- 1 Please help! Which of the following is not true about Aborigine culture? (1 point) It is
- 2 Australian Aboriginal peoples
- 3 Prehistory
- 4 Australian Aboriginal peoples – Beliefs and aesthetic values
- 5 Aesthetics
- 6 Australian Aboriginal cultures – Tourism Australia
- 7 Aboriginal Australians, facts and information
- 8 Aboriginal origins
- 9 British settlement
- 10 The Stolen Generations
- 11 The struggle continues
- 12 Aboriginal culture is not a problem. The way we talk about it is
- 13 Aboriginal English
- 14 10 Facts About Aboriginal Art
Please help! Which of the following is not true about Aborigine culture? (1 point) It is
- Please, someone assist me! Which of the following statements regarding Aboriginal culture is not correct? (1 point)It is the world’s oldest continuously existing civilisation. Traditional Aborigine societies established agricultural communities in their respective areas. Aborigines do not feel that people have a right to the land. Aborigine groups may be found all throughout the continent of Australia, including the Northern Territory. 2.Aborigines think that Dream Time marks the beginning of land battles with Europeans, as shown by the number one point. The age of creation, the end of all human existence, and the beginning of the afterlife are all described as follows: I’ll be happy to examine your replies
- 3.According to aboriginal spiritual beliefs, the Earth is(1 point)
- Assuming that these questions are about the Aborigines of Australia, I believe that the answers to questions A and B are the resting places of eternal anguish and pain for them. a source of riches that can be conquered in the name of one’s forefathers and grandfathers a long-forgotten gift from the gods a location where humanity were expelled from the presence of the gods 4.All of the following claims concerning Aborigine rituals are correct, with the exception of (one item) the statement that ceremonies safeguard Aborigine secrets. Gender-specific rituals are held in separate locations. Aborigine ancestry is commemorated via rituals. Ceremonies are devoid of any religious or spiritual significance. 5.The Aborigines are the indigenous people of New Zealand, and they receive one point. settlers from the Maori and British Isles Melanesians 6.The construction of churches in Australia demonstrates the influence of(1 point)Aborigine culture. Cultures of East Asia and Central Europe are compared. The culture of the Polynesians. In accordance with historical evidence(1 point), historians think that the Aborigines most likely came to Australia from New Zealand. Eastern Africa, India, and New Guinea are all possible destinations. 8.Which of the following traits does Polynesian culture share with Aborigine culture? (1 point) Both cultures constructed intricate wood sculptures to symbolize gods and monarchs. Both of these groups established agricultural villages. Both countries relied on the water for transportation and fishing for their livelihoods. Both civilizations may trace their origins back to a common ancestor. 9.A German adventurer is credited for naming New Zealand and Tasmania. (1 point) British explorer, Dutch explorer, and French explorer are among names that come to mind. 10.From the late 18th to the mid–19th century, Europeans looked to the Pacific for economic advantage through the trading of(1 point)petroleum. Whales and seals are among the most popular marine mammals. wheat.diamonds
- The answers are: 1. A – no2. B – yes For the remainder of these questions, I’ll be happy to double-check your responses. 1. B2. B3. D OR B4. DI do not know
- 2. B2. B3. D OR B4. DI do not know
- The answers to lesson 2: the cultural landscape of Oceania are 1.B2.B3.C4.D5.B6.C7.D8.D10.B
- Thank you for your assistance! According to aboriginal culture, which of the following is not true? (2 points for this) It is the world’s oldest continuously existing culture. Agrarian villages were established by traditional Aborigine societies. Land is not considered to be human property by aboriginals. Australia is home to a diverse range of aboriginal communities that live all around the country. Dream Time, according to aboriginal belief, marks the beginning of land conflicts with the Europeans (see point 1) In the age of creation, there is an end to all human existence, as well as a beginning to the afterlife. I’ll be happy to examine your replies
- 3.According to aboriginal spiritual beliefs, the Earth is(1 point) I suppose that these questions are about the Aborigines of Australia
- I believe that the answers to questions A and B are the resting places of eternal misery and pain for them. To conquer a source of wealth in the name of one’s forefathers and foremothers a gift from the gods that is thousands of years old a location where humanity were expelled by the gods. In regards to Aborigine rituals, all of the following claims are correct, with the exception(1 point) that ceremonies are used to keep Aborigine secrets hidden. Women’s and men’s rites are held in separate locations. Aborigine ancestry is celebrated via rituals. No religious or spiritual significance is attached to the events. 5.The Aborigines are the indigenous people of New Zealand, who receive one point. Settlers from the Maori and British Isles Melanesians Church architecture in Australia demonstrates the impact of (one point)Aboriginal culture. 6. culture of East Asia vs. culture of Central Europe a culture of the Polynesians The Aborigines are believed to have migrated to Australia from(1 point)New Zealand, according to historians and anthropologists. Africa’s eastern coast, India’s subcontinent, and New Guinea (One point) Both Polynesians and Aborigines carved ornate wood sculptures to portray gods and monarchs, which is a trait shared by Polynesian and Aboriginal civilization. Agrarian villages were established by both of these peoples Navigating the waters and harvesting fish were the foundations of both countries’ economy. There is a shared ancestry between the two cultures. 9.A German adventurer is credited for naming New Zealand and Tasmania. explorers from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and France Europe sought economic advantage from the Pacific through the commerce of(1 point)petroleum throughout the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Whales and seals are among the most endangered marine mammals. wheat.diamonds
