Which Of The Following Is Not Utilized To Culture Viruses

Chapter 13 Flashcards – Easy Notecards

11) What are the main differences between viruses and bacteria? A) Viruses are detectable and may be blocked. B) Viruses are intracellular parasites that must be maintained. C) Viruses are devoid of any nucleic acid, unlike bacteria. D) Viruses are not made up of cells in the traditional sense. E) Viruses are incapable of reproducing. 22) Which of the following assertions gives the most compelling evidence in favor of the notion that viruses are nonliving chemical substances? A) They are not made up of individual cells.

C) They are unable to replicate on their own outside of a host.

E) They are chemically straightforward.

33) Which of the following statements about viral spikes is TRUE?

  1. B) They are utilized for the purpose of attachment.
  2. D) They attach themselves to receptors on the surface of the host cell.
  3. 44) Which of the following is NOT utilized as a criteria for categorizing viruses in the scientific community?
  4. A) animals used in research laboratories B) culture medium C) embryonated eggs D) animal cell cultures B) culture media C) embryonated eggs E) bacterial cultures are a kind of culture.
  5. A) attachment B) penetration C) uncoating D) biosynthesis E) release A) attachment B) penetration C) uncoating D) biosynthesis E) release 77) The term lysogeny is defined as follows: A) The phage DNA is integrated into the DNA of the host cell.
  6. C) the period of time during replication when there are no virions present.
  7. E) the attachment of a phage to a cell surface.
  8. B) an infectious RNA strand that does not have a capsid.
  9. D) proviruses are a kind of virus.
  10. 99) Which of the structures shown in Figure 13.1 is a sophisticated virus?
  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) All of the structures are viruses that are complicated in nature.

1010) The DNA-based structures depicted in Figure 13.1 are made of the following:A) DNA. B) RNA (ribonucleic acid). C) DNA or RNA are examples of nucleic acids. Capsomeres are a kind of fungus. E) viroids are a kind of virus. 1111) A phage is a clear region of bacteria that defends itself against a confluent “grass” of bacteria. B) a pockmark. Cell lysis is the third option. Plaque (D) is an acronym. E) rashes on the skin 1212) Continuous cell lines vary from primary cell lines in thatA) viruses can be grown in continuous cell lines, whereas viruses cannot be produced in primary cell lines.

  1. Continuum cell lines are produced from primary cell lines in the third place.
  2. E) Human embryonic stem cell lines are used to create continuous cell lines.
  3. 1313) A) The genetic code B) DNA polymerase is a kind of enzyme.
  4. B) Viral replication is exceptionally sluggish in comparison to other viruses.
  5. D) The host cells are being lysed one by one.
  6. 1515) Which of the following assertions is FALSE in the context of this question?
  7. B) A prophage has the ability to “pop” out of a chromosome.

D) The presence of a prophage may result in the host cell acquiring new characteristics.

1616) Lysogeny can arise in any or all of the following manifestations: immunity against re-infection by the same phage (EXCEPTA) B) the host cell acquires new features as a result of the acquisition process.

D) transduction with a specific function.

What would be the initial stage in biosynthesis of a virus containing a negative (minus) strand of RNA, according to the following question?

In addition, the production of double-stranded RNA from a DNA template D) the transcription of messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA E) DNA synthesis using a DNA template as a starting point 1818) A bacteriophage is an infectious protein that has the ability to infect other organisms.

C) retroviruses are a kind of virus.

1919) Which of the following actions results in the acquisition of an envelope?

A) It has the potential to provide pathogens with genetic information necessary for toxin synthesis.

D) It is a “silent” infection, which means that the virus does not reproduce itself.

A) subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an example of a latent viral infection in 2121) the brain. B) cold sores are a kind of sore. C) the influenza virus. D) the smallpox virus. E) the measles. In the majority of cases, the capacity of a virus to infect an animal cell is determined by the

  1. A) host cell’s ability to phagocytize viral particles
  2. sB) presence of receptor sites on the cell membrane
  3. sC) type of viral nucleic acid
  4. sD) enzymatic activity of a host cell
  5. sE) presence of pili on the host cell wall

Consider the following scenario: you have isolated an unknown pathogen. This virus has a single RNA strand that is positive in the sense direction, as well as an envelope. Which of the following groups is it most likely a member of? An example of this would be the herpesvirus. The following viruses are classified as follows: B) picornavirusC) retrovirus D) togavirus is a kind of virus that infects animals. A papovavirus is an infection caused by a virus. In the scientific community, A) transduction is the method by which an enveloped virus departs a host cell.

