- 1 Representation: Culture & Perception
- 2 Cultural Generalizations vs. Stereotypes: Culture Points
- 3 Cultural Generalizations
- 4 Cultural Stereotypes
- 5 Great Depression – Popular culture
- 6 Gender Identity & Roles
- 7 What are gender roles?
- 8 How do gender stereotypes affect people?
- 9 How can I fight gender stereotypes?
- 10 Understanding Your Own Culture
Representation: Culture & Perception
When it comes to forming our opinions of people, media, entertainment, and other kinds of popular culture are important factors to consider. A large number of us learn about individuals who are different from us through popular culture, which is the major means by which we do so. A major difficulty, however, is that many depictions are based on cultural stereotypes, which have the effect of marginalizing and caricaturing people who belong to nondominant groups. We gain a restricted and skewed perspective on others as a result of these representations.
Characters from nondominant racial and ethnic groups frequently fall into formulaic clichés on television and in movies, and their plots are frequently based on hackneyed tales, particularly in drama.
For example, black men and boys are often shown badly in both news and entertainment programming, regardless of their race.
According to one study of local news coverage, black people are disproportionately shown as criminals, but white people are more frequently depicted as victims of crime than black people.
These portrayals, despite the fact that they are erroneous in terms of facts, are frequently left unchallenged because they correspond to dominant cultural preconceptions.
Popular culture is an important vehicle in this effort because it may be utilized to promote more nuanced and diverse images of people of color.
As part of its research, the Perception Institute evaluates cultural items to identify their influence on implicit prejudice, racial anxiety, and behavior in order to inform policy and practice.
- Black Male Re-Imagined
- PopJustice, Vol. 3: Pop Culture, Perceptions, and Social Change (A Research Review)
- Black Male Re-Imagined
- The Halal in the Family web series is being evaluated. Discussion Guide with three and a half minutes and ten bullets
- Telling Our Own Story: The Importance of Narrative in the Healing of Racial Discrimination
Cultural Generalizations vs. Stereotypes: Culture Points
Diversity of culture is fundamental to AFS’s mission statement. In order to act and respond effectively while engaging with individuals from various cultures, we must first recognize the presence of cultural generalizations and stereotypes, as well as the distinction between the two. Because of the nature of AFS work, when the term “culture” is addressed in the context of AFS, it is frequently conceived of from the perspective of other national cultures. Culture, on the other hand, is considerably more complicated than that.
Values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors found in sub- or co-cultural patterns do not necessarily reflect those found in the dominant culture.
It is possible to see patterns in cultural patterns that are not tied to national borders or even geographical locations, such as those that exist for faiths, age groups, and socioeconomic classes, among other things.
Being aware of and understanding the patterns of the cultures to which one belongs (nationality, age, gender, etc.) serves as a foundation for understanding other cultures and their sub- or co-cultures, as well as for knowing oneself. The use of cultural generalizations can be beneficial in this process. Cultural generalizations are the practice of classifying people of the same group as having qualities that are similar to one another. Generalizations are adaptable, allowing for the addition of new cultural knowledge as it becomes available.
- This adaptability can then lead to an increase in cultural interest and awareness, which can ultimately lead to an improvement in intercultural interactions.
- Generalizations are also useful in everyday communication.
- The following is an example of a cultural generalization: “People from Country X have a preference for communicating in an indirect manner.” The use of cultural generalizations allows for the recognition of individual differences and the development of cultural awareness.
- Our other Culture Points, such as Individualism against Collectivism and Direct versus Indirect Communication Styles, have instances of cultural generalizations that are helpful.
Generally speaking, generalizations become stereotypes when all members of a group are classified as having the same qualities. Culture may be associated with stereotypes based on any form of cultural membership, whether it is based on nationality, religion, gender, ethnicity, or age. Furthermore, preconceptions may be either favorable or negative in nature. “Participants from Country Y are good students,” for example, or “Host families in Country Z are wonderful hosts to participants,” would be examples of positive stereotypes.
In addition, they are often rigid and resistive to new information and ideas.
“People from Country A are superficial,” for example, might be a negative stereotype.
To have a better understanding of this difference and cultural continuums, read the AFS article “Generalizations and Stereotypes,” which serves as a source for this Culture Point.
