Which Of The Following Is True Regarding The Value Of High Versus Low Culture

SOC 101 Ch. 3 – Culture & Media Flashcards

SOC 101 is a course in social psychology. Introduction to Sociology I: Ss3 at the Community College of Aurora is an introductory sociology course. Which of the following characteristics best describes culture? Aspects of behavior and genetics C) the surrounding natural environment D) the weather conditions What caused industrialisation to have such a profound impact on European culture throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Expensive, handcrafted commodities were now mass-produced, and new social classes were created as a result of this shift in production.

The following is an example of material culture: Affectionate abbreviations and emoticons such as LOL,;-), and LMAO indicate that technology may produce thoughts and notions of its own accord.

A recent study by found that the language we say directly shapes and reflects the way we think about and see the world.

Which of the following statements is correct in regards to the relative importance of high vs low culture?

  1. B) Low culture is far more valuable than high culture in terms of economic value.
  2. Popular culture is chosen over both high and low culture, as evidenced by the following: C) It’s tough to argue about the relative merits of high and low cultures.
  3. Subcultures:A) can be distinguished from the mainstream culture by their distinctive characteristics.
  4. C) are difficult to categorize and describe definitely.
  5. C) are difficult to categorize and describe definitely.
  6. If you are a part of a subculture, such as the goth subculture, you can be confident that the meaning of specific phrases and the conduct of the members will alter depending on where you are located within the group.

Rappers that make these statements are evoking the following: During his tenure as a Marxist intellectual, Karl Marx claimed that culture “reflects the means of production of a given moment.” A person who evaluates another group according to his or her own standards is known as:If a person assesses another group according to his or her own standards, that individual is known as: When you travel to Alaska, you discover that Inuit families sleep together nude in order to keep warm.

  1. You find this behavior repugnant and are perplexed as to why it is not considered incestuous by the authorities.
  2. Gradci would remark that the cops are practicing what they preach when they start blasting them with tear gas.
  3. Nonprofit organizations can employ advertisements to educate the public through the use of deliberate, long-term media campaigns such as Smokey the Bear, which began in 1944 and is still in use today.
  4. You watch a commercial on television for a new McDonald’s burger that looks delicious.

Short-term purposeful media impact would be the word used to describe this. Since the abolition of the Production/Hays Code in 1967, racism and sexism have:generally stayed the same in the entertainment industry.