  • C) abduction is another option.
  • E) penetrating the surface.
  • The existence of antibodies against viruses in cancer patients is referred to as type B.
  • D) the use of antibodies in the treatment of cancer.
  • All of the following are obtained from the host cell by bacteriophages (2626).
  • B) tRNA (transcriptional RNA).
  • D) nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA.

2 727) Bacteriophage replication is distinct from animal virus replication in that it is the only type of replication that involves A) adsorption to particular receptors.

C) Virus nucleic acid replication is a process.

B) nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA.

D) the tRNA molecule.

Which of the following correctly arranges these components in the proper sequence for DNA virus replication?

  1. A) 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. B) 2
  6. 1
  7. C) 3
  8. D) 4
  9. E) 4
  10. F) 4
  11. G) 4
  12. H) 4
  13. I) 4
  14. J) 4
  15. K) 4
  16. L) 4

3030) A viral species is a collection of viruses that A) have the same morphology and nucleic acid and B) have the same genetic make-up. B) possesses the same genetic information as A as well as the same ecological niche. C) infects and causes the same illness in the same cells as A. D) is a concept that cannot be defined. 3131) Viruses that make use of reverse transcriptase are classified as belonging to the viral families. A) Retroviridae and Picornaviridae are two families of viruses. B) Herpesviridae and Retroviridae are two virus families.

  1. D) Herpesviridae and Poxviridae are viruses that cause herpes.
  2. 3232) DNA derived from an RNA template will be integrated into the viral capsid of A) Retroviridae, which will cause the virus to replicate.
  3. C) The family Hepadnaviridae.
  4. E)influenzavirus.
  5. 3333) Which of the following claims is FALSE?
  6. B) Viruses have a protein coat that protects them.
  7. D) Viruses produce catabolic enzymes on their own.

3434) A patient has been infected with a lytic virus.

A) The virus infecting the patient’s cells is causing the death of the cells.

Infection with a virus occurs when the virus’s nucleic acid combines with that of the patient’s cells.

E) The virus infects cells and then releases very little quantities of virus after infecting the cells.

These are referred to as A) latent viruses.

C) phages are a kind of virus.

E) viruses that are out of the ordinary.

As a 60-year-old woman suffering from shingles (human herpesvirus 3), which line on the graph in Figure 13.2 would represent the number of viruses present in this individual?

A) aB) bC) cD) dE) e3838) A) aB) bC) cD) dE) e3838) A) aB) bC) cD) dE) e3838) A) aB) bC) cD) dE) e3838) A) aB) bC) cD) dE) e38 During the proliferation of herpesviruses, the following phases take place.

The first is an attachment.

Which of the following is the fourth step?

B) the production of +RNA C) adhesion; D) penetration; and E) insertion E) removing the covering 4040) Acute infections are caused by oncogenic virusesA).

C) may lead to the development of malignancies.

It has no effect on the host cell in the case of E).

A) the production of additional strands of RNA B) synthesis of RNA strands C) synthesis of viral proteins B) synthesis of RNA strands D) DNA synthesis is a process that occurs in the body.

4242) Which of the following is most likely to be a result of a pre-existing gene structure?

In addition, B) DNA polymeraseC) envelope proteins are involved.

A) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase B) lysozyme A) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase C) RNA-dependent RNA polymeraseD) reverse transcriptaseE) ATP synthaseC) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 4444) The following stages take place during the biosynthesis of a virus with a positive strand of RNA.

A) attachment B) penetration and uncoating C) synthesis of – strand RNA D) synthesis of + strand RNA A) attachment B) penetration and uncoating C) synthesis of – strand RNA E) the production of viral proteins 4504) Why do flu viruses become more resistant to their antigenic shifts?

B) a segmented genome C) attachment spikes D) the ease with which the virus can be transmitted E) a number of distinct viral subtypes 4646) were discovered for the first time in cancer-causing viruses and are capable of inducing in infected cells.

B) Oncogenes; the process of transformation T antigens; lysis C) T antigens D) Spikes in glycoproteins; development of syncytia E) Genomes that have been segmented; reassortment All viruses have the same basic mechanism for replicating and multiplying.

Viruses are named using the binomial nomenclature (see page 493).

515) Positive sense RNA strands of viruses are processed in the same way as mRNA is treated within the host cell.

In the field of virus envelope design, the phrases helical and icosahedral are commonly used to characterize the forms of virus envelopes.

Antigenic shift can occur as a result of a segmented genome (559). 5610) The majority of medications that interfere with viral growth also interfere with the function of the host cell.

