Which Of The Following Is True Of A Co-culture

Chapter Outline

  1. Both culture and co-culture are defined as the language, beliefs, traditions, and practices that are shared and taught by a group of people. A person’s perspective and concept of culture are important considerations. In co-culture, the perception of belonging to a group that is a component of a larger culture is expressed.
  1. Groups with which we identify are referred to as in-groups. Out-groups are groups that we consider to be distinct from us. The component of one’s self-concept that is founded on one’s belonging to a group is referred to as social identity.
  1. It is the process that happens when individuals of two or more cultures or co-cultures communicate messages in a way that is impacted by their differing cultural perspectives and symbol systems, both verbal and nonverbal, in order to achieve mutual understanding. S alience is defined as the weight that is linked to a certain person or phenomenon. Figure 2.2 depicts a model that illustrates the relationship between interpersonal relationships and intercultural communication and demonstrates that some interpersonal transactions do not contain any cultural elements while others are almost entirely intercultural and do not include any personal dimensions. Cultural distinctions are diverse, since there are different ways in which communication differs from one culture to the next. It is possible that there are more distinctions within cultures than there are between civilizations.
  • Five subtle but important values and norms that affect the way individuals of a society communicate are captured by five subtle but important values and norms
  1. High-context versus low-context cultures— Low-context cultures rely significantly on subtle, often nonverbal indicators to preserve social harmony, whereas high-context cultures rely heavily on overt, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony. When it comes to assisting themselves, members of anindividualistic culture see their major responsibility as helping themselves, as opposed to members of an acollectivistic culture, who see their primary responsibility as helping their in-group
  2. The degree to which individuals of a community tolerate an unequal allocation of power is described by the term “power gap.” Uncertainty avoidance is a word that is used to describe the degree to which individuals of a culture feel threatened by uncertain circumstances and the extent to which they attempt to avoid them. Achievement cultures place a strong priority on monetary achievement and concentrating on the job at hand, whereas nurturing cultures place a high value on the support of relationships and focusing on the task at hand
  1. High-context versus low-context cultures— Low-context cultures rely mainly on subtle, often nonverbal indications to preserve social peace, whereas high-context cultures rely greatly on direct expression of thoughts, feelings, and ideas. When it comes to assisting themselves, members of anindividualistic culture see their major responsibility as helping themselves, as opposed to members of an acollectivistic culture, who see their primary responsibility as helping their in-group The degree to which individuals of a community tolerate an unequal allocation of power is described by the term “power distance. ” Uncertainty avoidance is a word that is used to describe the degree to which individuals of a culture feel threatened by uncertain circumstances and the extent to which they attempt to avoid them
  2. Achievement cultures place a strong priority on monetary achievement and concentrating on the job at hand, whereas nurturing cultures place a high value on the support of relationships and focusing on the task at hand
  3. And
  1. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) are all types of people that identify as LGBTQ.
  1. Being honest can help people feel more real and that they are part of a supportive co-culture
  2. But, disclosure can be dangerous. People may be taken aback or judge you harshly. The social atmosphere has been more accepting of LGBTQ persons than it had been in the previous years.
  1. Age-related communication reflects both culture and biology in equal measure. We learn how to “do” different ages as we progress through life. Western societies place a high value on youth, and views on aging are overwhelmingly negative rather than positive. People who assume that older persons have communication difficulties are less inclined to contact with them and, when they do connect, are more likely to use condescending language. When various generations come together to work, communication difficulties might result.
  1. People’s communication styles can be significantly influenced by their social status. People in the United States categorize themselves as working class, middle class, or upper class. First-generation college (FGC) students may experience intercultural strain as a result of having to live in two different environments.
  • Due to the fact that various cultures have diverse verbal and nonverbal communication methods, codes are tied to culture.
  1. The verbal codes used by different languages throughout the world are both similar and distinct.
  1. Linguistics and identity — If you live in a community where everyone speaks the same language, then language has minimal influence on your sense of self. In contrast, when some members speak a dominant language and some members speak a minority language, a strong sense of belonging to an out-group is felt. Three cultural distinctions can be identified in verbal communication styles:
  1. Language and identity — If you live in a community where everyone speaks the same language, language has minimal influence on your sense of self. In contrast, when some members speak a dominant language and some members speak a minority language, there is a strong sense of belonging to an out-group. In three distinct cultural variations, verbal communication patterns differ.
  • Nonverbal communication is something that all humans have in common. There is a vast range of variances in nonverbal behavior between people. Messages are decoded
  1. In attribution, someone else’s action is interpreted in order to make sense of it. Because most behavior is ambiguous and might have numerous meanings, the attribution process can result in incorrect interpretations.
  1. Attribution is the act of trying to make meaning of someone else’s conduct
  2. Yet, because most behavior is ambiguous and may be read in multiple ways, the attribution process can result in incorrect conclusions.
  1. Observing the behaviour of individuals of another culture and putting them into practice effectively is known as passive observation. Learning about intercultural communication through active tactics such as reading, viewing films, and asking experts and people of the other culture how to behave are all effective ways to gain knowledge. It is self-disclosure when you are willing to share personal information with persons from the other culture with whom you wish to communicate.
  1. To make the transition from culture shock to adaption, patience and endurance are required.
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Inter/Cultural Communication: Representation and Construction of Culture