Context of Cultures: High and Low

1.4.6 – Context of Cultures: High and LowContext ofCultures: High and LowHere is another concept that will help you pull togethera lot of the material you have read so far about culture. It is called “highcontext” and “low context” and was created by the sameanthropologist who developed the concepts of polychronic and monochronic time.They complement each other and provide a broad framework for looking at culture.The list below shows the kind of behavior thatisgenerally found inhigh and lowcontext cultures within five categories: how people relate to each other, howthey communicate with each other, how they treat space, how they treat time,and how they learn. One thing to remember is that few cultures, and the peoplein them, are totally at one end of the spectrum or the other.Theyusually fall somewhere in between and may have a combination of high and lowcontext characteristics.
  • Relationships are based on trust, which develops gradually and is stable. One makes a distinction between persons who are within and those who are outside one’s circle. The ability to work with others and pay attention to the group process are essential for getting things done. One’s identity is anchored in groups (family, culture, and place of employment)
  • The social structure and authority are centralized, and accountability is at the top of the hierarchy of power. The person in charge is concerned with the well-being of the group.
  • Relationships begin and end in a blink of an eye. A large number of persons can be found within one’s circle
  • The circle’s perimeter is not clearly defined. By following processes and keeping an eye on the end objective, things get accomplished. One’s sense of self and accomplishments serve as the foundation of one’s identity. The social structure is decentralized
  • Responsibility is distributed more widely (rather than being concentrated at the top)
  • The use of nonverbal aspects is extensive
  • The tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures, and eye movement all contribute to the overall meaning of the discourse. When communicating verbally, the message is implicit
  • The context (situation, people, nonverbal aspects) is more significant than the words themselves. It is indirect to communicate verbally
  • One speaks around the topic and embellishes it. Communication is regarded as an art form apart from the act of engaging someone. Disagreement is unique to the individual. One is sensitive to conflict displayed inanother’s nonverbal communication. In order for work to develop, either conflict must be resolved or conflict must be avoided since it is personally threatening
  • There is a limited usage of nonverbal components. The verbal communication is more explicit than the nonverbal message
  • The verbal message is more direct. Language is more significant than context
  • A verbal communication is straightforward
  • One lays out exactly what they want to say. A method of exchanging information, ideas, and opinions, communication is considered to be a sort of exchange. Disagreement is depersonalized in this manner. One withdraws from a quarrel with another in order to focus on the work at hand. The emphasis is on logical answers rather than personal ones. It is possible to express one’s dissatisfaction with another’s troublesome conduct
  • People stand near to one another and share the same space since space is common.
  • Space is segregated and privately owned
  • Privacy is paramount, thus individuals are separated by a greater distance.
  • Everything moves at its own pace. Time is difficult to schedule
  • People’s wants may interfere with the ability to stick to a timetable. What is crucial is that something is done
  • Change is slow to happen. Things are firmly entrenched in the past, are difficult to change, and are steadfast. Time is a process
  • It belongs to others as much as to nature
  • It is cyclical.
  • Things are set to be completed at specific times and one at a time, according to a timetable. What matters is that task be completed efficiently, and that change occurs quickly. When one changes his or her behavior, one may witness instant benefits
  • Time is a commodity that can be spent or saved. One’s time is his or her own
  • Knowledge is integrated in the context
  • Things are interconnected, synthesized, and global in nature, There are a variety of sources of information used. Deductive reasoning is a process that moves from the general to the specific. Learning comes through observation of others as they model or demonstrate, followed by practice. When it comes to learning and problem solving, groups are favored
  • Accuracy is highly regarded. It is crucial to assess how well something has been learnt.
  • Realism has been divided and isolated for many years. When developing knowledge, one source of information is employed. Inductive reasoning is the process of moving from the specific to the general. Individual orientation is favored for learning and problem solving because it allows for greater attention to detail
  • Learning happens by following specific directions and explanations from others
  • And The importance of speed cannot be overstated. It is crucial to consider how quickly something may be taught.

anthropologist Edward T. Hall’s writings, all of which were published in New York by Doubleday in the 1950s and 1960s: The Silent Language(1959), The Hidden Dimension(1969), Beyond Culture(1976), and The Dance of Life(1979) (1983). The 1993 Annual: Developing Human Resources is the source of this information. PfeifferCompany. Let’s try out the following task to see where you fall on the low and high context continuum.

