Which Of The Following Would Be Considered A Minor Component That Makes Up A Culture

How Culture Influences Health

  • A culture is a set of beliefs, practices, and behaviors that are shared by a group of people or a civilization as a whole. It is continually changing
  • The rate at which cultural evolution takes place varies. It rises when a group migrates to a new culture and adopts elements of that culture into their own culture of origin, as in Children frequently experience difficulties when they are ‘between cultures,’ trying to strike a balance between the ‘old’ and the ‘new.’ They are fundamentally a part of both cultures, but their parents are frequently associated with the ‘old’ culture. One method of thinking about cultures is to consider whether they are predominantly ‘collectivist’ or ‘individualist’ in orientation. The ability to distinguish between the two can assist health professionals in making diagnoses and designing treatment plans that cover a bigger or smaller number of patients. Cultural factors have a significant impact on health. Patients’ perspectives of health, sickness, and mortality are influenced by their beliefs about disease origins, methods to health promotion, the way in which illness and suffering are experienced and communicated, where they seek care, and the forms of therapy they choose. Health professionals and patients both have cultural influences that impact their decisions and actions. It is possible that cultural bias will result in vastly divergent health-related choices and perceptions in Canada’s health system since popular ideas of historically dominant cultures have formed the system. Understanding and negotiating cultural differences are abilities that are referred to as ‘cultural competency.’ From this perspective, it is possible for caregivers to expressly inquire about particular beliefs or sources of care, and to include in new awareness into diagnostic and treatment plans
  • The demonstration of understanding of a patient’s culture can help to build trust, provide better health care, increase acceptance of diagnoses, and enhance treatment adherence, among other things.

What is culture?

Culture refers to the patterns of beliefs, practices, and behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals or a community as a whole. These patterns let individuals identify themselves as members of a group and distinguish themselves from members of other groups. Culture may encompass all or a subset of the following qualities, which may be present in any combination: 1Given the large number of elements that may influence any culture, there is certain to be a tremendous deal of variation within any one cultural group.

  • Ethnicity, language, religion, and spiritual beliefs, gender, socioeconomic status, age, sexual orientation, geographic origin, group history, education, upbringing, and life experience are all important factors to consider while making decisions.

Culture consists of the following elements:

  • Dynamic and developing
  • Taught and handed down through generations
  • Shared among individuals who agree on the way they define and comprehend reality
  • Frequently identified’symbolically,’ via language, dress, music, and behaviors
  • And interwoven into all elements of an individual’s existence. 2

Case examples

Take a look at the following two tales and think about how each child may react differently to a similar scenario such as a problem at school or a criticism, or even their mother falling unwell.

A great escape?

A 10-year-old Sudanese girl was raised by her aunt, who also had four other children, for three years as the less-cared-for child. Following the publication of politically sensitive stories in a major daily, her mother, a journalist in Sudan, was hounded and imprisoned for her actions. During the night, her mother appeared out of nowhere to whisk the youngster away under the cover of darkness. They walked all night and snuck across the border in the middle of the night. After crossing the border, they spent the next two years in a refugee camp, where they encountered a variety of hardships due to the fact that they had no male family members to guard them.

In the aftermath of the incident, the mother was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and although she is receiving treatment, she continues to have problems functioning in her daily life and adapting to life in Canada.

She looked to be well-adjusted; she performed well in school; she was eager to assist her mother; she smiled and chatted readily; and she appeared to be really interested in learning English.

Turning the page

As part of a diplomatic mission to maintain stability in Sudan, the 10-year-old daughter of a Sudanese schoolteacher in a posh district of Khartoum fled the country with her mother under the cover of a diplomat. This diplomat had arranged for visas to Germany and had given them with a car with diplomatic license plates as well as a skilled driver who took them to the most secure airport possible. They then boarded a tiny plane that took them to a connecting trip to Frankfurt, Germany, which had been pre-arranged.

They stayed in a room rented from a friend. After much deliberation, they opted to immigrate to Canada in order to join extended relatives in Toronto, who had sponsored their immigration. Following her arrival in Canada, the mother remarried.