Because of the media, the Internet, local diversity, and their personal journeys abroad, college students today are more familiar with various cultures than they have ever been in their lives. Therefore, classic intercultural communication textbooks–which are primarily concerned with the “differences” approach–are neither helpful for today’s students nor conducive to the development of this field. Inter/Cultural Communication: Representation and Construction of Culture in Everyday Interaction incorporates a social constructionist approach, which investigates how culture is constructed and produced in the contexts in which it is experienced.

Compared to current textbooks, Inter/Cultural Communication distinguishes itself by providing a differences approach as well as a social constructionist approach; (2) exploring the consequences of cultural moments on immediate communication as well as larger scale social issues; (3) being descriptive rather than prescriptive of how culture is communicated; and (4) introducing intercultural topics rather than interpersonal topics to undergraduate students.

Regardless of one’s motivation for gaining a better understanding of intercultural communication, whether at a societal level or through personal experience, this text assists students in becoming more educated about intercultural communication by:Examining basic concepts and theories of intercultural communication;Learning about our own cultures and cultures other than those to which we belong;Examining basic concepts and theories of intercultural communication;Examining basic concepts and theories of intercultural communication Increased self-awareness and self-reflexivity about the processes by which cultural identities are formed and maintained; Critical thinking about our roles in intercultural interaction, as well as our participation in the dynamics of these relationships; and Understanding ethical issues relevant to intercultural communication are some of the goals of this course.

Co-Cultural GroupMembership

Membership in a co-cultural group Each individual possesses features and qualities that distinguish him or her from others. These include, but are not limited to Icon with a lock on it

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Dominant culture – Wikipedia

The notion of a dominating culture, often known as the concept of hegemony, may be traced back to antiquity. However, near the end of the nineteenth century, Antonio Gramsci, a political leader as well as a philosopher, reformulated the notion. However, although Lenin, a politician and a political theorist, characterized the idea as “Domination,” Gramsci reformulated it as “An intellectual and moral leadership led by opposing political, cultural, and organizational actors and institutions.” He referred to these groups as “organic and traditional intellectuals,” and he claimed that they represented the interests of the working classes.

  • The term may relate to a language, religion / rites of passage, societal value, and/or habit.
  • It is possible for an individual to acquire dominance if they are viewed as belonging to a majority of the people and have a large presence in organizations that deal with communication and education as well as creative expression and institutions that deal with government and business.
  • In a society, culture is formed and directed by those who wield the greatest amount of authority (hegemony).
  • Establishing a dominant culture, also known as cultural hegemony, is accomplished in a society by a group of persons who drive the dominating ideas; values; and beliefs, which eventually come to define the dominant worldview of that community.
  • The dominant culture also makes use of the media and the law to further their ideology.
  • The dominant culture within a single geopolitical entity might vary throughout time as a result of internal or external forces, although one culture is often relatively durable to change.