Chapter 13 viruses Flashcards

What are the differences between all viruses and bacteria? Viral particles are filterable; they are also intercellular parasites; they do not contain nucleic acid; they are not formed of cells; they do not replicate; and they are filterable. D) Viruses are not made up of individual cells. True or False: Which of the following claims concerning viral spikes is correct? They have the following characteristics: a) they are made of carbohydrate-protein complexes; b) they are employed for attachment; c) they bind to receptors on the host cell surface; d) they have the potential to induce hemagglutination; and e) they are exclusively found on non-enveloped viruses.

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Which of the following is NOT a criteria for categorizing viruses as a result of their genetic makeup?

When it comes to viral culture, which of the following is NOT true?

The differences between bacteriophages and animal viruses are not statistically significant in which of the following steps?

In the definition of lysogeny, the following conditions are met: a) the incorporation of phage DNA into host cell DNA; b) host cell lysis as a result of the phage; c) the period during replication when visions are not present; d) when the burst time takes an unusually long time; and e) the attachment of a phage to a cell.

An infectious viral particle can be classified into the following categories: a) a full, infectious virus particle b) an infectious bit of RNA without a capsid c) a capsid lacking nucleic acid d) provirus e) an infectious protein b) an infectious RNA strand that does not have a capsid Which of the following structures represents a sophisticated virus in picture 13.1?

Each and every one of the buildings The structures in 13.1 are made up of the following components:a) DNA b) RNA c) DNARNA Capsomeres and Capsids are two types of capsids.

The following are examples of phage: A) phage B) pock C) Cell Lysis Plaque E) Rash D) Plaque E) Rash Because continuous cell lines are derived from primary cell lines, they have several advantages over primary cell lines, including the ability to grow viruses, the need to constantly re-isolate continuous cell lines from animal tissues, the ability to maintain continuous cell lines for an indefinite number of generations, and the ability to maintain continuous cell lines for an indefinite number of generations.

e) Continuous cell lines are derived from human embryosD) Continuous cell lines can be maintained for an endless number of generationsE) Continuous cell lines are derived from human embryos A persistent infection is defined as one in which a) the virus maintains equilibrium with the host without generating disease and b) the virus does not cause disease.

  • It is gradually lysed, and it is gradually transformed.
  • It is gradually transformed.
  • Which of the following steps results in the acquisition of an envelope?
  • When it comes to lysogeny, which of the following things is NOT true?
  • A prophage is also introduced into the host genome.
  • D) It is a silent infection; the virus does not replicate.
  • E) It results in the lysis of host cells.

Sclerosing panencephalitis (SPE) is an acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SPE).

What factors influence a virus’s capacity to infect an animal cell?

C) the type of viral nucleic acid.

e) the presence of pili on the host cell wall.

B) the presence of receptors sites on the cell membrane.

This virus has a single positive sense strand of RNA and an envelope, which indicates that it is a herpesvirus.

a) Herpesvirus b) Picornavirus c) Retrovirus d) Togavirus e) Papovavirus a) Herpesvirus b) Picornavirus c) Retrovirus d) Togavirus e) Papovavirus Do viruses that make use of reverse transcriptase fall under the umbrella term “viral families”?

Consider the case of a patient who had chickenpox as a youngster.

A B C D is an abbreviation for A B C D Assume that a patient is suffering from influenza.

Oncogenic viruses are classified as A, B, C, D, and E. a) cause acute infections b) are genetically unstable c) cause tumors to develop d) are lytic viruses that destroy the host cell e) have no impact on the host cell a) cause acute infections b) are genetically unstable c) cause cancers to grow

Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it

It has been reported that the virus that causes COVID-19 (formerly known as “2019 new coronavirus”) as well as the disease it causes will now be known by their official titles. The official names are as follows: Coronavirus illness is a disease caused by a virus (COVID-19) Coronavirus 2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome) is a virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2)

Why do the virus and the disease have different names?

Viruses and the illnesses they cause are frequently referred to by different names. For example, the virus that causes AIDS is known as HIV. Many people are familiar with the name of an illness, but are unfamiliar with the name of the virus that causes it. When it comes to naming viruses and illnesses, there are a variety of procedures and goals to consider. As a result of their genetic structure, viruses are given names so that diagnostic tests, vaccinations, and medications may be developed more quickly.

It is necessary to name diseases in order to have a debate about illness prevention, spread and transmissibility, severity, and treatment.

On February 11, 2020, the International Communications and Television Corporation (ICTV) released the term “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)” as the name of the new virus.

Despite the fact that they are linked, the two viruses are distinct.

  • On 11 February 2020, the WHO Director-General addressed the media
  • On the same day, the WHO released its Situation Report.

In his statements to the media on February 11, 2020, WHO Director-General Margaret Chan expressed her concern about the current situation in the world.