- The answers are: 1. A – no2. B – yes For the remainder of these questions, I’ll be happy to look through your replies. I don’t know what to do with B2, B3, or D. I don’t know what to do with DI. The answers to lesson 2: the cultural landscape of Oceania are 1.B2.B3.C4.D5.B6.C7.D8.D10.B
Australian Aboriginal peoples
One of two separate groups of Indigenous peoples in Australia, the other being the Torres Strait Islander people, are known as the Australian Aboriginal peoples (AAP). In this section, you will learn about initiatives to bury the remains of indigenous Australians who were removed from their homelands for research or exhibition in the twenty first century. An overview of the attempts made in the twenty-first century to bury the remains of indigenous Australians who had been removed for scientific research and museum exhibits in the past.
In the common wisdom, Australia is the only continent where the whole Indigenous population has retained a single type of adaptation—hunting and gathering—throughout history.
In light of this discovery, questions have been raised about the traditional viewpoint, which holds that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are perhaps unique in terms of the degree of contrast between the complexity of their social organization and religious life and the relative simplicity of their material technologies.
Australia’s indigenous peoples are usually believed to have originated in Asiaavia insularSoutheast Asia (which includes present-day Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and East Timor, as well as Indonesia and the Philippines) and to have been in the country for at least 45,000–50,000 years. Some experts, however, believe that early people arrived in the Northern Territory far earlier, maybe as early as 65,000 to 80,000 years ago, based on findings at theNauwalabila I and Madjedbebearchaeological sites in the Northern Territory.
The earlier dating of human arrival in Australia, which is based on the use of optically stimulated luminescence (measuring the last time the sand in question was exposed to sunlight), has been questioned by other scholars because the Northern Territory sites are in areas of termite activity, which can displace artifacts downward to older levels.
Some voyages, such as those between Bali and Lombok and between Timor and Greater Australia, would have required the use of watercraft, however, due to the long distances involved (more than 120 miles) and the lack of available land transportation (200 km).
When the continent was fully occupied about 35,000 years ago, the southwest and southeast corners (Tasmania became an island when sea levels rose sometime between 13,500 and 8,000 years ago, isolating Aboriginal people who lived there from the rest of the continent) and highlands of New Guinea’s island were all inhabited.
- Wild dogs such as thedingo, which are a kind of canine, were first seen in Australia just 5,000 to 3,000 years ago, which is far later than the period when Aboriginal people first began combining tiny stone objects to form composite tools, which was approximately 8,000 years ago.
- Other significant changes happened at the continental level over the previous 1,500–3,000 years, including population expansions, the exploitation of new habitats, more efficient resource extraction, and an increase in the interchange of valuable commodities across large distances.
- However, current genetic data shows that numerous donor groups came from a single heterogeneous migration or several waves of migration into Australia, however it has not been determined whether there were single or multiple waves of migration into Australia.
- While many scientists still believe that pre-European populations were very variable, most now agree that there was a wide range of variance.
Some believe that Aboriginal civilizations have one of the longest deep-time chronologies of any tribe on the planet, and this is supported by archaeological evidence.
Australian Aboriginal peoples – Beliefs and aesthetic values
Aboriginal people believed that their way of life had already been predetermined by the creative activities of the Dreamingbeings and the blueprint that served as their legacy, and that their only job was to live in accordance with the parameters of that heritage. As a result, there was no concept of development, and there was no space for rival dogmas or revolt against the existing quo. Everything that existed at the time of the mythic past was set in stone for all time, and all that the living were asked to do, in order to ensure the continuation of their world, was to obey the law of the Dreaming and perform correctly the rituals that were said to be necessary for physical and social reproduction in order to ensure the continuation of their world.