CULTURAL-CONTEXTINVENTORY ClaireB. Halverson
Instructions:Foreach of the following twenty items, check 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 to indicateyour tendencies and preferences in a work situation.
Hardly Ever Sometimes Almost Always
1 2 3 4 5
1. Whencommunicating, I tend to use a lot of facialexpressions, hand gestures, and body movementsratherthan relying mostly on words.
2. Ipay more attention to the context of a conversation�who said what andunder what circumstances�thanIdo to the words.
3. Whencommunicating, I tend to spell things outquickly and directly rather than talking around and addingto the point.
4. Inan interpersonal disagreement, I tend to be more emotional than logicaland rational.
5. Itend to have a small, close circle of friends rather thana large, but less close, circle of friends.
6. Whenworking with others, I prefer to get the job donefirst and socialize afterward rather than socialize first andthen tackle the job.
7. I would ratherwork in a group than by myself.
8. Ibelieve rewards should be given for individual accomplishment ratherthan for group accomplishments.
9. Idescribe myself in terms of my accomplishmentsratherthan in terms of my family and relationships.
10. Iprefer sharing space with others to having my own private space.
11. Iwould rather work for someone who maintains authorityandfunctions for the good of the group than work for someone who allowsa lot of autonomy and individual decisionmaking.
12. Ibelieve it is more important to be on time than to letotherconcerns take priority.
13. Iprefer working on one thing at a time to working on avariety of things at once.
14. Igenerally set a time schedule and keep to it rather than leave thingsunscheduled and go with the flow.
15. Ifind it easier to work with someone who is fast andwantsto see immediate results than to work with someone who is slow and wantsto consider all the facts.
16. Inorder to learn about something, I tend to consult many sources of informationrather than to go to the one bestauthority.
17. Infiguring out problems, I prefer focusing on the whole situation to focusingon specific parts or taking one step at a time.
18. Whentackling a new task, I would rather figure it out on my own by experimentationthan follow someone else’s example or demonstration.
19. Whenmaking decisions, I consider my likes and dislikes, not just the facts.
20. Iprefer having tasks and procedures explicitly defined tohaving a general idea of what has to be done.
Your High context score is: Your Low context score is: The difference between your scores is:Beforeyou see the interpretation of your scores, read this. Compare your High and Low Context Culture scores. They can provide a pretty clear indication of how you prefer to interact in work and other social settings. All this means is that you are likely to feel more comfortable using one or the other contexts. Neitherone is better or worse than the other. Preferring one style does notmean that you can�t interact effectively in many contexts, but justthat you might have to make some adjustments if, for example, yourstyle is predominantly high context and you find yourself functioningin a largely low context culture, or vice-versa. It also indicatesthat overseas adaptation might be easier if you were intending tolive in a culture that generally reflected those cultural values.Asuseful as it is to know what your “natural” style is, it is even moreimportant to understand how your preferred style might differ fromothers, and what that means when interacting with those who do notshare that preference. If you want to know more about theinterpretation of your scores.clickhere.



To illustrate how cultures fallalong the context continuum, here is a chart that includes some culturesthat have been studied.Nowthat you have learned how to think aboutcultures in general, we will look at a culture that you are very closeto, US-American. Section 1.5 looks at those characteristics of US culturethat will go with you but will not require a suitcase to carry.

Multiple Choice Quiz

  1. A. modify your communication style so that it is more closely aligned with individuals of different cultures. By obtaining understanding about different cultures, we may eliminate ambiguity and work together to discover common ground. d. all of the foregoing
  1. In intercultural exchanges, A. we are open to fresh information that focuses on the communication processb. we aim to avoid stereotypingc. we pick up signs that warn us to possible misunderstandingsd. all of the foregoing
  • There is no distinction between individualist and collectivist societies in terms of which of the following is not true:
  1. A. Self-promotion is favored in collectivist societies, as opposed to individualistic ones b. An individualist culture is characterized by a communication style that is devoid of context. In an individualist educated society, public speaking abilities are seen as advantageous. Collective cultures place a great importance on harmonious relationships.
  1. A. Individualist cultures place a larger importance on personal aims and wants than collectivist cultures, whereas collectivist cultures place a higher value on community objectives and needs. B. The terms “responsibility,” “loyalty,” and “commitment” indicate collectivist cultural norms. In contrast to collectivist societies, individualist cultures are preferable than collectivist cultures. Both of these statements are correct.
  1. It is defined as follows: A. an acquired set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are held by a discernible, substantial group of people who have shared history. b. the most firmly held and widely held perspective of what is judged good, proper, or useful thought or conduct by the majority of the population. c. what a person believes to be true or likely to occur. d. a group of individuals who live in a dominant culture but who retain ties to another cultural background
  2. Or
  1. Anglo-Americanabroadly-Scandinavian (Norway, Sweden, Finland) c. West Africand. a and b are both correct
  • Australia has a strong sense of individualism in its culture. As a result, you might conclude that they are as well
  1. A. a culture with a low power distance b. a culture of high-contextual communication c. a high level of power-distance cultured. none of the options listed above
  1. A. The North American continent. b. Scandanavian (from Scandinavia) (Norway, Sweden, Finland). the East African continent (both b and c)
  • Choose the assertions about civilizations that are correct from the list below:
  1. A. The majority of the world’s population is concentrated in ethnocentric culturesb. Ethnocentric civilizations are only seen in North American and Western European cultures. To some extent, every civilization is ethnocentric in some way. There is widespread agreement that direct, unambiguous communication is preferred to indirect, implicit communication across cultures.
  • While interviewing for a job, your cultural norms urge you to “sell yourself” and make a point of highlighting your own achievements. You are most likely a member of
  1. A strongly collectivist culture is characterized by the following characteristics: b. a culture that is strongly individualistic Cultured at short ranges of power
  2. B and c are both true.