What name does WHO use for the virus?

For risk communication professionals, the word SARS has unintended repercussions in terms of instilling undue anxiety in some communities, particularly in Asian countries, which were the worst hit by the 2003 SARS pandemic. As a result of these and other factors, the World Health Organization has began referring to the virus as “the virus responsible for COVID-19” or “the COVID-19 virus” when dealing with the general public about it. Neither of these names is meant to be a substitute for the virus’s official name, which was agreed upon by the International Conference on Transmission of Viruses (ICTV).

For the sake of avoiding misunderstanding, anything released before the virus was formally identified will not be updated unless absolutely essential. More information may be found at:

  • What is the process through which new infectious illnesses are named
  • Coronavirus illness (COVID-2019) in further detail
  • Press briefings by the World Health Organization on the coronavirus illness (COVID-2019)
  • Diseases are classified according to an international classification system. International Committee on Virus Taxonomy
  • International Virus Taxonomy Committee

SOLVED:Which of the following is NOT utilized to culture viruses? culture media embryonated eggs laboratory animals animal cell cultures bacterial cultures Question 26 (1 point) Which of the following represents a virus family name? Herpes simplex virus Herpesviridae Picornavirus Enterovirus Hepatitis B virus

The ingredients of life are the fundamental building pieces that make up all living organisms, according to biology. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur are the elements that make up the periodic table. The first four of these are the most significant since they are used to create the molecules that are required to form live cells. The other three are less important. These components serve as the fundamental building blocks of the primary macromolecules of life, such as carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins, among other things.

  • Carbon is found in all living things.
  • Additionally, carbon is utilized in the construction of the energy-dense molecules adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) (GTP).
  • Hydrogen is also required for the synthesis of ATP and GTP.
  • It is also involved in the formation of ATP and GTP.
  • It is also involved in the formation of ATP and GTP.

Ch. 6 Multiple Choice – Microbiology

One or more of the following components of a virus that are extended from the envelope in preparation for attachment is/are: 2.Which of the following characteristics does a virus not possess? Select all of the options that apply.

  1. Ribosomes, metabolic processes, nucleic acid, and glycoprotein are all terms that come to mind.

In addition, the envelope of a virus is generated from the host’s envelope. 4.When naming viruses, the family name finishes with the letter _, and the genus name ends with the letter _. 5.

  1. Virus
  2. Viridae
  3. Virus
  4. Virion

5.What is another term for a virus that is not enveloped? 6) Which of the following causes the apoptosis (death of the host cells)? 6) Which of the following causes the apoptosis (cell death) of host cells? In order for HIV to enter a cell, one of the following components must be introduced.

  1. A DNA polymerase that requires DNA as a cofactor
  2. An RNA polymerase
  3. A ribosome
  4. A reverse transcriptase

9.A virus with a positive strand of RNA:

  1. Prior to being translated, it must first be transformed into a messenger RNA (mRNA)
  2. It can be utilized directly to translate viral proteins
  3. It will be destroyed by host enzymes
  4. It is not recognized by host ribosomes

In what language is the transfer of genetic information from one bacteria to another bacterium known as phage transmission described? The following items cannot be used to cultivate viruses: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. 12.Which of the following tests may be performed to determine whether or not a certain virus is present in the body? 13.Which of the following does not have a cytopathic impact on the patient?

  1. Inclusion bodies
  2. Cell fusion
  3. Transformation
  4. Mononucleated cell
  5. Inclusion bodies

14.Which of the following pathogenic agents is devoid of nucleic acids? 15.Which of the following statements is correct about prions?

  1. They can be rendered inactive by boiling at 100 degrees Celsius. They have a capsid in them. This protein, PrP, is a renegade version of the protein. The use of an autoclave may be relied upon to inactivate them.