- It was not a static deadweight of tradition, but was constantly being added to and enlivened, despite an ideology that preached non-change and the necessity of just reproducing current forms and ways of life.
- It also held that all individuals were subject to the authority of the law rather than the authority of other people.
- When people were not in the ritual arena, they valued their personal autonomy highly, and they were likely to react with anger and violence if others attempted to deny or diminish it.
- Using totemic belief systems, people and organizations are able to establish a variety of connections with both the objects of nature and the all-powerful entities of the spiritual realm in several ways.
As defined by the Oxford Dictionary, totemism is a representation of the universe seen as devoid of morality and social order, a worldview that regards humanity and nature as a single corporate whole, or a collection of symbols that serve as a conventional expression of the value system of a society.
- Many of Australia’s legendary entities are totemic in the sense that they embody in their own personae or outer forms the common life energy that pervades a certain species.
- Totemism’s significance rests in the fact that it provides people and organizations with direct and life-sustaining linkages back to the very beginnings of society itself, the Dreaming, as well as to the vast forces emerging from the spiritual realm, which are otherwise impossible to get.
- As a result, it serves as a foundation for individual identity while also connecting a person to a large number of individuals who have similar ties.
- What is important are the connections symbolized by totems—the ties that bind people simultaneously to one another, to places in the physical world, and to the omnipotent spiritual forces on which all worldly life is predicated.
- Throughout the year, religious action, whether it was taking place, being planned, or being debated, was common, especially among initiated males.
- These occurrences provided Aboriginal people with the opportunity to conduct their religious activities in an environment of increased excitement and anxiety.
- Many rites included participation by children as well.
There was constant creation of new rituals and interchange of rituals with other groups, and this dissemination provided a key dynamic aspect to the religious lives of the people.
Take a trip to Cooktown, Australia, and learn about the indigenous Aboriginal people’s history, culture, rock art, and dancing. Cooktown, Queensland, Australia, is the destination for this excursion, which includes ancient Aboriginal rock art and an Aboriginal dance event. Travel Television That Is a Lot of Fun (A Britannica Publishing Partner) View all of the videos related to this topic. It was possible to express one’s artistic sensibilities through sacred ritual, particularly in theatrical performances that included exaggerated posing and intricate dancing routines.
Songs ranged in style from the succinctverses or couplets of central Australia and the Great Sandy Desert, which were made up of three, four, or more words repeated in linked sequences, to the more elaborate songs of northeastern Arnhem Land, which were long verses that built up complex word pictures through symbolic allusion and imagery, to the more elaborate songs of northern Australia and the Great Sandy Desert.
- There was no poetry, at least not in the traditional sense of spoken verse, but there were chants, some of which were breathtakingly beautiful.
- The “gossip” songs of western Arnhem Land, produced by songmen with the assistance of spirits, were included in the expanded repertoire of songs about everyday happenings.
- Boomerangs or clubs were rhythmically hammered together or pounded on the ground in the southern and central parts of Australia, whereas in southeastern Australia, women utilized skin beating pads on their bodies.
- A didjeridu is a musical instrument played by an Australian Aborigine.
- On top of the religious mythology, there were also everyday myths and tales that were either historically accurate or were thought to be accurate.
- Each cultural location developed its own individual style of art to express itself.
- Tjurunga art was composed of incised patterns on flat stones or wooden boards.
A wide range of objects—most of which were ephemeral since the process of creating them was itself one of the suitable rites—were created everywhere because sacred ritual supplied the impetus for their creation.
A large number of therangga, or ceremonial poles, were found in eastern Arnhem Land, many of them made of strong hardwood with ochre motifs and long pendants made of feathered thread hanging from them.
Figures carved from wood, both of legendary entities and of current people, also appeared often; some were utilized in holy ceremony, while others served as memorial posts for the deceased.
AIATSIS has provided this image for use (collection item no.
They were mostly employed on the initiation ground to provide novices with training.
Cave and rock paintings or engravings, as well as sand drawings linked with desert ceremonies, were also widely found in caves and on rocks. (See also art and architecture, as well as Oceanic).
