, and Ruben Donato are the authors of this work. 4. Chicano Dropouts: An Update on Research and Policy Issues, Fourth Edition G. Russell W. Rumberger and Russell W. Rumberger

Yosso (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. – Orest’s Cogitarium

Yosso, T. J. (2005). (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8 (1), 69–91. “… critical race theory (CRT) … shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge, skills, abilities and contacts possessed by socially marginalized groups that often go unrecognized and unacknowledged.” (p 69) “‘…it is _vital_ that we occupy theorizing space, that we not allow white men and women solely to occupy it.

By bringing in our own approaches and methodologies, we transform that theorizing space.’ (Anzaldúa, 1990, p.

If one is not born into a family whose knowledge is already deemed valuable, one could then access the knowledges of the middle and upper class and the potential for social mobility through formal schooling.

…” (p 70) “… CRT scholarship has benefited from scholarship addressing racism at its intersections with other forms of subordination (Crenshaw, 1989, 1993).” (p 72) “… White scholars have expanded CRT with WhiteCrit, by ‘looking behind the mirror’ to expose White privilege and challenge racism (DelgadoStefancic, 1997).” (p 72) “For the field of education, Daniel Solórzano (1997, 1998) identified five tenets of CRT that can and should inform theory, research, pedagogy, curriculum and policy …” (p 73) “1.

  1. The intercentricity of race and racism with other forms of subordination.
  2. The challenge to dominant ideology.
  3. The commitment to social justice.” (p 74) “4.
  4. … CRT draws explicitly on the lived experiences of People of Color by including such methods as storytelling, family histories, biographies, scenarios, parables, _cuentos_, _testimonios_, chronicles and narratives …” (p 74) “5.
  5. (hooks, 1994; Freire, 1970, 1973).
  6. Those injured by racism and other forms of oppression discover that they are not alone and moreover are part of a legacy of resistance to racism and the layers of racialized oppression.

… leads schools to default to the banking method of education critiqued by Paulo Freire (1973).” (p 75) “For example, with Students of Color, culture is frequently represented symbolically through language and can encompass identities around immigration status, gender, phenotype, sexuality and region, as well as race and ethnicity.” (p 76) “Bourdieu asserts that cultural capital (i.e., education, language), social capital (i.e., social networks, connections) and economic capital (i.e., money and other material possessions) can be acquired two ways, from one’s family and/or through formal schooling.

The dominant groups within society are able to maintain power because access is limited to acquiring and learning strategies to use these forms of capital for social mobility.” (p 76) “… histheory of cultural capital has been used to assert that some communities are culturally wealthy while others are culturally poor.

For example, middle or upper class students may have access to a computer at home and therefore can learn numerous computer-related vocabulary and technological skills before arriving at school.

Selected References

  • Making Faces, Making Soul: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color (San Francisco, CA: Aunt Lute Press, 1990)
  • Bell, D. (1987)And we will not be saved: the elusive quest for racial justice (New York: Basic Books, 1987)
  • Bourdieu, P. (1990)Haciendo Caras/Making Faces, Making Soul: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color (San Francisco, CA: Aunt Lute Press, 1990)
  • An Passeron, J. (1977), Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture (London, Sage)
  • Calmore, J. (1992), Critical Race Theory, Archie Shepp, and Fire Music: Securing an Authentic Intellectual Life in a Multicultural World (Southern California Law Review, 65, 2129–2231)
  • Passeron, J. (1977), Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture (London, Sage)
  • Passeron, J. (1977), Reproduction in Education, Society, and Crenshaw, K. (1989) Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics, University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1989, 139–167
  • Crenshaw, K. (1993) Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and the violence against Women of Color, Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241–1299
  • Delgado, R. (1994) The intersectionality of race and J. Stefancic and J. Solórzano (Eds.) (1997)Critical white studies: looking behind the mirror (Philadelphia: Temple University Press)
  • Freire, P. (1970)Education for critical consciousness (New York: Continuum Publishing Company)
  • Freire, P. (1973)Pedagogy of the oppressed (New York: The Seabury Press)
  • Hooks, B. (1994)Teaching to transgress: education as the practice of freedom (New
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What’s Their Capital? Applying a Community Cultural Wealth Model to UR