Chapter 13 microbiology – Subjecto.com

How do all viruses differ from bacteria? viruses are not composed of cells
Which of the following statements provides the mostsignificant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals? they cannot reproduce themselves outside a host
Which of the following statements about viralspikes is FALSE? they are found only on noenveloped viruses
Which of the following is NOT used as a criterionto classify viruses? biochemical tests
Which of the following is NOT utilized to culture viruses? culture media
Bacteriophages and animal viruses do NOT differsignificantly in which one of the following steps? biosynthesis
The definition of lysogeny is phage DNA is incorporated into the host cell DNA
A viroid is a (n) infectious piece of RNA without a capsid
In figure 13.1, which structure is a complex virus? b
The structures illustrated in figure 13.1 arecomposed of capsomeres
A clear area against a confluent “lawn”of bacteria is called a plaque
Continuous cell lines differ from primary celllines in that continuous cell lines can be maintained through anindefinite number of generations
Which of the following is necessary for replicationof a prion? PrPSc
A persistent infection is one in which the disease process occurs gradually over a longperiod
Which of the following statements is FALSE? the prophage makes the host cell immune toinfection by other phages
Which of the following would be the first step inbiosynthesis of a virus with a -(minus) strand of RNA synthesis of double-stranded RNA from an RNAtemplete
An infectious protein is a prion
An envelope is acquired during which of thefollowing steps? release
Which of the following statements is NOT true oflysogeny? its causes lysis of host cells
An example of a latent viral infection is cold sores
A virus’s ability to infect an animal cell dependsprimarily upon the presence of receptor sites on the cell membrance
Assume you have isolated an unknown virus. Thisvirus has a single, positive sense strand of RNA, and possesses an envelope.To which group does it most likely belong? togavirus
The mechanism whereby an enveloped virus leaves ahost cell is called budding
The most conclusive evidence that viruses causecancers is provided by cancer following injection of cell-free filtrates
Bacteriophages derive all of the following from thehost cell EXCEPT lysozyme
Bacteriophage replication differs from animal virusreplication because only bacteriophage replication involes injection of naked nucleic acid into the host cell
Generally, in an infection caused by aDNA-containing virus, the host animal cell supplies all of the followingEXCEPT DNA polymerase
Which of the following places these items in thecorrect order for DNA-virus replication? 2;3;4;1
A viral species is a group of viruses that has the same genetic information and ecologicalniche
Viruses that utilize reverse transcriptase belongto the virus families hepadnaviridae and retroviridae
DNA made from RNA template will be incorporatedinto the virus capsid of hepadnaviridae
Which of the following statements about viruses isFALSE? viruses use their own catabolic enzymes
A lytic virus has infected a patient. Which of thefollowing would best describe what is happening inside the patient? the virus is causing the death of the infectedcells in the patient
Same viruses, such as human herpesvirus 1, infect acell without causing symptoms, These are called latent viruses
The following steps occur during multiplication ofretroviruses. Which is the fourth step? synthesis of double-stranded DNA
Oncogenic viruses cause tumors to develop
Which one of the following steps does NOT occurduring multiplication of a picornavirus? synthesis of DNA
Which of the following is most likely a product ofan early gene? DNA polymerase
Most RNA viruses carry which of the followingenzymes? RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
The following steps occur during biosynthesis of a+ strand RNA virus. What is the third step? synthesis of -strand RNA
What contributes to antigenic shift in influenzaviruses? a segmented genome
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Early Tissue and Cell Culture in Vaccine Development

Before researchers could begin developing vaccinations that could be mass-produced, they first needed to culture the viruses or bacteria that would be used to create the vaccines — in big quantities and with high consistency – in the laboratory. Viruses, in contrast to bacteria, which may be grown in a laboratory setting if they are placed in an appropriate growth medium, cannot multiply on their own and must infect living cells in order to infect the cells. When a virus enters a cell, it makes use of the cell’s own components to multiply and spread throughout the body.

Because there were no ways for cultivating viruses outside of living animals at the time, they were forced to rely on materials obtained from infected animal hosts for their research.

This resulted in the first field trials of vaccine candidates in the 1930s, which were produced using material obtained from polio-infected monkeys, such as monkey spinal cords.

In addition, vaccines created from nervous system tissue have a greater side effect profile than vaccines derived from other techniques, such as cell culture (the myelin in the vaccine material can stimulate an adverse neurological reaction).

The Promise of Cell Culture in Vaccine Development

Many of the researchers in the 1930s and 1940s were motivated by the prospect of generating poliovirus in the laboratory without the use of live animals. Cell cultures are the process of growing cells in a culture dish, frequently in the presence of a growth media that is supportive, such as collagen. Because they can be used in large-scale viral generation, they provide a degree of control that was previously unavailable when utilizing live animals. (See our page “Human Cell Strains in Vaccine Development” for more information on cell cultures and cell lines, as well as cell lines derived from human cells.) Early attempts to cultivate the poliovirus in culture, on the other hand, were constantly unsuccessful.

Although the virus multiplied rapidly, which was encouraging, Sabin and Olitsky were hesitant about utilizing it as a starting material for a vaccine because they feared it might cause nervous system damage in vaccination recipients.

They attempted to cultivate the poliovirus in cultures using tissue that had been obtained from different sources, but were unsuccessful in their efforts.