High and Low Culture

Popular culture studies is an academic subject that explores popular culture from a criticaltheoryperspective, as opposed to other perspectives. In general, communication studies and cultural studies are regarded to be a fusion field. In the broadest sense, popular culture encompasses all of the ideas, perspectives, attitudes, memes, images, and other phenomena that are prevalent in the mainstream of a given culture, particularly Western culture from the early to mid twentieth century and the emerging global mainstream from the late twentieth and early twenty-first century.

First and first, in order to comprehend popular culture, we must distinguish between what has usually been referred to as “high” culture and “low” culture.

When compared with lower cultures, such as those of barbarians, Philistines, or the masses of unschooled people, high culture is characterized by sophistication and sophistication is characterized by aristocracy and intelligentsia Low culture is supposed to include things like gossip magazines, reality television, popular music, yellow journalism, escapist fiction, and camp, among other things.

High culture

Elegant frescoes of the Sistine Chapel depict an example of the “high culture” of the aristocratic elite of the time. For writers such as Ernest Renan and Ernest Gellner, high culture became an essential idea in political theory on nationalism since they considered it as a fundamental component of a healthy national identity. A high culture, according to Gellner, encompassed more than just the arts; he used it to distinguish between various civilizations (rather than between different cultures within a society), comparing high cultures with simpler, agricultural low cultures.

However, it also refers to different social codes that are supposedly observed by the dominant class, but that are not accessible to the lower classes.

Ernest Gellner

Ernest André Gellner (born 9 December 1925 in London, England, died 5 November 1995 in Prague, Czech Republic) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist. In recent years, there has been much discussion on what constitutes popular culture, as well as where it fits within high and low culture. It has traditionally been associated with low culture, referring to the level of education and overall “culturedness” (or lack thereof) of the lower classes as opposed to the “official culture” and higher education emanating from the dominant classes.

In the case of popular culture, a postmodernist viewpoint would claim that there is no longer a clear divide between high culture and popular culture.

Commercial book clubs, such as the Book-of-the-Month-Club, which began emerging in the 1920s, were among the first literary institutions to be held accountable for this mash-up.

In essence, they created an environment where the lofty and the poor could coexist peacefully and comfortably.

Low culture

It would have been called “low” or popular culture when the detective series starring the character Sherlock Holmes first aired in the United Kingdom in the early twentieth century. Popular culture has become more serious as a terrain of academic inquiry as a result of the work of theFrankfurt School, and it has also contributed to a shift in the perspectives of more established disciplines. The dissolution of conceptual barriers between so-called high and low culture has coincided with an expansion in scholarly interest in popular culture, which spans a wide range of media such as comic books, television, and the Internet, among other things.

It is becoming increasingly apparent that the boundaries between high and low culture are more political in nature, rather than justifiable aesthetic or intellectual ones.