Yosso’s (2005) work, which is steeped in critical race theory (CRT), provides a useful framework for understanding the capital that HURMS offer to a mentored relationship, and more especially to undergraduate research (UR). The use of CRT, according to Yosso, widens the default assumptions about cultural capital in order to represent what she refers to as “community cultural riches.” The experience of being a historical minority has resulted in a great deal of riches. Image courtesy of Yosso (2005) A CRT lens can help us see six forms of capital that are cultivated by communities of color and contribute to the formation of cultural richness.

These six categories of capital, in my opinion, are what contribute to the dynamic potential of HURMS at UR as well as the benefits we as faculty stand to inherit when we engage into a collaborative mentoring relationship with the university.

  1. Attitudes of “never the less they persist”– This is what I refer to as “aspirational capital.” Yosso defines this capital as “resilience,” which develops as a result of encountering a plethora of obstacles, many of which are structural and institutional in nature. It is the capacity to keep one’s aspirations alive as well as the unwavering determination to follow those ambitions. This is the first-generation student who not only plans to graduate from college, but also to pursue a graduate degree at the highest level. When I am on the lookout for students to join my research team, the kid who hustles is usually the one who catches my attention. This may not be the most technically proficient student
  2. They may also lack some fundamental abilities or prior knowledge
  3. Nonetheless, they desire the training and the experience because they are extremely clear about how this experience will help them move one step closer to reaching their goals. It is from this idealistic capital that I derive a great deal of my energy. When I am dealing with a student that possesses aspirational capital, I have seen that my research questions are always far more original and on the cutting edge of technology. When you consider the boundaries that HURMS frequently have to push against or sneak through, their capacity to see beyond borders and push the study to reflect this is a significant advantage for me. The term “linguistic capital” refers to “the intellectual and social abilities gained via communication encounters in more than one language and/or style,” according to Yosso (2005, p. 78). The qualitative coding skills of one of my current research students may rival those of the greatest qualitative coders I have ever experienced. In fact, she performs far better than I do. Her ability to sift through participant replies and chunk them down to the smallest code possible without losing the connections to the broader categories and themes is a sight to behold. My belief is that the fact that she is a first-generation American and that she has grown up being exposed to a variety of languages and dialects throughout her life have both contributed to the competence that she has developed and that I and the other students on the study team are benefiting from. Moreover, she is a student of color who seamlessly flips between codes as she navigates the numerous social zones with whom she interacts around the university. Linguistic capital also encompasses communication across a variety of disciplines, such as visual arts, performing arts, music, poetry, and other literary forms. Recruiting research participants from online social networks that are not affiliated with the University is extremely difficult
  4. Having students who are capable of creating flyers and navigating social media sites such as Snapchat, Instagram, and the more traditional Facebook or Twitter has increased both the reach of my studies and the diversity of the participants’ samples. I’ve discovered that HURMS frequently brings these abilities to my team, which I’ve found to be beneficial. Capital inherited from one’s ancestors– This capital indicates a dedication to the well-being of the community as a whole, as well as a knowledge of kinship (or the extending family unit that is defined not by blood relation but shared social experiences). This, in my opinion, is evident in pupils’ capacity to operate in a group setting. Because all research in my lab are interrelated, it is the recognition and acceptance that all of my resources and efforts may need to be directed into a certain study at any given time in order to get the desired results. I also see this capital in the degree of assistance students provide to one another outside of our lab sessions, with many students taking on the role of lateral mentors to one another, which relieves some of the pressures imposed on me. The capacity to be adaptable and to take on different roles at different times relates back to the desired skill of collaborative effort. The faculty member, on the other hand, will profit from the reduction in the demand to be everywhere