Breakthrough in Boston

The success of Sabin and Olitsky in growing poliovirus in brain tissue was followed by a 13-year wait before researchers in the lab of John Enders at the Children’s Hospital in Boston succeeded in growing the virus in a culture of skin and muscle tissue from a human embryo, thanks to a stroke of luck. At the time, the researchers were primarily concerned with isolating and growing varicella, the virus that causes chickenpox. They had already succeeded in cultivating mumps and influenza viruses in vitro and had moved on to varicella virus, which they were aware could be grown in human cells but had not yet attempted.

  • To serve as a control group, an additional four flasks were infected with a strain of poliovirus.
  • Instead, the poliovirus did proliferate.
  • Using the “roller tube” device developed by researcher George Otto Gey in the 1930s, they were able to produce the virus quickly and to extremely high concentrations.
  • Instead of using a flask, he used test tubes with tissue taped to the sides, which he then inserted horizontally into holes in a wooden cylindrical cylinder.
  • Using the same approach, the Enders team was able to develop the poliovirus at a rate that was far faster than what could be done in static flasks.
  • Their finding proved to be the game-changing discovery that allowed the development of a polio vaccine to proceed.
  • This discovery revolutionized the field of medicine.
  • Tissue cultures, which contain a variety of cell types, can be used to create these strains; while viruses can be cultivated in tissue cultures, cell strains allow for continuous monitoring and control, which may not be achievable in cultures that contain a variety of cell types.

Similar changes were made during the creation of polio vaccinations; a monkey kidney cell strain is used to generate poliovirus for the inactivated polio vaccine that is currently available.

Current Vaccines Developed Using Animal Cell Strains

Animal cell strains are now widely available for use in scientific research and development, with a large number of diverse types available. Vero cell line was established from African green monkey kidney cells and was used to generate several vaccinations that are presently accessible in the United States. These vaccines include:

  • Rotavirus vaccinations
  • Polio vaccines
  • Smallpox vaccines
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccines

Other animal cell strains, such as the Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) line, which was established in 1958 from kidney cells from a cocker spaniel, may be used in future vaccines developed in the United States. (MDCK is already being used in the production of several European vaccinations.)

Sources and Additional Reading

John Franklin Enders, PhD -PolioPlace.org Dr. John Franklin Enders, PhD In June 2021, this page was accessed. GlaxoSmithKline is a pharmaceutical company (2011). Package Insert – Rotavirus Vaccine, Live attenuated, orally administered. (PDF file size: 425 KB) This page was last updated on January 10, 2018. Intercell Biomedical is a biomedical company (2010). Insert for the package – Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated and Adsorbed. (PDF file size: 224 KB). This page was last updated on January 10, 2018.

  • (2011).
  • This page was last updated on January 10, 2018.
  • The following is the package insert for the inactivated poliovirus vaccine.
  • This page was last updated on January 10, 2018.
  • Live Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, according to the package insert.
  • This page was last updated on January 10, 2018.

Viral activation of cellular metabolism

The infection of the host cell by a virus has a significant impact on its metabolism. Glycolysis, fatty acid production, and/or glutaminolysis are all induced by several viruses. In order for viruses to replicate and proliferate, they must induce particular metabolic pathways in the host.


Viruses have evolved to modify a wide range of host cell pathways in order to provide the most favorable conditions for their reproduction and propagation. In the last decade, metabolomic investigations have revealed that eukaryotic viruses cause widespread changes in the metabolism of their hosts’ cells on a huge scale. The Warburg effect, which is caused by aerobic glycolysis, has been observed in the majority of viruses studied to far. Many of the viruses that have been studied have also been shown to promote fatty acid production and glutaminolysis.

Each viral species is also believed to necessitate its own set of metabolic alterations in order to propagate successfully, and current research has discovered additional virus-specific metabolic changes that are triggered by a variety of virus species.

A deeper knowledge of the metabolic modifications necessary for the reproduction of each virus may result in the development of innovative treatment techniques that target specific cellular metabolic pathways.


VirusMetabolism Metabolomics Glycolysis Fatty acid synthesis is a process that occurs in the body. Glutaminolysis Elsevier Inc. retains ownership of the copyright. All intellectual property rights are retained.

Primary Cell Culture Basics

Primary cells are the most accurate representations of the tissue of origin. This means that they are removed straight from the tissue and treated in order to establish them in optimal culture conditions. Because they are produced from tissue rather than being changed, they are more akin to the in vivo condition and display normal physiology than synthetic alternatives. Therefore, they provide good model systems for investigating the normal physiology and biochemistry of cells (e.g., metabolism and ageing), as well as the impact of medications and hazardous substances on cells.