High-Context Culture: Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript

Yolanda Williams is the instructor. Include a biography Professor of Psychology and Ethics at the collegiate level, Yolanda also holds a doctorate of philosophy in counselor education and supervision. A new notion, high-context cultures, was presented by Edward T. Hall in the 1960s. He characterized them as cultures whose norms of communication are substantially influenced by contextual aspects. Understand its description, features, subgroups and instances in further detail here. The most recent update was made on October 8, 2021.

Defining High-Context Culture

In his 1976 book Beyond Culture, anthropologist Edward T. Hall introduced the concept of high-context culture for the first time. In high-context societies, communication norms are predominantly communicated via the use of contextual cues (such as body language, a person’s social standing, and tone of voice), rather than being clearly stated in a formalized manner. This is in stark contrast to low-context societies, in which information is delivered largely through language and regulations are openly stated in order to avoid misunderstandings.

Family reunions (which are frequent in American society) are an example of a high-context culture, even though the United States is a low-context culture.

As a consequence of their years of interaction with one another, the members are aware of the rules, understand how to think, and understand how to behave, and hence the rules do not need to be clearly stated.

When attempting to load this video, an error occurred. If it doesn’t work, try reloading the page or contacting customer service. Following that, we’ll talk about Perception of Figures and the Environment: Definition ExamplesReplay You will be able to see your next lesson in 10 seconds.

Characteristics of High-Context Cultures

Some features that are common to high-context cultures are as follows:

  • Face expressions, eye movement, and tone of voice are the most effective non-verbal techniques of communicating important information in talks. Although the exact words that are spoken are significant, the context, people, and non-verbal components are much more crucial. People feel at ease when they are close to one another
  • Nonetheless, Group problem-solving and learning is the recommended method of issue solving and learning. People who belong to this culture place a high value on interpersonal ties. Before any commercial transactions can take place, trust must be established.

Cultures with a high level of context include:

  • Japan and other Asian nations
  • Brazil and other South American countries
  • African tribal groupings and the majority of African countries
  • And the United States and other Western countries. Most of the Middle East, including Iraq and Iran, is under attack.

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The importance of cultural awareness in adapting to the “new normal”

What role do cultural skills and soft skills play in assisting people and organizations in adjusting to the “new normal?” In a fully virtual setting, why is it critical to comprehend another culture’s values, beliefs, and business practices while communicating with them? Louis Lima, Learnlight’s Head of Skills Performance and Recruitment, provides his opinion on the subject. A person’s capacity to understand cultural elements that impact people’s attitudes and behaviors, and to utilize this information to adjust our approach while engaging with others is referred to as being “culture-savvy.” Our exposure to virtual settings increases our likelihood of interacting with a diverse workforce as our exposure to virtual environments increases.

  • Forbes just revised their list of “The Skills You Need to Succeed in 2020,” which now includes cultural understanding and sensitivity as well as other competencies.
  • It takes time and experience for them to get better.
  • Then I questioned her about why she had suggested this approach when the “best” way would have been to gather all of our suggestions and have one of us make the final decision.
  • I then realized how ethnocentric I had been and apologized profusely to everyone in the room.
  • One way is by style-switching, which is the ability to adjust our approach in order to be more in line with the preferred style of individuals with whom we are interacting.

In this situation, you may wish to avoid interrupting your colleague and instead be patient and wait until he or she has completed speaking.

Further reading

Another important intercultural talent is the capacity to identify synergistic solutions. This refers to the ability to develop a personalized strategy that not only meets the needs of both parties but also results in a more complete solution. For example, if you are accustomed to working in a very task-oriented atmosphere where deadlines and timetables are closely adhered to, but suddenly find yourself working in a largely relationship-based one, you may find it difficult to fulfill deadlines at times.

It is vital in this situation to maintain flexibility in order to ensure that all parties meet their objectives while also optimizing performance.

The importance of keeping our cultural aware abilities fresh and in practice cannot be overstated.

