Which Of The Following Seems To Be A Significant Human Activity In Virtually Every Culture

Halting the Extinction Crisis

Our world is currently undergoing a global extinction crisis that has never before been observed by humans. Scientists anticipate that more than 1 million species will go extinct in the next several decades, with the majority of them occurring in the tropics. However, there is still time to avert this catastrophe – and we require your assistance. By participating in ourSaving Life on Earthcampaign, you can contribute to the creation of a coast-to-coast network that will ensure that the United States is a leader in the effort to save the world’s biodiversity.

It is chock-full of big, life-changing proposals, such as a call for a $100 billion investment in endangered species and the conservation of 30 percent of our lands and ocean waters by 2030, and 50 percent by 2050, among other things.

Why Is This So Important?

With each species extinction, the world around us begins to disintegrate a little more. The ramifications are far-reaching, not only for individuals who live in those regions and for those species, but for all of us. The losses are not only monetary in nature, such as crop pollination and water cleansing, but they are also spiritual and cultural in character. People have profound emotional links to the wild environment, despite the fact that these relationships are sometimes masked by the noise and bustle of modern life.

  1. Because of the presence of wildlife, we all benefit from it.
  2. The current extinction issue is completely the result of human activity.
  3. Leadership — particularly from the United States — as well as bold, daring, and far-reaching actions to address the extinction catastrophe at its source will be required to bring about a lasting solution.
  4. + Take a look at what we’re particularly asking President Biden to do.
  • It is declared a national emergency, and a $100 billion commitment is made to conserving the diversity of life on Earth. Creates 175 parks, refuges, and monuments to help the country reach its goal of safeguarding 30 percent of lands and waterways by 2030 and half by 2050, known as the 30×30 campaign
  • $10 billion to conserve reefs throughout the world, $10 billion to save neotropical birds in the western hemisphere, and $10 billion to combat the deadly international wildlife trade are provided immediately. Restores the full authority of the Endangered Species Act and takes immediate action to safeguard all species that are endangered but are not yet listed on the endangered species list. It reduces pollution and plastic waste by a significant amount, enhances efforts to stop animal exploitation and the spread of exotic species, and restores the United States’ leadership position in formulating a worldwide plan to combat wildlife extinction.

+Learn more about the extinction issue in general. In contrast to previous mass extinctions, which were driven by catastrophes such as asteroid impacts, volcanic eruptions, and natural climate shifts, the current disaster is almost completely the result of us—humans. In reality, human actions are putting 99 percent of currently vulnerable species at risk, particularly those that are causing habitat loss, the introduction of alien species, and global warming, to name a few. Because the rate of change in our biosphere is increasing, and because the extinction of one species has the potential to result in the extinction of others that are linked to that species in a complex ecological web, the number of extinctions is expected to rise dramatically in the coming decades as ecosystems unravel and become more unstable.

While conservationists rightly concentrate their efforts on species-rich ecosystems such as rainforests and coral reefs—which stand to lose a great deal—a comprehensive strategy for conserving biodiversity must also include habitat types with fewer species, such as grasslands, tundra, and polar seas—for which any loss could be irreversibly devastating.

We know of approximately 1,000 species that have gone extinct in the last 500 years, ranging from the woodland bison of West Virginia and the Merriam’s elk of Arizona to the Rocky Mountain grasshopper, the passenger pigeon, and the Culebra parrot of Puerto Rico — but this does not take into account the thousands of species that went extinct before scientists had a chance to describe them.

David Wilcove, a well-known conservation scientist, believes that there are 14,000 to 35,000 endangered species in the United States, accounting for 7 to 18 percent of the country’s flora and fauna.

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s latest four-year endangered species assessment, the world will not fulfill a target of reversing the extinction trend toward species depletion by 2010.

What is undeniable is that many thousands of species are at risk of extinction in the next decades, with many more expected to follow. Become a part of our effort to save the world’s wildlife from extinction.

Every TaxonIs in Trouble

AMPHIBIANSNo other group of animals is threatened with extinction at a higher pace than amphibians. The extinction of an estimated one-third or more of the approximately 6,300 recognized species of amphibians is being predicted by scientists. Habitat loss, water and air pollution, climate change, UV light exposure, imported alien species, and illness are all contributing to the extinction of frogs, toads, and salamanders across the world. Amphibians are becoming extinct because of their sensitivity to environmental changes.

