Which One Of The Characteristics Listed Below Would Be Most Valued By An Individualistic Culture

1.3.4 – Individualist or Collectivist

1.3.4 – Individualist or CollectivistIndividualist or CollectivistTheway you responded to the Sharing theRewards exercise tells you something about how you feel regarding individualachievement and reward. Most Americanschoose to divide the available pool in a disproportionate way; they do notgenerally divide the money equally. Thistendency to stress either individuality or a more collective response is oneof the most widely distributed traits around the world. Not every culture is at one end or the otherof the spectrum, but the majority tend to favor one over the other in everydaylife. Knowing about the basis of this Collectivism versus Individualism constructwill help you to recognize, understand, and anticipate attitudes in differenttypes of cultures.Individualist� The individual identifies primarily with self, with the needsof the individual being satisfied before those of the group. Looking afterand taking care of oneself, being self-sufficient, guarantees the well-beingof the group. Independence and self-reliance are greatly stressed and valued.In general, people tend to distance themselves psychologically and emotionallyfrom each other. One maychooseto join groups, but group membershipis not essential to one�s identity or success. Individualist characteristicsare often associated with men and people in urban settings.Collectivist�One�s identity is, in large part, a function of one�s membership and role ina group, e.g., the family or work team. The survival and success of the groupensures the well-being of the individual, so that by considering the needsand feelings of others, one protects oneself. Harmony and the interdependenceof group members are stressed and valued. Group members are relatively closepsychologically and emotionally, but distant toward nongroup members. Collectivistcharacteristics are often associated with women and people in rural settings.



Look at the list of characteristicsand behaviors given below. If you decide the statement ismore likelyto apply to people living in an individualist culture, write “I”in the underlined blank space; if you think it is characteristic of acollectivist culture, write “C.”Characteristicsand Behaviors
1. People answer the phone by giving the name of the organization.
2. People give cocktail parties.
3. Inter-group rivalry is strong.
4. Employee-of-the-year awards are offered.
5. People adhere to tradition.
6. People are promoted based on production and results.
7. Contracts in business are used frequently.
8. There is a need for autonomy.
9. People change jobs frequently.
10. People believe that conflict clears the air.
11. There is a need for affiliation.
12. Short-term relationships are common.
13. It�s okay to stand out.
14. Face-saving is important.
15. It�s common for mothers to ask their preschoolers what theywant to wear each day.
16. Self-help books are popular.
17. Decisions are made by consensus.
18. The language has one word for mother�s brother, another forfather�s brother.
19. Marriages are arranged.
20. People have potluck dinners.
Suggestedanswers

Understanding Collectivist Cultures

Collectivist cultures place a greater emphasis on the needs and aims of the group as a whole than they do on the wants and ambitions of individual members. Relationships with other members of the group, as well as the interconnection of individuals, play an important part in the formation of each individual’s identity in such cultures.

Collectivistic Culture Traits

Among the characteristics of collectivist civilizations are the following:

  • In many cases, people describe themselves in terms of their relationships with others (for example, “I am a member of.”). Loyalty within the group is promoted. Determinations are made on the basis of what is best for the group. It is crucial to work as a team and to provide assistance to others. Rather than individual interests, a greater focus is placed on achieving collective goals. The rights of families and communities take precedence over the rights of an individual.

China, Korea, Japan, Costa Rica, and Indonesia are examples of countries that are comparatively more collectivistic than others. If a person demonstrates generosity, helpfulness, dependability, and attention to the needs of others, they are seen as “good” in collectivistic societies. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, tend to place a larger premium on attributes such as assertiveness and independence, which might be counterproductive.

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Individualistic civilizations are frequently compared with collectivist cultures in academic literature. Individualism is concerned with the rights and interests of each individual, whereas collectivism is concerned with the value of the group. Individualistic societies stress independence and personal identity above unity and selflessness, whereas collectivist cultures value unity and selflessness over individualism. These cultural differences are widespread and can have a significant impact on a wide range of aspects of how society runs.

Workers who live in a collectivist society, for example, may attempt to sacrifice their personal happiness for the greater welfare of the collective in order to achieve greater success.

Self-Perception

People’s behavior and self-concept are influenced by their cultural background. In contrast to those from individualistic cultures, those from collectivist cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their social relationships and roles (e.g., “I am smart, funny, athletic, and kind”), whereas those from individualistic cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their personality traits and characteristics (e.g., “I am a good son, brother, and friend”).

Relationships

According to the findings of the research, collectivist societies are related with poor relational mobility, which is defined as the number of options individuals in a society have to develop relationships with others of their choosing in that community. When there is little or no relational mobility, it suggests that people’s connections are solid, robust, and long-lasting. These types of relationships are typically developed as a result of variables such as family and geography, rather than as a result of personal choice.