Stepping out of our cultural bubble

Cultural awareness is extremely important, especially when we are required to connect with individuals from diverse cultures through the use of virtual work practices. According to Louis Lima, humans have a tendency to live in a bubble: “That is a metaphor for our reality of the world – and in this bubble, we believe our thoughts, assumptions, and perceptions are unique to ourselves.” When we become more culturally conscious, it’s like going outside of our comfort zone and discovering that to some extent, our background impacts the way we think and act.” In order to recognize that other people’s beliefs and behaviors are equally valid as our own, we must first acknowledge that their own cultural background has had an impact on them in the same way as ours.

Sometimes cultural differences are straightforward to deal with, such as variations in cuisine or language.

In high-context cultures where reading between the lines is a normal part of their communication approach, “if you are someone who strongly associates directness with sincerity, it may be difficult for you to operate in high-context cultures where reading between the lines is a normal part of their communication approach,” says Louis Lima.

It is therefore critical that we consider and acknowledge the ways in which culture has impacted us in order to overcome these obstacles and become fully open to alternative ways of experiencing the world.

Cultural awareness in an age of digital transformation

According to the definition, digital transformation is the process of leveraging digital technology to develop new – or adapt current – business processes and cultures, as well as customer experiences, in order to satisfy changing business and market requirements. The ability to be open-minded and receptive of change will assist both managers and workers in better adapting to new procedures and cultures as businesses and their people navigate through this transition. The 2020 epidemic has launched businesses into the virtual world, and many of them have had to adapt to new virtual technologies for meetings, workflow optimization, and business processes in a short period of time.

‘As virtual working becomes more prevalent, you will witness an increase in the number of multicultural virtual workers,’ says Louis Lima.

Managers who are accustomed to managing teams face-to-face must now learn to manage teams online and develop new soft skills in order to adapt to the changing business environment.

“Being a manager is a highly privileged job because it affords you the ability to have a significant impact on the lives of individuals under your supervision. It is critical that you invest the time and effort necessary to improve your soft skills and become the best manager you can be.”

Soft skills – a catalyst for reflection

“If you want to be open to various cultures, you will have to accept that things will change all the time, therefore you have to be okay with that,” Louis Lima adds. Developing soft skills is extremely important during times of transition, and in this environment, individuals and businesses are forced to reinvent themselves to some extent. It provides a chance for staff to take a step back and consider what is required. When it comes to social media networks such as LinkedIn, there is a clear trend toward people acquiring new credentials in order to increase their competence and emerge from the global financial crisis stronger.

“ Learnlight is noticing an increase in client requests for soft skills training connected to this transformation, such as Communicating in a Time of Crisis or Managing Change in an Uncertainty, according to Louis Lima, vice president of sales and marketing.

This is especially true nowadays, when judgments must be made on the basis of sound fundamental reasoning rather than emotion alone, as is the case with today’s society.

Soft Skills Development

Developing the fundamental competencies required to be successful in the modern workplace Soft skills training is becoming increasingly popular among organizations as a means of upskilling their staff, keeping them motivated, and increasing their productivity at work. Individually, there is an increasing number of people who are taking advantage of the ability to master soft skills through virtual training programs. When it comes to successfully navigating significant change, soft skills and cultural awareness are critical for firms to develop.

Social determinants of health: Key concepts

It is unavoidable that there exist differences in health across groups of individuals within a country as well as between other countries. These injustices are the result of inequalities that exist within and between countries. People’s risk of sickness, as well as the activities they take to avoid being ill or treat illness after it has occurred, are determined by their social and economic circumstances and their consequences on their life. Examples of health inequalities between countries include the following:

  • In Iceland, the infant mortality rate (the risk of a baby dying between birth and one year of age) is 2 per 1000 live births, whereas in Mozambique, the rate is over 120 per 1000 live births
  • In Sweden, the lifetime risk of maternal death during or shortly after pregnancy is only 1 in 17 400, whereas it is 1 in 8 in Afghanistan
  • And in Mozambique, the rate is over 120 per 1000 live births.