Australian Aboriginal cultures – Tourism Australia
Indigenous Australians have been inhabiting Australia’s enormous areas for tens of thousands of years, and their culture and traditions are deeply ingrained in the country. As the world’s oldest living civilization, they have maintained a distinct identity and spirit that can be found in every area of the country to this day. While the terms ‘Aboriginal’ and ‘Indigenous’ are commonly used to designate Australia’s First Peoples, they have a distinct perspective on the terms. We are one, we are different from one another, and together, we are many, according to Dr Ridgeway.
- Torres Strait Islanders are indigenous people who live on the islands of the Torres Strait between the point of Cape York in Queensland and Papua New Guinea.
- Due to the fact that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples make up fewer than 4% of Australia’s population, most tourists will not get a chance to contact with the country’s indigenous people on a daily basis.
- It is separated into three colors, according to the Aboriginal flag, which was developed by artist Harold Thomas in 1971.
- A triangular flag representing the Torres Strait Islands, created by the late Mr Bernard Namok and approved in 1992, features three horizontal panels, with green at the top and bottom (representing land) and blue (representing sea) in the middle.
- In the center is a white dhari (traditional headgear of the Torres Strait), which represents purity.
- The NAIDOC website provides further information about the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flag.
Aboriginal Australians, facts and information
Over 50,000 years have elapsed since Australia’s earliest inhabitants, known as Aboriginal Australians, first settled on the continent. In today’s Australia, there are 250 separate linguistic groups that are distributed throughout the country. Aboriginal Australians are divided into two groups: Aboriginal peoples, who are descended from those who were already living in Australia when Britain began colonizing the island in 1788, and Torres Strait Islander peoples, who are descended from residents of the Torres Strait Islands, a group of islands that are part of modern-day Queensland, Australia.
AllAboriginal Australians are descended from tribes that were indigenous to the country.
According to Australian law, a “Aboriginal Australian” is defined as “a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander heritage who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is acknowledged as such by the community in which he resides.
When a genetic study of 111 Aboriginal Australians was conducted in 2017, the researchers discovered that all modern-day Aboriginal Australians are descended from a common ancestor who was a member of a distinct population that first appeared on the Australian mainland approximately 50,000 years ago. Indigenous Australians believe that crude boats were used to transport them from Asia to Northern Australia. In accordance with current understanding, those early migrants themselves migrated out of Africa around 70,000 years ago, making Aboriginal Australians the world’s oldest community of people living outside of Africa.
According to estimates, between 750,000 and 1.25 million Aboriginal Australians resided in Australia when British immigrants first arrived in 1788 to establish a colony. The indigenous population of the island were decimated by illnesses soon after, and British colonists acquired their territory. Even while some Aboriginal Australians resisted (up to 20,000 indigenous people were killed in violent combat on the colony’s boundaries), the vast majority were conquered via murders and the devastation of their communities when British immigrants took their lands from them.
The Stolen Generations
Between 1910 and 1970, as a result of assimilation programs implemented by the Australian government, between 10 and 33 percent of Aboriginal Australian children were forcefully taken from their homes. These “Stolen Generations” were placed in adoptive families and institutions, and they were banned to speak their original languages while in these environments. Only in 1967 did Australians vote to ensure that federal laws applied to Aboriginal Australians.Most Aboriginal Australians did not have full citizenship or voting rights until 2008.In 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd issued a national apology for the country’s actions toward Aboriginal Australians of the Stolen Generations; since then, Australia has worked hard to reduce social disparities between Indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.Only in 1967 did Australians vote to ensure that federal laws applied to Aboriginal Australians.
The struggle continues
Government strategies of assimilation resulted in the forced removal of between 10 and 33 percent of Aboriginal Australian children from their households between 1910 and 1970, depending on the time period. All of the “Stolen Generations” were placed in adoptive homes or institutions, with the ability to communicate in their original languages prohibited. Their names were frequently changed.In 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd issued a national apology for the country’s actions against Aboriginal Australians of the Stolen Generations; since then, Australia has worked to reduce social disparities between Aboriginal Australians and non-indigenous Australians.Only in 1967 did Australians vote to ensure that federal laws applied to Aboriginal Australians.Most Aboriginal Australians did not have full citizenship or voting rights.
Aboriginal culture is not a problem. The way we talk about it is
My firm view is that there is no shortage of energy, ambition, or resources to alter the struggle that Indigenous Australians are currently experiencing. There is a problem with the method in which we phrase these topics. We’re all caught up in something called a “deficit discourse,” and we’re not even aware that we’re involved in one. In the context of Aboriginal identity, deficit discourse refers to a way of thought that frames and expresses it in terms of negativity, deficiency, and disempowerment.