People who are strangers in a collectivistic society are more likely to stay strangers in a collectivistic culture than they are in individualistic cultures.

This is most likely due to the fact that changing these connections is incredibly tough.

According to the inverse of this, individuals in individualistic cultures put out extra effort and energy into actively sustaining intimate connections, which is generally accomplished through higher self-disclosure and greater closeness.

When compared to collectivist societies, where strong interpersonal connections are more anticipated, interpersonal interactions in individualistic cultures are more problematic and weak. People must put out additional effort in order to keep these connections going.

Conformity

In addition, cultural differences have an impact on the drive to either stand out or blend in with the rest of the group. In one experiment, individuals from different cultural backgrounds, including American and Japanese, were instructed to choose a pen. The bulk of the pens were the same color, with the exception of a couple that were different colors. The majority of participants from the United States preferred the brightly colored pen. However, the Japanese participants were considerably more likely to chose the majority color, even if they liked the distinctive hue, as opposed to the other participants.

Social Anxiety

According to research, collectivistic societies are more supportive of socially hesitant and withdrawn tendencies than individualistic ones. In one study, participants from these cultures had higher degrees of social anxiety as compared to people from individualistic cultures, according to the findings. However, it is possible that collectivist beliefs were not the only factor in this development. Persons in collectivist nations in Latin America, for example, showed lower levels of social anxiety than people in collectivist countries in East Asia, according to the findings.

Social Support Use

People who live in collectivist societies are more hesitant to confide in their peers about their personal concerns. The fear of scaring others, upsetting the unity of the group, losing face, and making the situation worse are some of the reasons why people delay seeking social help, according to research. Instead, people frequently seek for implicit social support, which is a type of social assistance that is not explicitly stated. This entails spending time with individuals who are supportive of you without actually dealing with the root of your stress.

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Individualistic culture – Wikipedia

Individualistic culture is a type of civilization that is defined by individualism, which is the prioritizing or emphasis placed on the individual rather than the collective as a whole. Individualistic cultures are centered on the individual, with individuals identifying with themselves rather than with a collective mindset. They consider themselves to be only loosely related to one another and place greater emphasis on personal ambitions than on collective interests. A more diversified population is characteristic of individualistic societies, which place a focus on personal achievements while also making a reasonable appraisal of both the positive and negative sides of interpersonal connections.

Individualistic cultures have distinct communication characteristics such as being a low-power-distance culture and having a low-context communication style, among other things.

National cultures

A significant degree of individualism has been noted in the cultures of the United States of America, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Ireland, Germany, and South Africa. Hofstede coined the phrase “individualistic culture” in 1980, and he was the first to use it. Individualistic culture, according to Hofstede, refers to a social component rather than a psychological feature. He concluded that civilizations may be classified as either individualistic or collectivistic after conducting a thorough research of 40 country cultures.

But this concept is limited to defining and characterizing distinct cultures, rather than providing a description of diverse personalities.

In recent years, there has been a worldwide surge in individualism, and individualistic cultures are becoming increasingly prevalent in many nations throughout the world.

Low power distance

According to the definition, power gap is the degree to which uneven distribution of power is acceptable in a society. Low power distance cultures foster challenge to authority, support a reduction in power inequalities between management and staff, and encourage the lawful use of power. Individualistic cultures are more likely than other cultures to have a low power distance. Due to the fact that individuals within a collectivist society preserve the well-being of the group and established orders, they are less inclined to oppose authority or persons in positions of authority.

These individuals, on the other hand, are more prone to respond to power imbalances with greater negative emotional responses than those who live in the alternative, high power distance cultures, according to the research.

The United States is ranked 38th on the scale.

Low-context communication style

Communication between people from various cultural groups can be difficult at times, because they may have habits and social cues that are different from yours. This can frequently result in misunderstandings. Edward T Hall, an anthropologist, was the first to propose the notion of low context communication. The notions of low context communication and high context communication developed by Hall describe the variations in communication and culture in which context is required to obtain comprehension and avoid miscommunication.

This indicates that the message is exact, direct, and explicit in its content and tone.

This type of clear communication is meant to avoid any kind of cultural miscommunication between people.

The capacity to explain one’s views and opinions, as well as the ability to express them effectively, is encouraged, as is the skill to deliver a compelling speech. Low-context communication is primarily concerned with material and does not consider the relational dimension.