The overall image painted by Gramsci, on the other hand, is not one of a static, closed system of ruling-class dominance. Instead, it is a society in perpetual flux, in which the possibility of establishing counter-hegemonies remains a viable alternative.

Examples of dominant cultures

In the United States, for example, a distinction is frequently drawn between the indigenous culture of Native Americans and the dominant culture, which may be described as ” WASP “, ” Anglo “, “white”, “middle class “, and so on. In other words, there is a distinction between the indigenous culture of Native Americans and the dominant culture. Some Native Americans are considered to be a part of the culture of their own tribe, community, or family, while also being a part of the mainstream culture of the United States of America.

The dominant culture is perceived as presenting an option between opposing, being opposed by, assimilating into, acculturating (i.e.

Interactions between dominant culture and co-culture

Co-culture is comprised of minority groups, or groups whose views and values differ from those of the dominant culture, as defined by the United Nations. Women, LGBTQ+ persons, and black people or African American members are just a few examples of minority groups that might suffer severe consequences as a result of their engagement with the majority culture. Minority groups might be subjected to stress as a result of the majority culture’s actions. Minority stress may be defined as the product of the disparities in values between the minority and the dominant values, as opposed to the opposite.

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Members of the LGBTQ+ group who live in a heterosexist society are more prone to and more likely to suffer from chronic stress as a result of their stigmatization and marginalization.

An LGBTQ+ member’s predisposition to social unfavorable sentiments toward themselves may be described as internalized homophobia, whilst stigma can be defined as an LGBTQ+ member’s anticipation of discrimination and rejection.

Women

Women, like many other co-culture groups, are profoundly influenced by the dominant culture in which they live and work. Women are often regarded as less deserving of economic and educational chances in the dominant cultural milieu. Furthermore, in many societies, women are expected to behave in a specific manner and to take on responsibilities that men do not, as they are subject to double standards. These exchanges have the potential to have unfavorable and harmful consequences for women. Women, for example, may feel confined in their ability to express themselves freely, to fight for their objectives, and to attempt new hobbies.

Black and African American community

On a global scale, black or African American groups have been influenced by the dominating cultures and traditions. In order for black people to become fully integrated into the cultural hegemony in various nations, they were frequently secluded from their own cultural group or attempts were made to entirely obliterate their culture.

It is possible to find several examples of cultural estrangement and destruction within black and African American communities.