For example, if an Aboriginal boy does exceptionally well in school, graduates from year 12, goes on to enrol in university or enters full-time employment, and goes on to become the person he wants to be, the reason given is that he has had extremely supportive parents, received a superior education, had excellent teachers, and made the most of his available resources.
- Although this is a straightforward example, all of the reasoning and assumptions that underpin this framing are quite nuanced and mostly go unnoticed by the general population.
- However, it took me a long time to realize that this discourse of lack had persisted for a long period of time.
- When it comes to deficit thinking, it fails to recognize what we already have.
- Professor Russell Bishop conducted some outstanding research with instructors of Maori pupils, in which he examined the ways in which they thought, the things in which they believed, and the things in which they “knew” about their students.
- It happens in our organization all the time – we’ve seen it with our Engoori process and with the Stronger Smarter leadership program that Chris Sarra and I designed together.
- Our research team is working on a three-year project, sponsored by the Australian Research Council, that will look at how the deficit rhetoric has impacted education.
- So, first and foremost, we want to determine if there is now a discourse of deficiency or not.
When we operate a process that does not participate in deficit thinking, such as Engoori, we want to see what occurs when we change away from deficit thinking and towards strength-based interactions with schools and certain families.
In order to alter the deficit narrative, we must challenge the assumptions that underpin the way people define their responses to some of the world’s most difficult challenges.
It’s right in front of you.
However, it should not be the starting point for our discussion.
Engoori will be used in my work at the Australian National University to influence the narrative.
It acknowledges that people come with a wide range of strengths, and it emphasizes on the characteristics that help us to remain strong.
Ultimately, our strength serves as the basis around which we construct our lives.
Obviously, it is not the beginning point for Engoori, since the moment you ask that question, you are immediately in the red zone.
As part of my job, I attempted to improve relationships between schools and Aboriginal communities, and I used to inquire of the families, “What are your issues and challenges?” This forced them to confront their own feelings of deficit right away because they had to talk about all the negative aspects of their lives.
- I did the same thing with the instructors and principals, and upon consideration, I realized that it prevented any genuine ties between families and schools from developing.
- The thing we’ve learned over the years of doing this work is that when you shift the conversation from one of deficit to one of strength, everything else shifts as well.
- Some aspects of Engoori are really basic, such as asking “What is it that maintains you strong?” and seeing how everything transforms.
- I’m very aware that it occurs to me.
- It feels too overwhelming, and I feel like I can’t do anything about the situation at hand.
- And I believe that this is exactly what is occurring with Indigenous policy formulation and practices on the ground — we are always attempting to do the same old things again and over.
- “We can’t tackle today’s issues with the same sort of thinking that caused them,” Albert Einstein once observed.
- We’re going back to the old-fashioned system of benefit cards.
- There isn’t much of a change there — it’s just that we now have Aboriginal people lobbying for it, which appears to make it acceptable.
- Despite the fact that stating “alter the discourse” appears to be an easy task, getting individuals to question their own preconceptions is really tough.
- It enables us to recall and reconnect with the things that make us truly strong, and to use these as a platform and foundation upon which to develop our future selves.
It removes the blame, the anger, and the frustration, and replaces them with something else – with hope, robustness, positivism, dreams, and desires, among other things.
- ‘Our story, our way’ – each week, a different guest hosts the @IndigenousX Twitter account, where they address subjects that are of particular interest to them as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people. Staff from Guardian Australia assisted in creating this piece.