  1. BIRDSBirds can be found in almost every environment on the planet and are frequently the most visible and recognizable animals to people all around the world.
  2. As a result, they serve as an essential early warning system for monitoring changes in the biosphere.
  3. According to a 2009 analysis on the condition of birds in the United States, 251 (31 percent) of the 800 bird species identified in the country are considered to be of conservation concern.
  4. 192 bird species, or 2 percent, are deemed to be at “very high risk” of extinction in the wild – two more species than were declared threatened in 2008.
  5. FISH As a result of increasing demand for water, river damming around the world, the dumping and accumulation of various pollutants, and the introduction of invasive species, aquatic ecosystems are among the most threatened on the planet.
  6. The American Fisheries Society recognized 700 species of freshwater or anadromous fish in North America as being threatened, accounting for 39 percent of all such fish on the continent, according to the organization.
  7. In 2010, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declared 1,851 fish species (21 percent of all fish species studied) to be threatened with extinction across the world, including more than a third of sharks and rays.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has reviewed around 9,526 species out of the 1.3 million known invertebrate species, with approximately 30% of the species studied being threatened with extinction.

Reef-building corals are disappearing at an alarming rate in the ocean, according to the first-ever comprehensive worldwide assessment of these species, which indicated that one-third of all reef-building corals are endangered with extinction.

MAMMALS Tropical forests are home to around 90 percent of primates, which includes monkeys, lemurs, lorids, galagos, tarsiers, and apes (as well as humans).

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, over half of the world’s primate species are threatened with extinction.

Additionally, marine mammals (including various species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises) are among the animals on the verge of extinction, second only to primates in terms of extinction rate.

They are also the source of the vast majority of pharmaceuticals now in use.

Plants, unlike animals, are unable to relocate quickly when their natural environment is destroyed, leaving them extremely vulnerable to extinction.

The effects of global warming are expected to increase this situation significantly.

Because plants are the foundation of ecosystems and the foundation of the food chain, this is extremely terrible news for all creatures that rely on plants for food, shelter, and survival, as well as for humans.

In the United States, 32 reptile species are considered endangered or vulnerable to extinction, accounting for around 9 percent of the total.

The loss of island-style species is spreading to the continents, warn experts, since human activities split continental environments, producing “virtual islands” that isolate species from one another, limiting interbreeding and compromising the health of populations.

The most serious dangers to reptiles are habitat degradation and the invasion of nonnative animals, which feed on reptiles and compete with them for resources such as food and habitat.

Ocean Sentinels Club Archives

With catchphrases like the greenhouse effect, depletion of the life-saving (stratospheric) ozone layer, marine pollution, soil degradation, and the loss of species and biotope variety, the breadth of today’s environmental concerns is daunting. With our steadily narrowing spectrum of consumed products from agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, and the concentration on a few economically valuable species, we have seen a specialization of land and marine food harvesting systems as a result of the specialization of land and marine food harvesting systems.

  1. It goes without saying that all of human actions, particularly the extraction of natural resources, have a significant influence on the environment.
  2. Due to the fact that we all require nature: for food, for health and for scientific innovation, as well as for the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and epidemics.
  3. As a result, we must take into account not just the carrying capacity and flexibility of economic and social institutions, but also the cultural variety that allows individuals to adapt to changing situations more effectively.
  4. It is our preoccupation with individual parts and pieces that causes us to lose sight of the overall.
  5. On the principles of sustainable development and the preservation of biological variety, agreements on environmental protection, resource management, and conservation are based, according to international conventions, on which all parties can agree.
  6. It is based on the realization that the conditions for economic activities will continue to deteriorate in the future if the natural resources that underpin these activities are depleted at the current rate.
  7. At the same time, our species is depleting renewable resources at a rate that is greater than or equal to their ability to regenerate.
  8. To put it another way, this capital stock should be maintained at a consistent level in order to avoid future generations from suffering from a scarcity of natural resources or a decline in environmental quality.
  9. Biological diversity is intended to be comprehensive; it refers to the genetically based variation of living creatures at all levels of organization.
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At the very least, preserving bio-diversity provides us with three domains of benefit: the preservation of our ecosystems’ health, the potential discovery of new resources such as pharmaceuticals, crops, fibers, and other products with commercial value, and b iophilia, which is a term coined by E.O.