Emotion display and display rules

Individualistic cultures have a tendency to place greater emphasis on the individual over the collective, as seen by the differences in display norms between a collectivist and an individualistic society. Display rules are the laws that exist in many cultures that govern how emotions should be shown in public. They are divided into two categories: positive and negative. In an individualistic society, self-expression is strongly prized, resulting in less stringent display regulations and the ability for people to exhibit deep emotions such as happiness, wrath, love, and other similar feelings.

Marriage and Family Dynamics

As Ruth K. Chao put it back in 1994, “parenting approaches built on North American samples cannot simply be exported to other cultures, but must instead reflect their sociocultural circumstances.” Many cultures have a variety of parenting approaches, and the dynamics of their families are similarly diverse. Individualistic societies are characterized by individuals looking out solely for themselves and their immediate family. People from collectivistic societies, on the other hand, are concerned about their community or group as well as their own family.

In contrast, in individualistic societies with low levels of authority and a preference for uncertainty avoidance, shame is more strongly associated with guilt in terms of parental style.

This is true to the point where many people commit suicide in Japan, which is believed to be a collectivistic society, after dishonoring or bringing shame to their family or community.

Work-Family Balance

The cultural style of an individual can also have an impact on the dynamics of work-family relationships between people from various cultures. According to Shan Xu’s research, employees from more individualistic cultures are more sensitive to the ways in which their jobs interfere with their personal lives. These personnel are more concerned with their own personal family dynamics and structure than with the company’s. People from more collectivistic cultures, on the other hand, are more concerned with how their labor contributes to the provision of material, social, and cognitive resources, such as intellect and experience, that will be beneficial to their family.

Conflict strategies

Conflict resolution tactics are ways that are used to address a variety of issues. Various techniques to conflict resolution exist, and the culture in which a person is raised determines how likely they are to employ a particular approach to conflict resolution. Because individualistic cultures place a higher importance on personal accomplishment than collectivist cultures, which place a higher value on harmony, it is more probable that a person from an individualistic culture will utilize competition as a means of dispute resolution.

By employing this strategy, a person attempts control, which implies convincing others to do what the person wants rather than what they originally want, rather than vice versa.

A collectivist society, on the other hand, is more likely to take a less aggressive method, such as accommodation, to bring the disagreement to a close with a solution that benefits all parties.

Collectivism

Collectiveivist societies provide a larger emphasis on “We” consciousness, whereas individualistic cultures put more emphasis on “I” consciousness. It is said in the book Key Concepts in Developmental Psychology that both individualism and collectivism are affected by a variety of elements that influence whether a society is deemed to be individualistic or collectivist. Things such as a country’s national income, modernization indexes, press freedom, and even the incidence of traffic fatalities are all taken into consideration.