|Aboriginal English(written by Diana Eades)This page includes information on:to read this page translated into Haitian Creole, clickhere|
|BACKGROUNDIntroductionAboriginal English is the name given to the various kinds of English spoken by Aboriginal people throughout Australia. Technically, the language varieties are dialects of English. They have much in common with other varieties of Australian English, but there are distinctive features of accent, grammar, words and meanings, as well as language use. These Aboriginal English features often show continuities with the traditional Aboriginal languages. In many subtle ways Aboriginal English is a powerful vehicle for the expression of Aboriginal identity.HistoryBefore the British invasion of Australia at the end of the eighteenth century, there were approximately 250 different indigenous languages spoken throughout the country, with approximately 600 dialects. The languages were very complex, and the differences between neighbouring languages were often as complicated as the differences between English and Spanish, for example.The British were generally reluctant to learn any of the Aboriginal languages. Consequently, since the first contact with the invaders, it was left up to Aboriginal people to use some English in their dealings with them. At first this was a simplified kind of language, used only between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in situations of limited contact. This kind of English is referred to by linguists as ‘pidgin English’.But within a few generations this pidgin began to develop an important communicative function between different Aboriginal groups who did not have a shared language, and so it expanded linguistically, as well as socially. The social and linguistic development of the early pidgin English gave birth to Aboriginal dialects of English all over the country, as well as to two creole languages in some northern areas (Kriol and Torres Strait Creole).But in some areas it seems that Aboriginal English developed not from pidgin English, but from the Aboriginalization of English as speakers learnt the language. That is, Aboriginal people in areas where there was no pidgin language made English into an Aboriginal English by bringing into it accents, words, grammar and ways of speaking from their Aboriginal languages and those of their parents.It is both linguistically inaccurate and derogatory to use the term ‘pidgin English’ to refer to the kinds of English spoken by Aboriginal people today.Attitudes and current useAboriginal English is probably the first language of the majority of Aboriginal people in Australia, who make up approximately 2% of the total population of the country. While many people speak it as their ‘mother tongue’, in more remote areas it is spoken as a second or third or fourth language, by speakers of ‘traditional’ Aboriginal languages and the creole languages.Aboriginal English is important to Aboriginal identity, both in terms of self-identity and the identification of other Aboriginal people, particularly in parts of Australia where the traditional languages and cultural practices no longer survive, or are no longer strong. Although it is primarily an oral language, Aboriginal English is now being used in some published literature.Like many other non-standard language varieties, Aboriginal English has a history of being dismissed as ‘bad English’. It is only since the 1960s that linguists and educators have recognized it as a valid, rule-governed language variety.Today many, if not most, non-Aboriginal Australians are still ignorant about Aboriginal English. However, it does have recognition at a number of levels of government. Departments of education around the country are well aware of the fact that they will not succeed in providing successful literacy education for speakers of Aboriginal English unless they recognize and accept Aboriginal English as the home language of many students. Several states have literacy programs for Aboriginal English speakers which build on the students’ home language.And there have been some important developments in the recognition and understanding of Aboriginal English in the legal system, following a number of key criminal cases involving Aboriginal English speaking witnesses. (See for example the Queensland handbookAboriginal English and the CourtsVarietiesThere is quite a bit of variation in the different varieties of Aboriginal English throughout Australia, but probably not as much as is found in English in Britain (compare the differences in grammar, sound systems, and vocabulary between Cockney, Scottish and ‘Geordie’ English). It is an oversimplification to speak of one dialect of Aboriginal English, just as it would be to speak of one dialect of British English.There are a number of Aboriginal English dialects, or more accurately, there are a number of continua of Aboriginal English dialects, ranging from close to Standard English at one end (the ‘light’ varieties), to close to Kriol at the other (the ‘heavy’ varieties). Heavy Aboriginal English is spoken mainly in the more remote areas, where it is influenced by Kriol, while light varieties of Aboriginal English are spoken mainly in urban, rural and metropolitan areas. But even in these areas, some Aboriginal people in certain Aboriginal situations use a heavier Aboriginal English.BACK TO TOPSOUNDS GRAMMAR|
|VOCABULARYIn the area of lexicon or vocabulary there is often regional variation. So, for example, the word for policeman is:monatjin Western Australiaboolimanin Queenslandgunjiorgunjibal in New South WalesAnd the word for white man is:balandain Arnhem Land (Northern Territory)gubbaorgubin south eastern Australiamigalooin Queenslandwajalain Western Australiawalypalain parts of northern AustraliaThere are also some English words used with different meanings in Aboriginal English. In many varieties of Aboriginal English, the word mothermeans ‘the woman who gave birth to a person, and that woman’s sisters’. This shows the continuity of Aboriginal kinship where a mother’s sister often is treated as a mother, and a single word in many Aboriginal languages would translate into standard English as both ‘mother’ and ‘mother’s sister’.Another important example is the wordcountrywhich refers to land generally, but also has a more specific meaning of ‘place of belonging’. Some other examples are:|
|Aboriginal English||standard Australian English|
|big mob||a lot of|
|sorry business||ceremony associated with death|
|grow [a child] up||raise [a child]|
|gammon||pretending, kidding, joking|
|cheeky||mischievous, aggressive, dangerous|
|to tongue for||to long for|
|SOUNDSThe sound system of Aboriginal English has been influenced by the traditional languages, as well as the different kinds of British and Irish English brought to Australia.One of the most distinctive features of the Aboriginal English sound system is found in the many words which start with a vowel, where the standard English translation starts with ‘h’, for example|
|Aboriginal English||standard English|
|Enry’s at||Henry’s hat|
This characteristic is shared by many different types of English spoken around the world, including Cockney English. There is no ‘h’ sound in any of the traditional Aboriginal languages. Over the course of several generations, Aboriginal speakers have learned to speak English with a distinctive Aboriginal accent. As a result, when they have learned conventional English words that begin with the letter ‘h,’ the Aboriginal accent has generated words that do not begin with the letter ‘h,’ as seen below.