  1. It is our inability to realize our interconnectedness with the global environment that is at the heart of the biodiversity catastrophe that our planet is currently experiencing.
  2. Humans utilize roughly half of the land-based ecosystem output and 25 percent of all plant energy from the land and sea combined, out of the 5-30 million species that exist today.
  3. In this case, intrinsic worthiness is not shown, but rather established usefulness is represented.
  4. Despite the fact that no one knows the precise pace of extinction, it is estimated that around 26,000 species every year are extinct, which implies that three species per hour are extinct for all time.
  5. It is estimated that shrinking a habitat’s initial size by ten percent will eventually result in the extinction of half of the species that once inhabited the space.
  6. The rate of extinction caused by humans is estimated to be between a thousand and ten thousand times higher than it was before Man colonized our planet.

This is far more than the rate at which new species are being discovered. As a result, we are rapidly squandering the capital that took millions of years to accumulate in the first place. The following recommendations may be useful in improving the management of natural resources:

  • The pace of depletion of renewable resources should not be greater than the rate of replenishment
  • The use of nonrenewable resources should be restricted to levels at which they can either be replaced by physically or functionally similar renewable resources, or at which consumption can be offset by improving the productivity of either renewable or nonrenewable resources
  • And Waste management must take into consideration the maximal absorption capacity of a certain ecosystem with all of its activities, including ‘hidden’ and more sensitive regulatory functions
  • And Between the time frame of man-made environmental footprints and the time scale of the corresponding natural processes (response capacity of the environment), a balanced ratio should be maintained.

In principle, a detailed evaluation of the most effective ways to address these challenges can be accomplished in two ways: the first is inductive and is based on the analysis and evaluation of selected substances and potential fields of application; the second is deductive and is based on the analysis and evaluation of selected substances and potential fields of application. The second is deductive in nature, and it is intended to substantiate the concept of sustainable development in a broader context.

The development of a sustainable global society and economy is an immense challenge for humanity.

According to all indications, business and science are the only groups that have the money and technology to achieve this aim, as well as the worldwide reach and, ultimately, the incentive to do so.

We must strive to build a long-lasting and resilient society based on a system of commerce and production in which each and every act is inherently sustainable and restorative; in which economics, natural and human systems are integrated and profitable; and in which expandable businesses are established that do not destroy, either directly or indirectly, the environment in which they operate.

  1. Finally, all of this will help us gain a better knowledge of our influence on the environment.
  2. Right now, we’re making decisions that we’re not even sure we understand; wouldn’t it be better if we could make an educated decision?
  3. Individuals and society will be the ones who must accept the required and deep changes in life styles, priorities, and values, as well as the massive expenditures associated with these changes.
  4. According to Shakespeare’s famous phrase from one of his plays, “Delays have dangerous consequences.” We are all reliant on a healthy ocean, and a healthy ocean is reliant on us.
  5. With the launch of our new Ocean Sentinels Club, we have demonstrated that conservation can be both enjoyable and successful.

The Dolphin Conservation Club organizes and enables residents to campaign for the conservation of dolphins and the marine environment across Palm Beach County and the surrounding areas. Come along with us. It is now or never. It all starts with you.


Anthropology is the study of humans and their behavior. Only anthropology attempts to comprehend the entirety of human existence, encompassing historical and contemporary social and cultural processes as well as biological adaptations. Using four historically recognized sub-disciplines, it accomplishes this goal by concentrating on human diversity through time and space. These include archaeology, physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology, among others. As a result of its extensive scope, anthropology is also considered an integrative subject, bringing together scholarly work from the humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences to form a cohesive whole.

Economic systems, legal practices, kinship, religions, medical practices, folklore, arts, and political systems are all studied, as is the interrelationship of these systems in the context of environmental adaptation and social change.

Physical Anthropology is the study of and comparison of human biology around the world.

Linguistics is concerned with a wide range of features of human language as well as the characteristics of nonhuman communication systems, with the goal of gaining a better knowledge of past and contemporary human language systems and their importance in social life.

Communication Studies

Communication is essential in all aspects of human activity. In the communication major, students investigate the ways in which people utilize communication to develop their identities and views. Upon graduation, students will have gained a comprehension of key communication theory as well as exhibited expertise in communication skills. Undergraduates majoring in communication studies will examine a range of communication situations, ranging from personal relationships to public address to new and emerging technologies, in order to better understand how communication impacts our identities and our realities.