  1. They are also more difficult to grow and maintain than a continuous cell line, therefore caution should be exercised while working with them.
  2. Rather of starting with signaling investigations, researchers prefer to test the cells for sensitivity to common stimuli before beginning with them.
  3. Primary cells utilized in research include epithelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, melanocytes, endothelial cells, muscle cells, hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, and a variety of other cell types.
  4. Through an in vitroprocess known as transformation, primary cells may be altered to allow for endless subculture indefinitely.
  5. Genetic transformation can occur naturally or can be induced chemically or virally.
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Primary Cells vs. Cell Lines

Continuous cell lines have gained the potential to multiply forever (become immortalized) either via random mutation, as in transformed cancer cell lines, or through purposeful alteration, as in the case of the artificial production of cancer gene transcripts. Cell lines derived from continuous cultures are often more stable and simpler to work with than primary cells. They have virtually limitless expansion potential and are a quick and simple method to obtain basic knowledge about a subject.

A comparison of primary cells and continuous cell lines is shown in Table 3.

Primary Cell Culture Applications

A comparison between primary cells and continuous cell lines is presented in Table 3.

  • Cell Culture in 3D: Because primary cells have not been transformed or immortalized, they closely mimic a biological model, produce more physiologically meaningful results, and may be utilized to represent 3D tissues. These cells may be used as a model system to investigate cell biology and biochemistry, the interaction between cells and disease-causing organisms (such as bacteria and viruses), the influence of medications, the process of aging, cell signaling and metabolic control, and many other topics. In many circumstances, the use of primary cells helps researchers to sidestep the difficulties (such as availability, expense, and ethical considerations) associated with the use of animal models.
  • Cancer Research: Primary cells can become malignant if they are exposed to radiation, chemicals, or viruses, among other things. As a result, the mechanism and etiology of cancer, as well as the changed signaling pathways, may all be investigated further. It can also be used to determine whether or not a medicine is effective against cancer cells. In this context, it is also possible to investigate the adverse effects of cancer therapies (chemotherapy and irradiation) on normal cells. Virology: It is possible to investigate the detection, isolation, growth, and development cycles of viruses. It is also possible to analyze the mechanism of infection using primary cells. Toxicology and drug screening: Primary cell cultures are used to investigate the cytotoxicity of novel medications (in order to determine the impact and safe dose) and/or drug carriers in order to determine their safety (nanoparticles). When used on an industrial scale, it may be used to synthesize or manufacture a wide range of biomolecules. This is very beneficial in the pharmaceutical business. Various research efforts involving the development of oncell-based medicinal products utilizing primary cells are now underway. Primary culture is used as a substitute for animal models in the testing of novel medications, cosmetics, and chemicals to see how they affect the body. They are also employed in the determination of the maximum permitted dose of new medications. Primarily, animal cells are used in the production of viruses, which are then used in the production of vaccines (such as those for deadly diseases like polio, rabies, chicken pox, measles, and hepatitis B that are produced using animal cell culture), thereby eliminating the need for the use of animal models. Genetic Engineering (GE) is a term that refers to the process of creating genetic material. Among other things, primary cell cultures are used to manufacture economically significant genetically designed proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, insulin, hormones, and a variety of other proteins. Replacement Tissue or Organs: Primary cell cultures can be utilized to create replacement tissue or organs in the laboratory. A study is underway to determine if primary cells may be used in the restoration of injured tissue or the replacement of non-functional cells or tissues. Techniques for organ culture are being developed, and research is being carried out on both embryonic and adult stem cell cultures. Many different types of cells and organs may be formed from these cells as a result of their differentiation ability. We may be able to treat a wide range of medical diseases by manipulating the formation and differentiation of these cells in the future. A large number of primary cells have also been employed widely in 3D bioprinting procedures. Stem cell therapy involves the use of stem cells that have been extracted from bone marrow, blood, or embryonic tissue. It is possible to produce a patient’s own stem cells or stem cells obtained from a donor in vitro in order to generate sufficient cells that can be utilized to rebuild tissue or replace functionally defective cells. These are the kinds of areas that are now being investigated in order to develop treatments for genetic abnormalities, spinal cord injuries, degenerative illnesses, and cancer.

Primary Cell Culture Tips and Tricks

Primary cells can be cultivated in either suspension or adherent cultures, depending on their size. Some cells naturally exist in suspension, unattached to a surface, and this is how they evolved (for example those derived from peripheral blood). The ability to survive in suspension cultures has been developed in cell lines that have been genetically engineered to proliferate at a higher density than would be possible under adherent settings. Adherent cells (such as solid tissues) require a surface in order to develop correctly in vitro, but anchorage-dependent primary cells do not require a surface.