However, it is incorrect to infer that the pronunciation of words lacking the letter ‘h’ is indicative of ‘uneducated’ English.
It should be regarded as an important component of the Aboriginal accent and recognized as a characteristic that many Aboriginal people are quite proud of.” The addition of the h sound to English words that begin with a vowel is a characteristic of Aboriginal English pronunciation that is less prevalent in non-Aboriginal versions of English.
|Aboriginal English||standard English|
|Huncle Henry||Uncle Henry|
Several other types of English spoken across the world, such as Cockney English, have this characteristic as well. There is no ‘h’ sound in any of the traditional Aboriginal languages. Aborigines have learned to speak English with an Aboriginal accent over the course of a generation. As a result, when they acquire conventional English words that begin with the letter ‘h,’ the Aboriginal accent produces words that do not begin with the letter ‘h.’ A significant portion of this pronunciation is likely affected by the accent of many early non-Aboriginal Australians (particularly Cockney prisoners), and it is also consistent with several other nonstandard dialects of English.
In the same way that the “sophisticated and elegant” vowel pronunciations of French speakers of English are a component of the French accent, so is this a part of the Aboriginal accent as well.
While this characteristic of Aboriginal English pronunciation is shared with a number of other non-standard English varieties, there is a related characteristic of Aboriginal English pronunciation that is much less commonly found in non-Aboriginal varieties of English: the addition of the h sound to English words that begin with a vowel, as in the words:
- SE begins with the letter ‘d’, which corresponds to the letter AE begins with the letter ‘th’.
|Aboriginal English||standard English|
- It is worth noting that the first letters of AE (‘b’ and “p”) match to the letters of SE (‘v’ and “f”).
|SOME GRAMMATICAL FEATURESQuestion structurePerhaps one of the most persistent and widespread grammatical features of Aboriginal English involves the structure of questions. It is common for Aboriginal English speakers to ask a question using the structure of a statement with rising (question) intonation. This structure is also used sometimes in colloquial Standard English. It is common for Aboriginal English questions like this to be finished with a question tag. In much of Australia this tag is eh?, in South Australia it isinna, and in the south west of Western Australia, it is unna.|
|Aboriginal English||standard English|
|You still sitting there that time?||You were still sitting there then?Were you still sitting there then?|
|They bite, eh?||They bite, don’t they?|
Sentences constructed by combining two sentences together One of the most enduring characteristics of Aboriginal English is the expression of equational, descriptive, and locational sentences through the joining of two phrases without the addition of any endings or extra words (such as the verb ‘to be’), which is one of the most persistent features of the language.
This distinctive trait of Aboriginal English appears to be distinct from that of other nonstandard dialects of English in Australia, according to the available evidence. It also has a grammatical structure that is similar to that of Aboriginal languages.
|Aboriginal English||standard English|
|E my cousin brother.||He’s my cousin.|
|They just normal, but they steel.||They’re just normal, but they’re steel.|
|My uncle back there.||My uncle’s back there.|
|E big.||He’s big.|
There is a noun phrase plus there When used in conjunction with another noun phrase, the structure Noun Phrase followed bythere may be translated as ‘It is a.’ (followed by Noun Phrase) or ‘there is/are’ (followed by Noun Phrase).