Communication abilities, both verbal and written, are at the top of the list of characteristics that companies seek for in job prospects.


The following are two of the most succinct definitions of the field of economics: Alternatively, economics may be defined as the study of production, consumption, and allocation decisions made under situations of scarcity. As Steven Landsburg, author of The Armchair Economist, puts it, economics can be summarized in four words: “People respond to incentives.” Everything else is just background noise. Economics is often divided into two sub-disciplines: microeconomics and macroeconomics. The study of macroeconomics is concerned with the performance of the economy as a whole.

Topics covered by economic students include economic growth, inflation, changes in employment and unemployment, our trading performance with other nations, and the relative success or failure of government economic initiatives as well as the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy.

The general focus of microeconomics is the optimal distribution of limited resources among a variety of different applications.


Earth as a human home is explored in depth through the study of geography. It is a manner of looking at the earth, rather than a list of what is contained within it. This frame of view is based on a set of fundamental principles that are intertwined. In order to better comprehend the environment, geographers use a variety of methods, including cultural appraisal of the earth, the regional concept, areal coherence, human ecology, spatial interaction, landscape research, and the idea change. The study of geography prepares students for a variety of occupations, including location knowledge, route delivery management, forestry, park ranger, teacher, community developer, outdoor guide, and soil conservator, among other fields of employment.


In Middle English, historie, from Anglo-Frenchchestoire, histoire, from Latinhistorie, from Greekhistoria, fromhistr, ista, meaning “to know” or “to inquire into the past; similar to the Greekeidenaito know or “to inquire into the past” History is the study of events that occurred in the past. The study of individuals and groups, events and occurrences, long-term trends, short-term trends, institutions, communities, and cultures is by nature a very broad field that embraces a wide range of topics.

It goes without saying that studying history is beneficial since it allows us to better comprehend who we are and where we come from.

We may also get a better grasp of the human experience as it is lived by people and groups both inside and outside of our own communities by engaging in research and learning about other cultures.


According to standard definitions, “philosophy” is defined as the pursuit of wisdom. Nonetheless, “wisdom” is a difficult concept to define because it is unclear what defines wisdom or whose knowledge we are talking about in the first place. Every culture has its own form of wisdom, and no single culture can claim to have the last solution or to have all of the information. For a long time, philosophers were seen to be the ultimate experts in their fields. At one point in history, philosophy was even regarded to be the great synthesis of all knowledge in the Western world.

  1. Philosophical knowledge, on the other hand, is a constant, on-going reflective activity.
  2. In order to reflect, critically appraise, and evaluate all human experiences and interests, one must engage and excite one’s intellect in order to do so.
  3. What is considered to be an established reality at one point in time may be useful in understanding the world at another point in time, depending on its qualities at that specific historical juncture.
  4. This paradoxical aspect of philosophy, on the other hand, may free one from oppressive ideas and dogmas and enable one to continue challenging the underlying assumptions that underpin all of human knowledge and experience.
  5. Philosophy, on the other hand, broadens our perspectives, impacts how we conduct our lives, and encourages us to investigate and test diverse hypotheses about knowledge, values, and the nature of reality.
  6. It encourages and nourishes the desire for a lifelong intellectual curiosity, and it allows for the pursuit of and consideration of any other conceivable choices that may exist in the future as well.
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Political Science

Is American politics, foreign affairs, vital concerns such as health, the environment, and civil rights, ideas about the perfect government, and how power and resources are allocated in society anything that you are passionate about? Do you wish to learn more about these topics and then seek a job that reflects your interests? If this is the case, you should consider pursuing a degree in political science. A versatile set of skills can be gained by political science students, which can be applied in a wide range of exciting careers in the federal, state, and local governments; law; business; international organizations; nonprofit associations and organizations; campaign management and polling; journalism; precollegiate education; electoral politics; research; and university and college teaching and administration.


Psychology is a very new study, having only been around for roughly 125 years. It is concerned with behavior, both human and nonhuman—animal. It is a vast field that encompasses a wide range of subject matter, ranging from biology to sociology. Psychology is the study of the confluence of two fundamental relationships: the link between brain function and behavior, and the interaction between the environment and conduct (environmental psychology). Applied psychology, being a scientific discipline, employs scientific procedures such as meticulous observation, experimentation, and analysis.