See also

  1. “Hegemony – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics” is an overview of hegemony. T. J. Jackson, T. J. Lears, T. J. Jackson, T. J. Jackson, T. J. Jackson (June 1985). “The Concept of Cultural Hegemony: Problems and Possibilities” is a paper that examines the concept of cultural hegemony. The American Historical Review, volume 90, number 3, pages 567–593. Gordon Marshall’s 1860957.ISSN0002-8762.JSTOR1860957 is available at doi: 10.2307/1860957.ISSN0002-8762.JSTOR1860957 (1998). A Sociology Dictionary is a collection of articles written by sociologists for sociologists. Oxford University Press is a publishing house based in Oxford, England. Johnson, Richard
  2. Chambers, Deborah
  3. Raghuram, Parvati
  4. Tincknell, Estella
  5. Raghuram, Parvati (2004-04-14). Cultural Hegemony: What precisely has constructed us?, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-1-84860-514-5
  6. “Cultural Hegemony: What exactly has constructed us?” Maria Falkenhagen and Inga K. Kelly (2012-07-13)
  7. Retrieved2021-07-13
  8. (May 1974). Teachers’ perceptions of stereotypes about Native Americans in juvenile fiction are examined in this study. Journal of American Indian Education, Volume 13, Number 13. (2). The original version of this article was published on 2015-01-20.:CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  9. Lisa Lowe (1996). Immigrant Acts: Asian American Cultural Politics in the United States. 978-0-8223-1864-4
  10. Lisa Lowe (review of book by RabbiMeir Kahane)
  11. Duke University Press
  12. ISBN 978-0-8223-1864-4
  13. (2004-02-10). “What is the point of being Jewish? Intermarriage, assimilation, and alienation are among terms used to describe these processes “. The Jewish Observer
  14. Shlomo Sharan’s work (April 2004). “Assimilation, Normalcy, and Jewish Self-Hatred,” as the title suggests. NATIV Online is a service provided by NATIV. Patricia S. Parker’s article was archived from the original on December 3, 2008. (August 2001). “African American Women Executives’ Leadership Communication within Dominant-Culture Organizations: (Re)Conceptualizing Notions of Collaboration and Instrumentality” is a paper published in the journal “African American Women Executives’ Leadership Communication.” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 1
  15. Penelope Bass is an actress and singer from the United Kingdom (2009-01-29). « Culture and Controversy: The ‘Otra Voz’ display aspires to generate debate.» Joan B. Stone’s article was archived from the original on July 11, 2011. (1998). Ila Parasnis is a model and actress (ed.). Diversity in Culture and Language, as well as the Deaf Experience It is published by Cambridge University Press under the ISBN 978-0-521-64565-2. Carla A. Halpern is a professional writer and editor (1995). In this article, “Listening In on Deaf Culture,” Harvard University’s Office of Diversity and Distinction The original version of this article was published on October 6, 2013. Hebdige, Dick (2009-01-29)
  16. Retrieved 2009-01-29
  17. (2013-10-08). ISBN: 978-1-136-49473-4
  18. Ab Retrieved2021-07-30
  19. s^ Iwane, Marcus K.
  20. Nacapoy, Andrea H. (2010). “Effects of Perceived Racism and Acculturation on Hypertension in Native Hawaiians.” Hawaii Medical Journal.69(5 suppl 2): 11–15. Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku
  21. Iwane, Marcus K.
  22. Nacapoy, Andrea H. abMeyer, Ilan H. (1995). “Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men.” ISSN0017-8594.PMC3158444.PMID20544603
  23. AbMeyer, Ilan H. (1995). “Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men.” “Women as a Minority | Boundless Sociology”.courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31
  24. “Gender and Socialization | Introduction to Sociology”.courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31
  25. “Women as a Minority | Boundless Sociology | Introduction to Sociology”.courses.lum Dr. Shawn Andrews, “Council Post: How Culture Impacts Our Value of Women,” Council on Contemporary Women’s Issues, November/December 2005. The Forbes article was retrieved on January 31, 2012
  26. “Dominant Culture – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics” was retrieved on January 8, 2012
  27. “Bringing them home” was retrieved on January 8, 2012. (PDF). The Australian Human Rights Commission released a statement on May 26, 1997. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021.:CS1 maint: url-status (link)

2.1: The Impact of Culture on Behavior

Psychologists have used the term “egocentric” to characterize a person who is preoccupied with himself or herself and unable to see things from anybody else’s point of view. Young toddlers are egocentric by nature, thinking that everyone else thinks, sees, and communicates in the same way as they do themselves. Our egocentricity persists even as we age, and it can be difficult to accept that other people have views, values, and ideas that are equal to or greater in importance than our own. Nonetheless, in order to successfully connect with people and to build rewarding personal and professional relationships, we must set aside our egotism and endeavor to grasp their point of view, or as Chapter One refers to it, their worldview (or worldviews).

Provisionalism is defined as the capacity to tolerate a wide range of perceptions and beliefs while operating in a manner that is sensitive to those differences.

But provisionalism pushes us to look for patterns in human behavior and to grasp the field of experience from which the other person acts rather than just observing them.

  • The communication and conduct are interpreted in light of our own life experiences, but we pause and ponder, “What was the message intended to be communicated?” various things that might be influencing this communication or conduct
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Keith in China is depicted in Figure (PageIndex). MartinNakayama published a paper in 2018 titled

Intercultural Communication

The Council of Europe articulates the significance of intercultural communication in the following manner: “Mutual understanding and intercultural competence are more important than ever before in today’s world because they allow us to address some of the most virulent problems facing modern societies. Hate speech and other manifestations of prejudice, discrimination, and bigotry have grown commonplace, and political groups supporting radical ideologies have gained new ground. Misunderstandings between persons from various cultural origins and connections are at the root of many issues.

In order for such civilizations to function properly, people must be able to comprehend and interact with one another across all types of cultural divides.