Learning points:

  • Within any single culture, there is a great deal of variation. In addition to culture, a child’s ability to adapt can be impacted by a variety of other elements (personal, familial, migration-related, social, environmental)
  • Even if such variables have harmful impacts on the kid, these effects may be successfully concealed by the youngster. A kid may be able to make up for a parent’s incapacity
  • Migration paths differ significantly from one another.

Culture: The hidden and the obvious

As seen in Figure 1, culture has been compared as an iceberg, with its most potent qualities submerged under the surface of the water. Explicit cultural factors are frequently visible, but they may be less significant than the unacknowledged or subconscious elements that act as ballast below the surface.

Figure 1: Elements of culture
Source: Slide 6, Introduction to clinical cultural competence. Clinical Cultural Competency Series. Courtesy of the Centre for InnovationExcellence in ChildFamily Centred Care at SickKids Hospital.

The cultural continuum

Collectivism and individualism are two main aspects of culture that are often seen to be at opposing ends of a continuum: collectiveistic and individualistic. Most civilizations fall somewhere in the middle between the two poles, exhibiting features of both at the same time. Furthermore, within any one culture, individual variances can be found at all points on the spectrum. To be sure, understanding the features of collectivistic and individualistic cultures is beneficial (see Table 1) because it allows practitioners to “find” where a family fits within their cultural continuum and to tailor patient care.

According on where a patient “fits” on the cultural continuum, incorporating extended family members in discussions regarding disease etiology, diagnosis, and therapy may be beneficial.

Table 1: Characteristics of collectivistic and individualistic cultures
Collectivistic Individualistic
Focus on “we” Focus on “I”
Promote relatedness and interdependence Value autonomy
Connection to the family View ability to make personal individual choices as a right
Value respect and obedience Emphasize individual initiative and achievement
Emphasize group goals, cooperation and harmony Lesser influence of group views and values, and in fewer aspects of life
Greater, broader influence of group views and values
Source: Adapted from slide 11, Cross-cultural communication.Clinical Cultural Competency Series. Courtesy of the Centre for InnovationExcellence in ChildFamily Centred Care at SickKids Hospital, Toronto.
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Indecision or decision-making?

Collectivism and individualism are two main aspects of culture that are often seen to be on opposing ends of a continuum: collectiveistic and individualistic. Most civilizations lay somewhere in the middle between the two poles, exhibiting elements of both at different times throughout history. Within each civilization, individual variances can be found at all points along a spectrum. To be sure, understanding the features of collectivistic and individualistic cultures is beneficial (see Table 1) since it allows practitioners to “find” where a family sits on their cultural continuum and to tailor patient care.

According on where a patient “fits” along the cultural continuum, incorporating extended family members in discussions regarding disease etiology, diagnosis, and treatment may be beneficial.

Learning points:

  • The individualistic culture of the health care professional contrasts with the collectivistic culture of the mother. She wanted to confer with someone before she could deliver a response because everyone’s communication methods varied. The mother was concerned about putting the provider on the defensive by questioning his advise, but she also didn’t want to accept that she would have to bring the options home to make a decision. The fact that someone has a high school diploma is irrelevant: it is a red herring.

Impact of culture on health

Because culture frames and shapes our perceptions of the world and our experiences, health is a cultural concept to understand. Culture, in conjunction with other determinants of health and disease, contributes to the definition of:

  • The perspectives of patients and health-care professionals on health and sickness
  • Insights into what people and health-care professionals think about the origins of disease Examples include patients who are uninformed of germ theory and who instead believe in fate, adjinn (an evil spirit believed to be responsible for tetanus-like sickness in rural Afghanistan), the “evil eye,” or a demonic entity. They may refuse to accept a diagnosis and even assume that they are unable to alter the path of events. Instead, people can only accept events as they develop
  • Which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why
  • And which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why. Depression is a prevalent social stigma in many cultures, and consulting a psychiatrist is considered “crazy.” What sorts of health promotion activities are done, encouraged, or insured varies from culture to culture. It is common in certain cultures to be “strong” or overweight (what Canadians would call “obese”) as a method of storing energy in case of famine, and “strong” women are considered desirable and healthy. The way in which disease and pain are perceived and conveyed. To be stoic is the norm in certain societies, even in the face of excruciating discomfort. In other cultures, individuals are not afraid to express mildly painful emotions out loud. Depending on where individuals seek assistance, how they request assistance, and, perhaps most importantly, when they first approach a health care provider, the extent to which pain should be explored or treated may vary significantly. When a situation gets serious, certain cultures choose to seek allied health care practitioners first, rather than going to the doctor
  • Patient engagement with health care providers. For example, in many cultures, avoiding making direct eye contact is considered a show of respect
  • Nonetheless, a care provider may worry if the same behavior indicates that her patient is sad. When it comes to treatment alternatives given by health care specialists who do not share their cultural views, the degree of knowledge and compliance is measured. Occasionally, patients assume that a physician who does not administer an injection is not paying enough attention to their problems. The perceptions of chronic illness and treatment choices held by patients and healthcare practitioners