A psychologist’s primary interest is in the functioning of the brain and nervous system, how perception develops from sensation, how we learn and know, and what it is that drives us to do what we do.

Psychologists are interested in learning about what might go wrong throughout development, how it can be corrected, and how to manage conflicts in the workplace, personal relationships, interpersonal relationships, and family relationships.

It is a science that is both theoretical and applied.


Sociology is the scientific investigation of people and their social institutions. It is one of the most comprehensive and diversified social science subjects in academia, and it examines and analyzes practically every aspect of human behavior and interaction. Social scientists look into issues such as marriage and romantic relationships, interpersonal communication skills, social psychology, poverty and inequality, race and ethnicity, religious beliefs and practices as well as cultural practices and aging.

Sociologists use a variety of theories and research methods to help them make sense of the social world.

In the end, sociology is a subject that seeks to take us beyond our everyday understandings of reality in order to explain how people and their institutions influence, as well as be shaped by, social processes and mechanisms.

Cultural Universals

Former President George W. Bush greets Cinco de Mayo dancers in Washington, D.C. “The festival, which has been celebrated in California consistently since 1863, is almost completely disregarded in Mexico,” according to the article. It is possible to define cultural universals (which have been mentioned by anthropologists such as George Murdock, Claude Levi-Strauss, Donald Brown, and others) as anything that is common to all human cultures on the planet but differs from one culture to the next, such as values and modes of behavior.

  1. The presence of cultural universals is denied or downplayed by many anthropologists and socialists who hold to an extreme stance of cultural relativism, claiming that these characteristics were simply transmitted biologically through the well-known debate of “nature vs.
  2. It has been suggested that the presence of these universals dates back to the Upper Paleolithic, when the first evidence of behavioral modernity was discovered.
  3. Brown lists the following cultural universals as examples: Language and cognition – All societies make use of some kind of communication, and symbolism is also a universal concept in terms of language.
  4. Different cultures all have a lot of elements in common, for example, a belief system, a celebration of life and death, and other ceremonial activities.
  5. Technology – Different forms of technology have resulted in widespread disparities in clothes, housing, tools, and strategies for obtaining food.
  6. The use of fire for cooking is a universally recognized human cultural practice.
  7. Dances from Mexico’s traditional repertoire differ significantly from those from the United States.
  8. Because these types of dance are not often seen on stage, in the media, or taught in dance schools, they have garnered little attention, and their practice has declined dramatically in recent years compared to their previous levels of popular demand.

It is commonly recognized that these dances exist, and they are continually being taught in schools and performed at celebrations such as Cinco de Mayo.


  1. “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
  2. “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture”
  3. “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
  4. “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture” Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
  5. Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
  6. Jump Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007 (see “American commemoration of Cinco de Mayo began in California,” accessed October 30, 2007)
  7. Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007. (pdf) Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons”
  8. Jump up “Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City is a collection of essays about urban life. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL
  9. Jump up Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
  10. Jump up frame=top
  11. Jump up Barton Wright, Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
  12. Jump up Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda are co-authors of Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.’s Jump up to: Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
  13. Jump up Philosophy Home, 2009
  14. Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
  15. Jump up Zmago mit In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán (eds. ), The New York Times. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology, 1995
  16. Jump up American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race,” May 17, 1998
  1. The Sociological Imagination, by C. Wright Mills, was published by Oxford University Press in 1961 and has the ISBN 0195133730. Other resources include: Louisa Lim, Painful Memories for China’s Footbinding Survivors
  2. James A. Crites Chinese Foot Binding
  3. Justin Marozzi, The Son of the Father of History, 2007
  4. James A Introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900
  5. Introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900
  6. Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda collaborated on this project. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition Oxford University Press, New York, 7th ed.
  7. s^ ‘RACE – The Influence of a Deception.’ “What Exactly Is Race |.” PBS, aired on March 8, 2009
  8. Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
  9. Miller, Barabra. Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
  10. Judith Lorber’s “Night to His Day”: The Social Construction of Gender is available online. Text and Reader for the Transition from Inquiry to Academic Writing 617-30
  11. Bourgois, Philippe, “Workaday World, Crack Economy.” Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. 617-30
  12. In The Nation (1995), pages 706-11,


A civil rights march takes place in Washington, D.C. In practically every facet of American society, the admission of the United States into World War II brought about significant changes in the country. The military provided opportunities for millions of men and women to explore regions of the world they would not have otherwise had the opportunity to see. The labor requirements of war industries prompted millions of more Americans to relocate, mostly to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coastlines, where the majority of military installations were situated.