  5. This is an often neglected benefit. Social capital may be defined as participation in and membership in social networks in their most basic form. We, as professors, frequently think simply about the relationships or circles that we will introduce our students to. I recently returned from a national conference with one of my undergraduate research students, which was a fantastic experience. Many of my partners and colleagues were introduced to her during my trip, which took up a significant portion of my time. This is the scenario that is expected. But it is the business cards of academics, intellectuals, community activists, and even artists that bring the most grin to my face. This generally happens as a consequence of my pupils drawing on their aspirational capital to bring me the cards of people they have met. As well as providing me with valuable contacts, my past HURMS have also served as the finest recruiters for new students who have entered my lab and become valuable members of the team. Just when I am coming to terms with the fact that I will be working with a one-person team, another student walks through my door, and most of the time they notify me that they have already spoken with one of my graduating students. My undergraduate years were marked by the need to seek out connections with potential mentors who were deemed safe by my student familial. This lateral recruitment or reference check of me brings back memories of the need I had as an undergraduate to seek out connections with potential mentors who were deemed safe by my student familial. Capital of navigation – n.d. It is this capital that represents the ability of the HURMS to “navigate” around, through, and between institutions that were not designed for, nor were they ever intended to have, their existence. Yosso mentions the capacity of pupils to retain their high levels of success despite the presence of persistent discrimination and animosity aimed at them because of their minority status as an example of this. For instance, my own personal narrative of racism, which I have used not just as a motivation but also as the foundation for my research topic and ongoing work, is an example of this. A unpleasant event may be reclaimed and used as fuel for my studies, which not only demonstrates navigational capital but also aspirational goals. In considering the degrees of devotion I have gotten from students who see our study as an extension of their often unreported narrative, as opposed to students who are just interested in the issue, I take this into consideration. The capacity to channel hardship into motivation does not end at the level of dedication
  6. It can also be shown in the manner in which these students use other experiences and information to increase the overall productivity of the team and project
  7. And Capital that is resistant to change– I have been lucky to work with a group of students who have shared my vision of research as an avenue for bubble bursting and equitable advancement. The students I have been privileged to work with for over a decade share my vision of research as an avenue for equality and advancement. In retaining this perspective, it encourages me to conduct research not just for publication but also for social change. As an applied critical scholar, this is likely the most crucial capital I am able to accumulate
  8. It is this capital that allows me to continue to exist.
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  • T. Oliver MShapiro Oliver MShapiro (1995). A unique viewpoint on racial disparity is offered by the contrast between black and white wealth. Routledge
  • Yosso, T.J. New York: Routledge (2005). Whose culture has the most money? A critical race theory examination of the cultural riches of a community is presented. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–91