Examples of health disparities across nations include:

  • Bolivian babies born to mothers with no education have infant mortality rates greater than one hundred percent per thousand live births, whereas the infant mortality rate of babies born to mothers with at least secondary education is less than forty percent per thousand live births
  • Life expectancy at birth among indigenous Australians is significantly lower (59.4 years for males and 64.8 years for females) than that of non-indigenous Australians (76.6 and 82.0 years, respectively)
  • And life expectancy at birth for men in the Calton neighborhood is significantly

The poorest of the poor, all throughout the world, are in the worst shape possible for their age. Across countries, the research indicates that, on average, the lower an individual’s socioeconomic status, the poorer their health. There is a health-related social gradient that goes from the top of the socioeconomic spectrum to the bottom of the socioeconomic spectrum. This is a global phenomena that may be observed in nations with low, middle, and high incomes. Because of the social gradient in health, injustices in health affect everyone equally.

  1. Death rates among children under five years old are highest among the poorest families, and those in the second highest quintile of household wealth had greater rates of mortality in their offspring than people in the highest quintile of household wealth.
  2. Individuals’ social determinants of health include the environments in which they are born, grow up and live as well as the environments in which they work and age as well as the mechanisms in place to deal with disease.
  3. The global context has an impact on the prosperity of countries through its influence on international interactions as well as local norms and policies.
  4. As a result, forms of social position and hierarchy emerge, in which populations are organized according to factors such as income, educational level, occupation, gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors.

The position of persons in the social hierarchy has an impact on the settings in which they develop, learn, live, work, and age, as well as their susceptibility to illness and the repercussions of sickness.

  • The advantages of economic progress that has occurred during the previous 25 years have been unequally distributed throughout the population. 1980 saw the richest nations, which included 10% of the world’s population, generate gross national income that was 60 times more than that of the poorest countries, which contained 10% of the world’s population in 1980. By 2005, the ratio had risen to 122
  • International aid disbursements, which are badly inadequate in themselves and much below the amounts pledged, are overshadowed by the size of debt payback commitments owed by several impoverished nations, which total more than $1 trillion. As a result, in many situations, there is a net financial drain from poorer to richer nations, which is a concerning condition of things. In addition, during the last 15 years, the lowest quintile of the population in many countries has seen their proportion of national consumption decline significantly. For example, in Kenya, with current economic growth rates and with current levels of income disparity, the median family in poverty would not pass the poverty line until 2030, according to current economic growth rates and income inequality levels. The doubling of the share of income growth enjoyed by Kenya’s poor would result in a reduction in poverty by 2013. Gender biases in power, resources, entitlements, norms and values, as well as the way organizations are structured and programs are run, harm the health of millions of girls and women worldwide. It is also associated with child health and survival – both for boys and girls – because of the position of women in society. Health equity is dependent on the empowerment of individuals to challenge, change, and rectify the unfair and steeply graded distribution of social resources, to which everyone has equal claims and rights. Political, economic, social, and cultural inequity interact with one another across four basic dimensions, together forming a continuum along which groups are, to varied degrees, excluded or included.

“Primary health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable methods and technology that is universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination,” according to the Alma Ata Conference.

The World Health Organization’s World Health Report 2008 will go into further detail on this definition.

Despite the fact that health is not the primary goal of policy in these areas, they have a significant impact on health and health inequalities.

For example, trade policy that deliberately favors the production, commerce, and consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods at the expense of fruit and vegetable production is in direct conflict with health policy.

It is necessary to take steps to provide a sustainable, sufficient, and nutritious food supply; a habitat that facilitates the consumption of healthier foods; participation in physical exercise; and a familial, educational, and professional environment that encourages healthy living.

Positive developments have occurred, such as the prohibition of ads for high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt items during children’s television programs.

Maintaining a watchful eye on the stock market

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