Even the 300,000 combat casualties experienced by the United States paled in contrast to the losses incurred by any other major belligerent nation.

Various public policies, such as the so-called GI Bill of Rights, which was enacted in 1944, gave financial assistance to veterans for such things as college tuition, house ownership, and farm ownership.

The expansion of life chances and the expansion of economic wealth did not benefit all Americans in the same way.

The result was that during the postwar period, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and American women became more assertive in their efforts to obtain the full range of freedoms and civil rights guaranteed by both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution of the United States.

  1. Most Americans were buoyed by their victory over Germany and Japan in 1945 and originally saw their status in the postwar world with optimism and confidence.
  2. When the Cold War began in 1948, it was between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies that a new type of international conflict had arisen.
  3. There was a strong political agreement regarding the Cold War and anti-Communism in the twenty years after 1945, and this consensus lasted till now.
  4. The United States’ military intervention in Vietnam in the mid-1960s, however, marked the beginning of the end of this political consensus in the country.

By 1968, acrimonious discussion about the Vietnam War erupted in the United States, signaling that the Cold War consensus had been shaken, maybe beyond repair.


Frequently Asked Questions

What is ethics?

The study of ethics, often known as moral philosophy, is concerned with what is morally good and evil, as well as what is morally right and wrong. The phrase can also be given to any system or theory of moral values or principles, as well as to any set of moral values or principles. What kind of lives should we lead? Should we strive for happiness, knowledge, morality, or the production of beautiful objects? What should we strive for? If we choose happiness, would it be our own personal happiness or will it be the happiness of all?

  • Is it possible to rationalize living in wealth when others in other parts of the globe are starving?
  • Are cloning human beings and the destruction of embryonic humans in medical research considered wrong?
  • Such issues are addressed at all levels of the ethical hierarchy.
  • The concepts ethics and morality are strongly associated with one another.
  • These applications represent a development of the concept of ethics in its broadest sense.
  • According to this definition, ethics is the same thing as moral philosophy.
  • Although separate from these other disciplines, ethics differs from them in that it is not a topic of factual knowledge in the same way that the sciences and other domains of research are.
  • As a result, the focus of this essay will be on ethics as a branch of philosophy, particularly as it has grown in the Western world.

Religious notions of ethics and ethical systems linked with global religions are covered in the sections Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism, as well as Confucianism and Confucianism and Sikhism.

The origins of ethics

When and how did the concept of ethics come into being? Consider ethics in its purest form, which is the systematic study of what constitutes ethically correct and bad behavior. It is apparent that ethics could only have come into existence when human people began to deliberate on the best way to conduct themselves in life. Human civilizations had not yet reached this degree of reflection when they had not yet established any type of morality, which was generally manifested in the form of conventional norms of good and wrong action.

  1. As a result, ethics may be traced back to the advent of the earliest moral rules.
  2. It is known as the Code of Hammurabi, and it is housed at the Louvre in Paris on a black Babylonian column with a relief depicting the sungodShamash handing over the code of rules toHammurabi (died about 1750bce), also known as the Code of Hammurabi.
  3. An avowedly fictitious story of howZeus took pity on the wretched humans, who were physically no match for the other monsters, may be found in Plato’s dialogueProtagoras (428/427–348/347bce).
  4. It should come as no surprise that morality should be imbued with all of the mystery and power of divine origin.
  5. Morality was given a heavenly origin, and the priesthood assumed the role of translator and protector, securing for itself an authority that it would not quickly surrender in the face of opposition.
  6. According to this viewpoint, ethics is not a distinct discipline of study, but rather a part of theology that should be studied together (seemoral theology).
  7. In his dialogueEuthyphro, Plato examined the claim that it is heavenly approbation that causes an action to be regarded good or bad.
  8. So why do they seem to approve of them?
  9. According to Plato, this is impossible, and as a result, there must be some criteria of right and evil that are independent of the preferences and disapproval of the gods must exist.

Modern philosophers generally accept Plato’s argument because the alternative implies that

Human Rights

MONUSCO’s Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) supports programs for people with disabilities that are handled by a local group. The woman on the left is busy making soap. The gentleman on the right is a shoemaker. Sylvain Liechti/United Nations Photographs

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What Are Human Rights?