Great Depression – Popular culture
Politics and bigger societal issues were treated with apathy throughout the 1930s, and this was mirrored in popular culture throughout the decade. In contrast to the decade of affluence that was the Roaring Twenties, the 1930s stressed simplicity and thriftiness as the primary values. The use of washable, functional, and easy-care materials became popular after the advent of synthetic fibers. Although fashions tended to mimic the splendor of modern movies, garments themselves were patched before being replaced.
- Backyard games, puzzles, card games, and board games such as Monopoly, which was first released in 1935, were among the less expensive amusements available.
- The Major League Baseball rosters and player wages were reduced, 14 lower leagues were dissolved, and night games were added in an effort to increase attendance, which had declined by more than 40% by the time the season began in 1933.
- In part because to the fact that radio and movies reached many more people than novels or plays, several intellectuals speculated that mass media would be the most effective weapon for radicalizing Americans.
- The board game Monopoly Monopoly, as it appeared in 1935, was a popular board game.
- Hasbro, Inc.
- With permission, this image has been used.
Hollywood was filled with people who were sympathetic to the political left—people who frequently donated money to labor organizations or Spanish Republicans, as well as people who were essential in organizing the Screen Actors, Writers, and Directors Guild—but very little of this political activism was reflected on the screen or in the media.
In the decade that followed (especially those produced by MGM, Paramount, and Twentieth Century-Fox), musicals, screwball comedies and romantic comedies were among the most memorable films of the year.
One thing that many Hollywood films had in common—even the spectacular spectacles of directorBusby Berkeley and the dazzling duets ofFred Astaireand Ginger Rogers—was a soundtrack peppered with hard-boiled, evencynical, staccato chatter reminiscent of Walter Winchell’s gossip columns in the newspapers and on radio.
- Neither Cary Grant nor Fred Astaire nor Katherine Hepburn nor Bette Davis nor Rosalind Russell nor Claudette Colbert could ever be imagined as hayseeds or working stiffs in a rural setting or by the Marx Brothers.
- Robinson or James Cagney, approaching passing civilians and asking if they had a penny to spare.
- Some of the music from the 1930s attempted to alleviate the effects of societal unrest.
- The rousing “Happy Days Are Here Again” (1929) could be heard almost anywhere, whether as a political jingle for Roosevelt’s 1932 presidential campaign or as the theme song for theYour Hit Paraderadio show, which debuted in 1935 and became a staple of popular culture.
- Swing, which was centered on dancing and was constantly cheery, was not a remedy for despondency, but rather a tonic for recovery.
As part of the song “Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams” (1931), Bing Crosby also recorded the song “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?” the same year, which includes the lyrics “Just remember that sunlight always follows the rain.” In particular, traditional folk songs from the era, many of which were captured for historical purposes as part of the Federal Music Project’s efforts, give an exceptionally vivid indication of the hardship endured by ordinary Americans.
- The ex-convict Leadbelly (Huddie Ledbetter) was one of the folksingers “found” by the field recordings of folklorists such as John Lomax andAlan Lomax.
- He was born and raised in Oklahoma, and he hit the road during the height of the Dust Bowl era, stopping at hobo and migrant camps along the route to California, where he gained fame for his songs on the hardship of Dust Bowl refugees.
- He was instrumental in catalyzing the folk music movement centered on New York City’s Greenwich Village in the 1940s and 1950s, which had a strong association with leftist politics.
- The corruption of corporate and political power in modern America, as well as the squalid conditions in which migrant farmers lived, were addressed by some of the most prominent directors of the 1930s, including Frank Capra in Mr.
- Smith Goes to Washington(1939), as well as John Ford in his film adaptation of The Grapes of Wrath(1940).
- The Grapes of Wrath is a novel about a group of people who are enraged by something.
- Photograph courtesy of Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation/The Museum of Art Film Stills Archive, New York City.
- The film, directed by and starring a 25-year-old Welles and released in 1941, was startling in part because of its aesthetic brilliance, but it was also remarkable because it broke with the political clichés of the 1930s and represented a political revolution.