The 2018-2020 Center for Engaged Learning Scholar is Buffie Longmire-Avital, associate professor of psychology and coordinator of African and African-American studies at the University of Florida. Dr. Longmire-CEL Avital’s Scholar project is concerned with the promotion of diversity and inclusion in high-impact practice settings. Longmire-Avital, Buffie. How to Cite This Post:Longmire-Avital, Buffie. 4th of March, 2019. What is the name of their capital? Applying the Community Cultural Wealth Model to the University of Rochester.

First Generation College Students: Community Cultural Wealth

Using Dr. Yosso’s Cultural Wealth Model, he investigates six types of cultural capital that students of color encounter while in college, from an appreciating standpoint: aspirational, linguistic, family, social, navigational, and resistive capital. The Yosso model investigates the abilities, characteristics, and life experiences that students of color bring to their academic setting and how these might be utilized. It is the capacity to preserve optimism and ambitions for the future in the face of real and imagined obstacles that is referred to as aspirational capital.

  1. Developing linguistic capital is the capacity for children to gain communication abilities via a variety of activities and exposures.
  2. (Page 79) When we talk about familial capital, we are referring to the social and personal human resources that students have in their precollege setting, which are derived from their extended family and community networks.
  3. Consider the following: How can we identify and assist kids in drawing on the knowledge, values, and tales from their own communities?
  4. What should we think about is how we engage with likely individuals and community-based organizations about admissions and selection processes and the types of supports successful students require.
  5. The author goes on to explain that students’ navigational capital provides them with the ability to move through hostile or unsupportive circumstances.
  6. Do you had any interactions with professors or faculty?
  7. Who are their contemporaries?
  8. The experiences of communities of color in gaining equal rights and collective liberation serve as the foundation for resistance capital.
  9. Students of color are particularly well-positioned to use their higher education skills to join society equipped to tackle tough challenges related to equitable health, educational, and other social outcomes as a result of this historical heritage of resistance.
  10. What chances do we give children in and outside of the classroom to educate them for involvement in a democratic society that is varied in its citizens?

References T.J. Yosso is the author of this article (2005). Whose culture has the most money? 8(1), pp. 69–91, in the journal Race, Ethnicity, and Education

Tara J. Yosso – Wikipedia

Tara J. Yosso
Nationality American
Title Professor
Academic background
Alma mater University of California, Los Angeles
Thesis A Critical Race and LatCrit Approach to Media Literacy: Chicana/o Resistance to Visual Microaggressions

Tara J. Yosso is a professor at the University of California, Riverside’s Graduate School of Education. She has a Ph.D. in educational leadership. Yosso’s research and teaching investigate educational access and opportunity using the frameworks of critical race theory and critical media literacy, as well as the frameworks of critical media literacy. The ways in which Communities of Color have historically utilized a variety of cultural knowledge, skills, abilities, and networks to navigate structures of racial discrimination in the pursuit of educational equality are of particular interest to her, and she is currently conducting research on this topic.

As a result of her work, she was given a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship for Diversity and Excellence in University Teaching and the Derrick Bell Legacy Award from the Critical Race Studies in Education Association.

She has received several citations both inside and outside of the realm of education.


Yosso is a first-generation college student from San Jose, California, who grew up in a family of four. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Social Psychology of Education with an emphasis in Chicana/o Studies from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1995, after designing her own particular major in the field. From the University of California, Los Angeles, Yosso received her Ph.D. in Education: Urban Schooling with a specialization in Chicana/o Studies and an emphasis in Visual Sociology.

As a recruit from the University of California, Riverside cluster hire focused on scholars working with diverse U.S.

Prior to her employment, she was a professor at the School of Education at the University of Michigan, as well as a faculty affiliate in Latina/o Studies.

She received her Ph.D.

Selected publications

It was found that racial microaggressions were connected to stereotype threat, the intersectionality of racialization for Latina/o students, and cinematic depictions, according to Yosso’s dissertation, “A Critical Race and LatCrit Approach to Media Literacy: Chicana/o Resistance to Visual Microaggressions.” Her operationalization of racial microaggressions has been incorporated into handbook definitions of racial microaggressions, which is a significant accomplishment.

She published a paper in the Harvard Educational Review in 2009 that combined an analysis of microaggressions with a critique of assimilationist models used in higher education student affairs, shedding new light on the racial climate on college campuses as well as Chicana/o and Latina/o educational experiences.

  1. Yosso’s most significant contribution to the development of a critical race theory in education framework is the use of research-based creative narratives—counterstories—that narrate viewpoints from racially and socially excluded groups.
  2. Her 2006 work, Critical Race Counterstories in the Chicana/Chicano Educational Pipeline, was published by University of California Press.
  3. She confronts inadequate interpretations of bleak academic statistics through the use of composite characters that personify data themes and trends, and she wins.
  4. The Critics’ Choice Award is presented annually.

The publication of “A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth” in 2005 has been hailed as a paradigm shift in the framing of work with marginalized communities around the array of cultural knowledges, skills, abilities, and networks that they possess and use to survive and resist racism and other forms of subordination, as well as other forms of subordination.