Other aspects of culture have an impact on health, such as:

  • Acceptance of a diagnosis, including who should be informed of it, when, and in what manner Affirmation of preventative or health-promoting interventions (e.g. immunizations, prenatal care, birth control, screening tests, and so on)
  • A perception of the degree of control that individuals believe they have over the prevention and control of disease Death, dying, and who should be engaged in the process are all discussed. The use of direct communication as opposed to indirect communication. If you avoid eye contact or make it, it might be considered impolite or courteous in different cultural contexts. willingness to discuss symptoms with a health-care provider or with an interpreter in the presence of the provider Affective effects of family dynamics, such as established gender roles, filial obligations, and patterns of support among family members
  • Young people’s perceptions of themselves and their aging
  • The accessibility of the health-care system, as well as the efficiency with which it operates

What health professionals can do

Health care professionals are more likely to have favorable contacts with patients and to deliver better treatment if they are aware of the differences between their patients’ cultural values, beliefs, and practices and those held by the providers themselves.

Following are some tips to assist you in providing care to and communicating with patients who are new to Canada: 3,4

  • Consider how your own cultural views, attitudes, and behaviors may influence your relationships with patients. Consider the following: If you believe that a patient-provider relationship has been negatively impacted by cultural prejudice – whether your own or your patient’s – consider getting assistance. Respect, comprehend, and collaborate with people who have different cultural perspectives on what constitutes successful or suitable therapy. Make inquiries about and keep track of how your patients prefer to get health-care and treatment information. Make arrangements for a suitable interpreter if one is required. Pay close attention to what your patients are saying and make sure you understand what they are saying
  • Inquire about and learn about the patient’s perceptions of their own health or sickness. It is important to acknowledge that families may benefit from complementary and alternative therapy. When suitable and particular conditions are present, inform them that the use of complementary and alternative medicine can cause a delay in biological testing or treatment, as well as the possibility of injury. Determine where the patient is in the process of adjusting to Canadian culture by “locating” him or her. Examine their network of support. What is the level of their linguistic proficiency? Negotiate a treatment plan that is founded on a common understanding and acceptance
  • In Canada, the majority of health information is provided in print form. Examine the possibility that a patient or family might benefit from spoken or visual communications due to cultural differences or inadequate literacy.

Learn more about cultural competency, including specific ways for providing culturally competent care, by reading this article. Other sources provide useful tools and information that may be used to assist you. An e-learning program developed by SickKids Hospital in Toronto has been made available online. Two modules in particular may be of interest to you. They are: Cross-Cultural Communication and Parenting in a Multicultural Environment.

Providing health care to different cultural groups

Creating a handbook to assist health professionals in better understanding cultural preferences and features throughout the world would be a monumental endeavor of monumental proportions. Furthermore, any work of this nature would be skewed by the authors’ own cultural viewpoints. Health professionals in Canada are becoming increasingly varied in terms of their cultural backgrounds, and they perceive the world and the people they encounter through a variety of lenses. Health care practitioners, on the other hand, should gain skills in the areas of cultural competency and patient-centered care.