Not sentimental nor propagandistic in nature, Citizen Kane defied the cinema traditions of the day as well as popular prejudices, and hinted to a more ironic, less certain world that would emerge after World War II in the years to come.
Gender Identity & Roles
Our culture has a set of expectations for how men and women should dress, behave, and portray themselves to the rest of the world.
What are gender roles?
Gender roles in society refer to the manner in which we are supposed to act, talk, dress, groom, and conduct ourselves in accordance with our given sex in society. For example, girls and women are frequently expected to dress in a traditionally feminine manner and to be kind, helpful, and caring in their interactions with others. Men are typically perceived as being powerful, assertive, and courageous. Gender role expectations exist in every civilization, ethnic group, and culture, although they can range significantly from one group to the next depending on the context.
In the United States, for example, pink used to be regarded a manly hue, whilst blue was considered a feminine color.
How do gender stereotypes affect people?
In spite of the fact that stereotypes are oversimplified and not necessarily true, they are frequently regarded as a kind of bias or judgment about a person or group. As a result of gender stereotypes, people might be subjected to unequal and unfair treatment simply because of their gender. This is referred to as sexism. Gender stereotypes may be classified into four categories:
- In terms of personality qualities, women are frequently supposed to be accommodating and emotional, whereas males are typically believed to be self-confident and assertive
- For example, Domestic habits – For example, some people assume that women will care for the children, cook, and clean the household, while men will handle the finances, work on the automobile, and do repairs around the house. Jobs – Some people are quick to assume that teachers and nurses are women, whereas pilots, physicians, and engineers are males
- This is especially true in the United States. Males and women are supposed to have different physical characteristics, such as being slim and elegant, while men are expected to be tall and muscular. As part of this expectation, men and women are also required to dress and groom in ways that are traditional to their gender (men in slacks and short haircuts, ladies in dresses and makeup
Exaggeration of stereotypical behavior that is considered to be feminine is referred to as hyperfemininity. The characteristics of women that are perceived as feminine are exaggerated by hyperfeminine people. These characteristics may include being meek, innocent, and sexually inexperienced; being gentle and flirty; being elegant; being maternal; and being welcoming. Hypermasculinity is defined as the amplification of stereotypical behavior that is considered to be masculine in some way. Hypermasculine individuals exaggerate the characteristics that they consider to be masculine.
- These inflated gender stereotypes might make it difficult for people to form connections with one another.
- Extremely masculine individuals have a higher risk of becoming physically and emotionally abusive to their spouses.
- For example, it is detrimental to masculine individuals to believe that they are not permitted to weep or display sensitive feelings.
- Gender stereotypes must be broken down in order for everyone to be their best self.
How can I fight gender stereotypes?
You’re undoubtedly aware of gender stereotypes in your environment.
You may have also witnessed or experienced sexism, or discrimination on the basis of gender, in your life. In order to assist everyone — regardless of their gender or gender identity — feel equal and appreciated as individuals, it is necessary to confront gender and gender identity stereotypes.
- The use of gender stereotypes is likely to be prevalent in your surroundings. Also possible is that you have witnessed or experienced sexism or gender discrimination. In order to assist everyone — regardless of their gender or gender identity — feel equal and appreciated as individuals, it is necessary to fight these preconceptions.
You are not alone if you are dealing with your gender or gender identity, as well as with social expectations. It may be beneficial for you to speak with a trusted parent, friend, family member, teacher, or counseling professional. We were unable to access your location; please search for another place instead. Please provide a valid 5-digit zip code, city, or state in the space provided. Please complete the following field. Alternatively, contact 1-800-230-7526.
Understanding Your Own Culture
Because the United States is a key actor on the international scene, in terms of politics, economics, and culture, preconceived views about American culture are at least in part a product of this reality. Its acts have a significant impact on international relations and trade. When it comes to the United States’ top priorities, which include its neighbors and friends, other important international actors, and current war zones, the public’s attention is frequently focused on these issues. Depending on the situation, attention is diverted to other nations and concerns on an as-needed basis, resulting in less media coverage and information being readily available about such locations and issues.
A wealth of knowledge about American policies and culture may be available to them through many foreign news channels, freely available material on the Internet, or the exportation of American popular culture to screens and stores throughout the world.