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According to Bourdieu, social hierarchy is not replicated by coincidence, but rather by those in power (elite Whites) restricting access to acquire and exploit certain types of cultural, social, and economic capital in order to maintain their positions of power.

Using a critical historical lens to examine the experiences of Communities of Color, Yosso argues that we can document various forms of capital nurtured through cultural wealth, including aspirational, navigational, social, linguistic, familial, and resistant capital by shifting our focus away from a deficit view of these communities.

Selected work

  • (2002). “Critical Race Methodology: Counterstorytelling as an Analytical Framework for Educational Research,” in Solórzano, D.G.T.J. Yosso, ed. “Critical Race Methodology: Counterstorytelling as an Analytical Framework for Educational Research.” Solórzano, D.G., M. Ceja, and T.J. Yosso (2000, Winter/Spring). Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44
  • Solórzano, D.G., M. Ceja, and T.J. Yosso. “Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate: The Experiences of African American College Students,” a paper published in the journal Critical Race Theory. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60–73
  • Yosso, T.J., Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60–73. D.G. Garca is a fictional character created by D.G. Garca (2007). “‘This is No Slum!’: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Community Cultural Wealth in Culture Clash’s Chavez Ravine” is a paper published in the journal Critical Race Theory. Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 145–179
  • Garca, D.G., and T.J. Yosso, T.J. Yosso (2013). From 1934 until 1954, “‘Strictly in the Capacity of Servant’: The Interconnection Between Residential and School Segregation in Oxnard, California” was published in the journal Sociological Perspectives. History of Education Quarterly53(1), 64–89
  • Yosso, T.J., W.A. Smith, M. Ceja, and D.G. Solórzano, History of Education Quarterly53(1), 64–89. (2009, Winter). Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and the Racial Climate on Campus are all topics that Latina/o undergraduates should be familiar with. Harvard Educational Review, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 659–690
  • Yosso, T.J., ed (2002). “Critical Race Media Literacy: Challenging Deficit Discourse about Chicanas/os,” a paper published in the journal Critical Race. 30(1), 52–62
  • Yosso, T.J.D.G Garca
  • Journal of Popular Film and Television 30(1), 52–62
  • (2010). For further information, see the article “From Miss J to Miss G: Analyzing Racial Microaggressions in Hollywood’s Urban School Genre” (from the University of California Press). The authors, B. Frymer, T. Kashani, A.J. Nocella II, and R. Van Heertum, published a book titled (eds.). It is Hollywood that is used in three ways: public pedagogy, corporate films, and cultural crisis (pp. 85-103). Palgrave Macmillan
  • Yosso, T.J.C. Benavides Lopez. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Yosso, T.J.C. Benavides Lopez (2010). “Counterspaces in a Hostile Place: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Campus Culture Centers,” published in “Counterspaces in a Hostile Place.” L.D. Patton is quoted as saying (Ed.). Culture Centers in Higher Education: Perspectives on Identity, Theory, and Practice (pp. 83–104) is a book published by the American Association of University Women. Stylus, Sterling, Virginia
  • Smith, W.A., T.J. Yosso, and D.G. Solórzano (2006). “Challenging Racial Battle Fatigue on Historically White Campuses: A Critical Race Examination of Race-Related Stress” is a paper published in the journal “Challenging Racial Battle Fatigue on Historically White Campuses.” In the book, C.A. Stanley (Ed.). (pg. 299–327), Faculty of Color: Teaching at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities. Anker Publishing, Inc., Bolton, Massachusetts
  • Yosso, T.J.D.G. Solórzano, Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker Publishing, Inc. (2005). “Conceptualizing a Critical Race Theory in Sociology,” according to the authors. In M. Romero and E. Margolis (eds. ), The Blackwell Companion to Social Inequalities (pp. 117–146), Oxford University Press. Garca, D.G., T.J. Yosso, and F.P. Barajas (eds.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing
  • Garca, D.G., T.J. Yosso, and F.P. Barajas (2012). “‘A Few of the Brightest, Cleanest Mexican Children’: School Segregation as a Form of Mundane Racism in Oxnard, California, 1900-1940,” Harvard Educational Review, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 1–25
  • “‘A Few of the Brightest, Cleanest Mexican Children’: School Segregation as a Form of Mundane Racism in Oxnard, California, 1900-1940,” Harvard Educational Review, vol. 82, no. 1,