  1. Provide an answer to the query “who are you.” Discuss your responses with a group of others. During your talk, how many different cultures or co-cultures were you able to identify? Visual media: Watch and discuss this video of an intercultural marriage discussing how they navigate the challenges of cultural differences. An example is the discussion between a Japanese guy and a white American woman about their differences. Which Issues Do We Disagree On?| Japanese/American Marriage()
  2. Media: Take a look at and discuss this video. During a conversation with an author, Miles Best discusses Black culture and how it is influenced by American society. The topic of language, as well as other aspects of Black culture, is explored. The Black Cultural Experience in the United States()

Communication Matters For Part 3 – Communication Matters Learning Objectives  Define culture and

Objectives for Learning Communication is Important Defining culture and explaining how it is acquired are important. Identify and differentiate between in-groups and out-groups. Identify and define co-cultures, as well as instances of co-cultures. Distinguish between the components of culture and co-culture, which include symbols, language, values, and social conventions. Individualistic and collectivistic civilizations should be contrasted. Distinguish between civilizations with a low context and cultures with a high context.

  1. Describe how cultures differ in their perspectives on masculinity and femininity, as well as on the roles of men and women.
  2. Describe communication tactics that are sensitive to cultural differences.
  3. The statement “culture has a major impact on communication behavior” implies thata.traditions have minimal influence on how we understand and interpret communication.
  4. It makes little difference to us whatever civilization we identify with.
  5. D2.Which phrase captures the sum of learnt, shared symbols and language, as well as the shared beliefs, values, and standards that separate one group of people from the next?
  6. 3) Which phrase defines a group of individuals who have a shared set of symbolism, language, values, and social conventions?

Co-cultured.Society As a result of conventions, support organizations, and media shows, persons with dwarfism have developed their own Community in recent years. Their efforts were instrumental in changing the classification from “dwarfs” or “midgets” to the more respectful”little people.”

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Cultural Generalizations vs. Stereotypes: Culture Points

Diversity of culture is fundamental to AFS’s mission statement. In order to act and respond effectively while engaging with individuals from various cultures, we must first recognize the presence of cultural generalizations and stereotypes, as well as the distinction between the two. Because of the nature of AFS work, when the term “culture” is addressed in the context of AFS, it is frequently conceived of from the perspective of other national cultures. Culture, on the other hand, is considerably more complicated than that.

Values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors found in sub- or co-cultural patterns do not necessarily reflect those found in the dominant culture.

Cultural Generalizations

Being aware of and understanding the patterns of the cultures to which one belongs (nationality, age, gender, etc.) serves as a foundation for understanding other cultures and their sub- or co-cultures, as well as for knowing oneself. The use of cultural generalizations can be beneficial in this process. Cultural generalizations are the practice of classifying people of the same group as having qualities that are similar to one another. Generalizations are adaptable, allowing for the addition of new cultural knowledge as it becomes available.

This adaptability can then lead to an increase in cultural interest and awareness, which can ultimately lead to an improvement in intercultural interactions.

Generalizations are also useful in everyday communication.

The following is an example of a cultural generalization: “People from Country X have a preference for communicating in an indirect manner.” The use of cultural generalizations allows for the recognition of individual differences and the development of cultural awareness.

Our other Culture Points, such as Individualism against Collectivism and Direct versus Indirect Communication Styles, have instances of cultural generalizations that are helpful.

Cultural Stereotypes

Generally speaking, generalizations become stereotypes when all members of a group are classified as having the same qualities. Culture may be associated with stereotypes based on any form of cultural membership, whether it is based on nationality, religion, gender, ethnicity, or age. Furthermore, preconceptions may be either favorable or negative in nature. “Participants from Country Y are good students,” for example, or “Host families in Country Z are wonderful hosts to participants,” would be examples of positive stereotypes.

In addition, they are often rigid and resistive to new information and ideas.

“People from Country A are superficial,” for example, might be a negative stereotype.

To have a better understanding of this difference and cultural continuums, read the AFS article “Generalizations and Stereotypes,” which serves as a source for this Culture Point.

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