Above all, keep in mind the following:

  • Cultures change with time
  • Within any culture, there is a great deal of variation. Even if you believe you understand a culture, it will have changed or you will have uncovered exceptions by the time you are through.
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  • Additionally, there are other tools and resources for cultural competence. Culture matters workbook: Thirteen cultural categories
  • American and host nation perspectives are examined in Coverdell, Paul D. World wise schools:Culture matters workbook: Thirteen cultural categories Gregory Juckett, Peace Corps Volunteer. Medicine that is cross-cultural in nature. Am Fam Physician. 2005
  • 72(11):2267-74
  • Am Fam Physician. 2005
  • A child and family-centered care center at SickKids Hospital (in Toronto, Ontario), the Centre for Innovation and Excellence in Child and Family-Centered Care. E-Learning Modules for Clinical Cultural Competence
  • Clinical Cultural Competence

Webinar: Pay Attention to the Gap! Develop skills to navigate cultural issues with newcomer children, youth, and families on September 24, 2014 at the University of California, Los Angeles.


The most recent update was made in March of 2018.

What Is Culture?

The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.

The anthropologist Cristina De Rossi of Barnet and Southgate College in London told Live Science that culture encompasses “religion, food, what we wear, how we wear it, our language, marriage, music, what we believe is right or wrong, how we sit at the table, how we greet visitors, how we behave with loved ones, and a million other things.” “Culture encompasses religion, food,” she said.

According to Arthur Asa Berger, the word “culture” comes from a French phrase that, in turn, comes from the Latin word “colere,” which meaning to tend to the ground and flourish, or to cultivate and nourish, or to cultivate and nurture.

As De Rossi explained, “it shares its origin with a number of other terms that are associated with actively supporting development.”

Western culture

The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.

  1. Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
  2. 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
  3. According to Ohio State University historian John L.
  4. As a result of elites being compelled to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more influence.
  5. Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.

Eastern culture

Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Three Buddhist monks are seen here on their way to the Angkor Wat temple. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.

This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.

Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.

In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.

During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms. A large number of Koreans were coerced or compelled to change their surnames to Japanese ones during this period according to History.com, which describes the situation as follows:

Latin culture

Da de los Muertos costumes for children in traditional attire (Image courtesy of Getty/Sollina Images.). The geographical territory that encompasses “Latin culture” is large and diverse. For the sake of this definition, Latin America is comprised of the regions of Central America, South America and Mexico where Spanish or Portuguese is the main language. Beginning in the 1400s, Spain and Portugal colonized or influenced a number of locations across the world, including those listed above. Some historians (such as Michael Gobat, “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race,” American Historical Review, Vol.

  1. Because of this, Latin cultures are extremely diverse, and many of them combine indigenous customs with the Spanish language and Catholicism brought by Spanish and Portuguese invaders to form hybrid cultures.
  2. These impacts are particularly evident in Brazil and the countries of the Western Hemisphere’s Caribbean region.
  3. A notable example is Da de los Muertos, also known as Day of the Dead, which is a celebration dedicated to commemorating the fallen that is observed on November 1st and 2nd.
  4. According to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Mexican immigrants to the United States carried the festival with them, and in the 1970s, artists and events focused attention on Da de los Muertos as a way of expressing their Chicano (Mexican-American) ancestry.

Middle Eastern culture

A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together (Photo courtesy of Getty/Jasmin Merdan). The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.

  • Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
  • According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
  • Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
  • Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.

Areas that were once part of the Ottoman Empire are known for distinctive architecture that is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles.

African culture

African woman from the Maasai tribe, sitting with her infant close to her home in the African country of Kenya (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. According to the Natural History Museum in London, humans started there approximately 400,000 years ago and began to spread to other parts of the world around the same time period. Researchers led by Dr. Tom White, who works as a Senior Curator of Non-Insect Invertebrates at the Smithsonian Institution, were able to find this by analyzing Africa’s ancient lakes and the species that lived in them.

  1. African culture differs not just across and within country borders, but also inside those borders.
  2. According to Culture Trip, Nigeria alone has more than 300 tribes, which is a significant number.
  3. Because of this, large urban centers sprung up along the Eastern coast, which were frequently linked together by the transportation of raw resources and commerce from landlocked portions of the continent.
  4. According to Britannica, Northwest Africa has significant linkages to the Middle East, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa shares historical, geographical, and social traits with North Africa that are considerably distinct from those of the former.
  5. The traditions of these cultures developed in a variety of contexts that were vastly diverse.
  6. Maasai herders, on the other hand, herd their sheep and goats on broad pastures and rangelands.
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What is cultural appropriation?

Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as follows: “A phrase used to describe the taking over of creative or artistic forms, concepts, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today.

As well as jewelry influenced by Zuni, Navajo, and Hopi styles from the desert Southwest, the model wore turquoise, demonstrating how cultural appropriation can group tribes with vastly distinct cultures and histories into a single stereotypical image through the usage of turquoise.

Sikh restaurateur and social media influencer Harjinder Singh Kukreja responded to Gucci on Twitter, noting that the Sikh Turban is “not a hip new accessory for white models, but rather an object of religion for practicing Sikhs.” Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.

“Using imitation Sikh turbans and turbans is as bad as selling fake Gucci merchandise.”

Constant change

One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.

  1. A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.
  2. It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.
  3. Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.
  4. Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

1.2.1 – The Iceberg

1.2.1 – The IcebergCulture has been aptly compared to an iceberg. Just as an iceberg has a visiblesection above the waterline and a larger, invisible section below the waterline, so culture has some aspects that are observable and others that can onlybe suspected, imagined, or intuited. Also like an iceberg, the part of culturethat is visible (observable behavior) is only a small part of a much biggerwhole.

The items that appear below are allfeatures of culture. Keeping in mind that observable behaviors belongabove the surface of the water, while the invisible aspects of culturebelong below the surface, drag each feature to show whether it should be “above”or “below.”

See suggested responses for further information. Discussion On the one hand, culture is what, in a broad sense, distinguishes us as human beings. It has been a challenge for every civilization, past and present, to determine how to successfully resolve universal human issues and concerns. Human activity may be divided into several categories, each of which has been addressed for millennia by all cultures:

  • The concepts of justice, fairness, punishment, and right conduct are discussed, as are rites of passage (life cycle celebrations), rituals, and ceremonies, as well as expression and style in the graphic and performing arts. There is also no discussion of food preferences or rules concerning consumption, as there is no discussion of religion. No discussion of politics or the exercise of leadership in governance is included. Myths and cultural heroes to explain and commemorate core values
  • Dissemination of ideas about beauty, love, truth, friendship, and loyalty
  • Notions of modesty and age-appropriate dress and behavior
  • Ideas about what time it is and its relative importance
  • Ideas about what time it is and its relative importance Preoccupations with individual vs collective privilege and responsibility
  • Ideas of personal space and privacy
  • Definitions of gender and the strengths, responsibilities, and tasks that are connected with it

There are hundreds of more challenges or problems that human beings have fought to overcome that may be added to this list, which, like all assessments of the highest levels of cultural concerns, is quite abstract and generic in nature. Specific cultures have established how to deal with these difficulties through the development of ideas and the construction of their patterns from a wide variety of potentially viable possibilities. The vast majority of those decisions were taken a long time ago.

Although some of the original cultural patterns may have changed through time, the core of values and ideas has remained relatively stable.

Studying abroad provides students with the opportunity to immediately engage with something new and unusual, which is one of the most thrilling aspects of the experience.

Acquiring the ability to operate well in a foreign place increases one’s ability to make all sorts of transitions as well as to engage in “culturallearning” more broadly.

Entering a new nation involves more than simply a physical transformation; it also involves a psychological shift. Keep the following three points in mind as you begin to evaluate how culture will play a part in your travels:

  1. The complete gamut of human issues has been grappled with by all civilizations, and all cultures have chosen answers that are at the very least acceptable to the people of that culture. It is almost certain that, in the process of creating culture, a group has made decisions about what should be emphasized, how it should be passed on to new generations, and what it values above all else, and you can be certain that it excludes or devalues some things that another culture (perhaps even your own!) holds dear
  2. They are not only regarded nice and proper but also natural and normal since the patterns that exist in many cultureshave been passed down by respected leaders and/or elders and have become sanctified over time. Therefore, cultural issues are firmly embedded in society and passionately felt by the people who live in it. As a result, whenever there is a disagreement or change impacting essential principles, there is always tension. One may anticipate that studying abroad, which encourages interaction with people from different cultures and the eventual breaching of cultural barriers, would be unpleasant and even confusing at times.

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