Boston students stage a walkout in March 2016. When it comes to comprehending the area of education and current racial inequality in education, Critical Race Theory is a beneficial framework to apply. Is it possible that CRT may push us to reexamine some of our most significant civil rights “wins” in education? What are some examples of how researchers have employed critical race theory as a theoretical framework for educational research that questions the centrality of whiteness and deficit frameworks in research?

  • G. Ladson-Billings et al (1998). What what is critical race theory, and what role does it play in such a ‘lovely’ area as education? In the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, volume 11(1), pages 7-24, the authors discuss their findings. Just What is Critical Race Theory and Whats It Do
  • G. Ladson-Billings and W. F. Tate et al (1995). In the direction of a critical racial theory of education. Celia K. Rousseau and Adrienne D. Dixson have published a paper in Teachers College Record (Vol. 97, No. 47). We are still not saved: Critical race theory in education 10 years after it was first introduced. Race, ethnicity, and education, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 7-27, 2005. In addition, 10 years after the publication of Yosso, T. J., critical race theory in education is still not preserved (2005). Whose culture has the most money? A critical race theory examination of the cultural riches of a community is presented. The Journal of Race and Ethnicity in Education, 8 (1), 69-91
  • Solorzano, D., Ceja, M., and Yosso, T. (2000). The experiences of African American college students with critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial environment. Journal of Negro Education, 60-73
  • Journal of Negro Education, 60-73


  • S. R. Harper and S. R. Hurtado (2007). Campus racial climates are characterized by nine themes, each with implications for institutional development. In S. R. Harper and L. Patton (Eds. ), Responding to the Realities of Race on College Campuses, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass (New Directions in Student Services, Winter 2007, No. 120, pp. 7-24)
  • Solórzano, D. G., Responding to the Realities of Race on College Campuses, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass (1998) Microaggressions based on race and gender, as well as the lived experience of Chicana and Chicano intellectuals, will be discussed. Truong, K. A., and Museus, S. D. (2001) Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 121-136
  • Truong, K. A., and Museus, S. D. (2012). An assessment for coping with racism and racial trauma in doctorate studies, as well as a method for mediating relationships Harvard Educational Review, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 226-254

Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose Culture Has Capital A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 69-91. – References

Yosso, T. J., et al (2005). Whose Culture Is Worth Investing in? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of the Cultural Wealth of a Community is presented. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, vol. 8, no. 69-91, 1997. Early Reading for Young Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Alternative Frameworks is the title of this article. M. Diane Clark, Jean F. Andrews, Beth Hamilton, Kim Misener Dunn, and Beth Hamilton are the authors of this work. KEYWORDS: Deaf, Top-Down Reading Strategies, ASL/English Bilingual Approaches, Top-Down Reading Strategies NAME OF THE JOURNAL:Psychology, Vol.7, No.4, April 14, 2016 ABSTRACT: Without the use of English auditory phonology, deaf children can develop reading abilities by connecting meaning to English print through the use of a visual language to bridge meaning to English print.

These frameworks, which move away from the deficit model, are centered on Deaf1 children who are in the process of reading in order to document their real behaviors utilizing a bilingual American Sign Language/English philosophical approach.

Multiple pathways are advocated, based on the work of Treisman and his concept of “fault tolerant” techniques, which allow and encourage deaf readers to use a variety of routes to reach their destination.

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