  • The cell culture media is constituted of a baseline medium that has been supplemented with growth agents and cytokines that are appropriate for the cell type.
  • Cells are cultured in a cell incubator.
  • In order to accommodate different cell types, growth medium might have varying pH values, glucose concentrations, growth hormones, and the presence of other nutrients.
  • gentamicin, penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B are examples of antibiotics that may be used in combination.
  • It is critical to maintain the viability of initial cells after isolation since, after a given number of population doublings, the majority of them undergo the process of senescence and cease to divide.
  • growth medium, temperature, gas combination, pH, growth factor concentration, presence of nutrients, and glucose) are required for long-term survival of the cells.
  • It is also vital to employ aseptic techniques.

Cellular Confluence

Cellular confluence is a term that refers to the proportion of the culture vessel that is occupied by cells that have connected to it. 100 percent cellular confluence, for example, indicates that all of the surface area is totally covered by cells, whereas 50 percent confluence means that about half of the surface area is covered by cells.

When it comes to primary cell culture, it is a critical and significant metric to watch and measure, since different cell types require different confluence end points, at which time they must be subcultured.

Maintenance and Subculture

When separate cells are adhered to the surface of the culture plate, the maintenance phase of the cells begins to take place. Typically, attachment occurs within 24 hours of the start of the culture’s induction. A cell suspension should be subcultured when it has reached a certain percent of total cell density and is actively multiplying, as described above. It is important to subculture primary cell cultures before they achieve 100 percent confluence because cells that have reached 100 percent confluence may undergo differentiation and demonstrate slower proliferation after passing through the passaging process.

Sub-cultivation of monolayers necessitates the dissolution of both inter- and intracellular cell-to-surface connections during the process.

It is then necessary to count the cells after they have been dissociated and dispersed into a single-cell suspension.

Cell Counting

Hemocytometers, which employ the exclusion dyeTrypan Blue to estimate cell numbers and determine cell viability, are widely used in clinical laboratories for these purposes. A hemocytometer is a glass microscope slide that is rather thick and has a rectangular depression that provides a chamber for collecting blood samples. An engraved grid of perpendicular lines is laser-etched onto the chamber, which is then meticulously built by skilled craftsmen. It is possible to determine the area enclosed by the lines as well as the depth of the chamber.

Cryopreservation and Recovery

Cryopreservation is a technique for preserving structurally intact live cells by freezing them at extremely low temperatures. In order to limit cell damage and death during the cryopreservation and thawing of primary cells, it is necessary to perform both procedures. The use of a cryoprotectant, such as DMSO or glycerol, can be used to achieve this goal in the case of primary cells (at correct temperature and with a controlled rate of freezing). Most primary cells can be cryopreserved in a combination of 80 percent complete growth media supplemented with 10 percent FBS and 10 percent DMSO, which is ideal for most primary cells to use.

The frozen culture must be kept in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees Celsius) or below -130 degrees Celsius.

When initial cells are thawed, extra attention should be exercised to avoid centrifuging them (as they are extremely sensitive to damage during recovery from cryopreservation).

1When starting a culture of cryopreserved primary cells, it is critical to remove the spent media as soon as the cells have attached themselves to the culture medium (as DMSO is harmful to primary cells and may cause a drop in post-thaw viability).

Primary Cell Culture Troubleshooting

  • Contamination: Contamination of primary tissue when it is transferred to a culture environment
  • Inappropriate salt in the culture medium, bacterial or fungal contamination, inadequate bicarbonate buffering, incorrect carbon dioxide tension and other factors can result in pH shifts
  • These can be caused by the following: Optimal adherence is achieved when there are insufficient or no attachment factors in the medium, or when there is contamination or overtrypsinization of the cells. Slow growth can be caused by a variety of circumstances such as a change in the pH of the medium, depletion of important growth-promoting components/factors, low contamination, incorrect storage of reagents, and so on. Cell death is caused by a variety of factors, including temperature fluctuations, the absence of CO2, cell damage during thawing and/or cryopreservation, an increase in the concentration of toxic metabolites, and an imbalanced osmotic pressure in the culture medium. Cell death is also caused by a variety of factors, including: Precipitation: It is possible to obtain precipitates in the medium without experiencing a pH shift as a result of the use of frozen medium, residual phosphate left over after washing with detergent, which may precipitate powdered media components, and the use of frozen medium. Capillary clumping: Suspension cells may clump owing to the presence of calcium and magnesium ions or due to cell lysis and DNA release as a result of excessive processing with proteolytic enzymes. Increased variability is caused by the use of a wide range of chemicals and media in the collection of data obtained from primary cells. Additionally, the differences in handling methodologies across users may contribute to the unpredictability.

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