Human rights are rights that all human beings are born with, regardless of their race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status that they may possess. A few examples of human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, the freedom of expression and opinion, and the right to labor and education, among many other things. Everyone has the right to these protections, and no one is exempt from them.

International Human Rights Law

Specifically, international human rights law establishes the responsibility of governments to act in certain ways or refrain from performing specific acts in order to promote and safeguard human rights and basic freedoms of individuals or groups. One of the most significant accomplishments of the United Governments has been the establishment of a complete corpus of human rights law—a global and internationally protected code to which all nations may subscribe and to which all people can aspire.

It has also developed institutions to promote and safeguard these rights, as well as to help nations in carrying out their duties under international law.

Since then, the United Nations has gradually broadened the scope of human rights law to include specific standards for women, children, people with disabilities, minorities, and other vulnerable groups.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

It is important to note that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a landmark text in the history of human rights. The Declaration of Human Rights, which was drafted by representatives from all regions of the world with a variety of legal and cultural backgrounds, was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 by General Assemblyresolution 217 A (III) as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations, as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations.

It establishes for the first time the fundamental human rights that must be universally safeguarded.

It has also served as an inspiration for the constitutions of many newly independent states and many new democracies.

Economic, social and cultural rights

The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights) came into effect in 1976. The following are some of the human rights that the Covenant aspires to promote and protect:

  • The right to work in fair and favourable conditions
  • The right to social protection, to an adequate standard of living, and to the highest attainable levels of physical and mental well-being
  • The right to education and the enjoyment of the benefits of cultural freedom and scientific progress
  • And the right to a fair trial.

Civil and political rights

On December 31, 1976, the first Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights became effective. The Second Optional Protocol, which was approved in 1989, was a step forward. The Covenant addresses rights such as freedom of movement, equality before the law, the right to a fair trial, and the presumption of innocence, as well as freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; freedom of expression; peaceful assembly; freedom of association; participation in public affairs and elections; and the protection of minorities’ rights, among others.

Human Rights Conventions

Since 1945, a slew of international human rights treaties and other instruments have been ratified, adding to the growing body of international human rights legislation. These treaties include, among others, the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (1948), the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965), the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006).

Human Rights Council

The Human Rights Council, which was founded on 15 March 2006 by the General Assembly and which reports directly to it, took over as the primary UN intergovernmental body responsible for human rights from the 60-year-old United Nations Commission on Human Rights. The Council, which is comprised of 47 state representatives, is tasked with strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the world by addressing situations of human rights violations and making recommendations on them, as well as responding to human rights emergencies.

The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is the most creative aspect of the United Nations Human Rights Council.

The Review, which takes place under the auspices of the Council and is a cooperative, state-driven process, provides an opportunity for each state to present measures taken and challenges to be overcome in order to improve the human rights situation in their country and to comply with international obligations.

The Review is intended to guarantee that all countries get universal and equal treatment under the law.

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights is in charge of all UN human rights initiatives and has primary accountability for them. The High Commissioner for Human Rights is tasked with responding to major abuses of human rights as well as taking preventative measures. The United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) serves as the focal point for all human rights initiatives carried out by the organization. It acts as the secretariat for the Human Rights Council, the treaty bodies (expert committees that oversee treaty compliance), and other United Nations human rights organisations and commissions, among other functions.

In most key human rights treaties, an oversight body is established, and this body is responsible for monitoring how the treaty is being implemented by the nations that have ratified the treaty in question.

Human Rights and the UN System

A central feature in all United Nations policies and programs, particularly in the important areas of peace and security, development, humanitarian aid, and economic and social concerns, is respect for human rights. As a result, practically every United Nations organization and specialized agency is active in some way in the preservation of human rights across the world. Some examples include the right to development, which is at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals; the right to food, which is championed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization; labor rights, which are defined and protected by the International Labour Organization; gender equality, which is promulgated by the United Nations Women; and the rights of children, indigenous peoples, and disabled persons, among other things.

Human Rights Day is marked on the 10th of December every year.


  • The status of ratification of 18 international human rights treaties
  • Human rights indicators
  • The Universal Human Rights Index
  • And Human Rights Day are all examples of topics covered in this section.

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