See also

  1. Geert Hofstede’s abcdefHofstede, Geert (2001). The Consequences of Culture “Modeling Power Distance and Individualism/Collectivism in Negotiation Team Dynamics,” by Victor Sanchez-Anguix, Tinglong Dai, Zhaleh Semnani-Azad, Katia Sycara, and Vicente Botti, published by SAGE in 2012. “Modeling Power Distance and Individualism/Collectivism in Negotiation Team Dynamics,” by Victor Sanchez-Anguix, Tinglong Dai, Zhaleh Semnani-Azad, Kati The 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences will be held in 2012. IEEE, Maui, HI, USA: 628–637.doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2012.436.ISBN978-1-4577-1925-7
  2. AbcRothwell, J. IEEE, Maui, HI, USA: 628–637.doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2012.436.ISBN978-1-4577-1925-7
  3. AbcRothwell, J. IEEE, Maui, HI (2010). Communicating in the Presence of Others: An Introduction to Communication Pages 65–84 in New York, New York: Oxford University Press
  4. “Collectivism,” in Nick Emler’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychology, published in 2006. Graham Davey’s full name is Graham Davey. 1st edition – obtained from Credo Reference
  5. Ab Rudolph H. Schaffer’s “Individualism and Collectivism” was published in 2006. First edition of Key Concepts in Developmental Psychology (published by Sage UK)
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  9. Grossmann, Igor (2017). “Global Increases in Individualism.” Psychological Science.28(9): 1228–1239.doi: 10.1177/0956797617700622.ISSN0956-7976.PMID28703638.S2CID206588771– via Google Scholar
  10. Swann, Joan (2017). “Global Increases in Individualism.” Psychological (2004). “Intercultural Communication” is an abbreviation. A Dictionary of Sociolinguistics is a reference work on the subject of sociolinguistics. 1st edition – available via Credo Reference
  11. Romaos, D. Carolina, 1st edition – available through Credo Reference (2014). Sherwood Thompson is a fictional character created by author Sherwood Thompson (ed.). “Low Context,” in the Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, is a phrase that means “low context.” First edition, published by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (through Credo Reference)
  12. AbHall, Edward (1987). Doing Business with the Japanese: Uncovering the Hidden Differences A book published by the University of California Press/Doubleday, ISBN 0385238835
  13. Ekman, Paul (1975). “Facial Expressions and Emotional Information” is the title of this article. 25(2): 21–29
  14. Doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1975.tb00577.x
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  16. Journal of Communication, 1975, 25(2): 21–29
  17. Judith G. Semtana is the author of this work (2003). “Parenting Styles,” International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, 2nd edition, through Gale
  18. “Parenting Styles,” International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, 2nd edition, via Gale
  19. Wilmot, William W. (William W. Wilmot, ed) (2003). “Relationship Theories: Self Other Relationships.” International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, 2nd edition – through Gale
  20. “Relationship Theories: Self Other Relationships.” Shan Xu
  21. Yanling Wang
  22. Ren Mu
  23. Jiafei Jin
  24. Feiyi Gao
  25. Xu, Shan
  26. Wang, Yanling (2018). In this paper, we examine “The impacts of the work-family interface on domain-specific happiness and well-being across countries: The moderating effects of individualistic culture and economic development: National disparities in work-family spillover.” PsyCh Journal.7(4): 248–267.doi: 10.1002/pchj.226.PMID30113133.S2CID52009916
  27. Park, H.S., PsyCh Journal.7(4): 248–267.doi: 10.1002/pchj.226 (2006). “The influence of national culture and face-related issues on the desire to apologize,” says the study. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.3: 183–204.doi: 10.1080/17475750601026933.S2CID143573807
  28. AbSillars, A. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.3: 183–204.doi: 10.1080/17475750601026933.S2CID143573807
  29. AbSillars, A. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.3: 183–204.doi: 10.1080 (1980). “Attributions and communication in the context of roommate disputes.” Communication Monographs, volume 47, number 3, pages 180–200. Inna Reddy (2016). European Americans, Asian Indian Americans, and Chinese Americans were studied for their attitudes of spiritual transcendence in relation to individualism and collectivism as well as ethnic identity. Counseling and Values, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 44–63 doi:10.1002/cvj.12025

Multiple Choice Quiz

  1. A. modify your communication style so that it is more closely aligned with individuals of different cultures. By obtaining understanding about different cultures, we may eliminate ambiguity and work together to discover common ground. c. everything listed above
  1. A. we are open to new knowledge that focuses on the communication processb. we aim to avoid stereotypingc. we are on the lookout for signs that warn us to possible misunderstandings in intercultural transactionsd. we are all of the above and then some.

Which of the following does not represent a contrast between individualist and collectivist cultures?

  1. A. Self-promotion is favored in collectivist societies, as opposed to individualistic ones b. An individualist culture is characterized by a communication style that is devoid of context. In an individualist educated society, public speaking abilities are seen as advantageous. In collectivist civilizations, harmony is often regarded as important.
  1. A. Individualist cultures place a larger importance on personal aims and wants than collectivist cultures, whereas collectivist cultures place a higher value on community objectives and needs. B. The terms “responsibility,” “loyalty,” and “commitment” indicate collectivist cultural norms. D. Individualist cultures are preferable than collectivist civilizations in all cases. Both a and b are correct.
  1. It is defined as follows: A. an acquired set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are held by a discernible, substantial group of people who have shared history. b. the most firmly held and widely held perspective of what is judged good, proper, or useful thought or conduct by the majority of the population. c. what a person believes to be true or likely to occur. the term refers to a group of individuals who live in a dominant culture while maintaining ties to another cultural background
  1. Anglo-Americanabroadly-Scandinavian (Norway, Sweden, Finland) c. West Africand. Both a and b are correct.

Australia has a strong sense of individualism in its culture. You may infer that they are likewise asexual from this.

  1. A. a culture with a low power distance b. a culture of high-contextual communication c. a high level of power-distance training. none of the options listed above
  1. A. The North American continent. b. Scandanavian (from Scandinavia) (Norway, Sweden, Finland). the East African continentd. both b and c

Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding cultures and civilizations?

  1. A. The majority of the world’s population is concentrated in ethnocentric culturesb. Ethnocentric civilizations are only seen in North American and Western European cultures. To some extent, every civilization is ethnocentric in some way. There is widespread agreement that direct, unambiguous communication is preferred to indirect, implicit communication in all cultures.

While interviewing for a job, your cultural norms urge you to “sell yourself” and make a point of highlighting your own achievements. You are most likely a member of a

  1. A strongly collectivist culture is characterized by the following characteristics: b. a culture that is strongly individualistic B and C are both low power-distance cultured, as is D.

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