|Aboriginal English||standard English|
|Three pies there, eh?||Are there three pies?|
|When the river go down,this little island there.||When the river goes down,there’s a little island|
|PRAGMATICSPragmatics is the term linguists use to refer to the way language is used (rather than the way it is structured, for example). Many Australians do not recognize important pragmatic differences between Aboriginal English and other varieties of Australian English.For example, in many varieties of Aboriginal English, questions are often not used to seek important information. People use more indirect ways of finding things out, using hinting or triggering statements. Silence is also important to many Aboriginal interactions, and unlike the use of silence in many Western interactions, it is not seen to be an indication that communication has broken down.Such pragmatic features of Aboriginal English are widespread, even where grammar and accent are very close to other kinds of Australian English. The recognition and understanding of Aboriginal English pragmatics is essential to effective cross-cultural communication.BACK TO TOPVOCABULARYSOUNDS GRAMMAR|
|RESOURCESMalcolm, I., Haig, Y., Konigsberg, P., Rochecouste, J, Collard, G., Hill, A., Cahill, R. (1999a).Two-Way English: Towards More User-Friendly Education for Speakers of Aboriginal English.Perth: Edith Cowan University.Malcolm, I., Haig, Y., Konigsberg, P., Rochecouste, J, Collard, G., Hill, A., Cahill, R. (1999b).Towards More User-Friendly Education for Speakers of Aboriginal English.Perth: Edith Cowan University.Western Australia, Department of Education (1999).Solid English.[These three Western Australian books report on research on Aboriginal English, and provide guidelines and practical suggestions for teachers.]Deadly eh, Cuz: Teaching Speakers of Koorie English.Goulburn Valley Aboriginal Education Consultative Group Incorporated. Shepparton, Victoria.[A kit for teachers of Aboriginal English speaking students in Victoria.]NSW Early Childhood Aboriginal Literacy Resource Kit.Sydney: Board of Studies[A kit for teachers of young Aboriginal English speaking students in New South Wales.]BACK TO TOPVOCABULARYSOUNDS GRAMMAR|
10 Facts About Aboriginal Art
|1.||Aboriginal art is based on dreamtime stories.A large proportion of contemporary Aboriginal art is based on important ancient stories and symbols centred on ‘the Dreamtime’ – the period in which Indigenous people believe the world was created. TheDreamtime storiesare up to and possibly even exceeding 50,000 years old, and have been handed down through the generations for all those years.|
|2.||Aboriginal symbols are used instead of written language.Australian Aboriginal people have no written language of their own, and so the important stories central to the people’s culture are based on thetraditional icons (symbols)and information in the artwork, which go hand in hand with recounted stories, dance or song, helping to pass on vital information and preserve their culture. Although it may be tempting to compare aboriginal art to a Western art movement, its origins are usually coming from a completely different visual language.Detail: Khatija Possum|
|3.||Aboriginal paintings are used to teach new generations.Paintings are also used for teaching: A painting (in effect a visual story) is often used by Aboriginal people for different purposes, and the interpretations of the iconography (symbols) in the artwork can vary according to the audience. So the story may take one form when told to children and a very different and higher level form when speaking to initiated elders.|
|4.||There are many Aboriginal tribal groups.Australia has always been multicultural. Before the arrival of Europeans, there were many different language groups and many different cultural ways.Check outAIATSIS map of Indigenous Australiato learn more. With so many different languages, cultures and regions existing in Aboriginal Australia, it’s not surprising that different regions have different artistic styles and use different artistic media today!|
|5.||Permission is required to paint an Aboriginal dreaming.Artists need permission to paint a particular story: Where ancient and important stories are concerned, and particularly those containing secret or sacred information, an artist must have permission to paint the story she or he paints. Traditional Aboriginal artists cannot paint a story that does not belong to them through family lineage.|
there is a noun phrase Existential phrases are occasionally articulated using the construction Noun Phrase followed bythere, which translates to standard English as ‘It’s a.’ (followed by Noun Phrase) or ‘there is/are’ (followed by Noun Phrase).
|6.||When did theAboriginal art movementstart?Aboriginalart on canvas and boardonly began 50 years ago: Traditionally, the paintings we now see on canvas, were scratched or drawn on rock walls, used in body paint or on ceremonial articles and importantly, drawn in sand or dirt accompanied by the song or story. In 1971, Geoffrey Bardon a school teacher working with Aboriginal children in Papunya, noticed the Aboriginal men, while telling stories to others, were drawing symbols in the sand. He encouraged them to put these stories down on board and canvas, and there began theAboriginal art movement. Since then, Australian Aboriginal Art has been tagged the most exciting contemporary art form of the 20th Century. Artist Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri|
|7.||There are hidden secrets in Aboriginal dot paintings.Dots were used to hide secret information:Dot paintingin the main, began when the Aboriginal people became concerned that white man would be able to see and understand their sacred and private knowledge. The dots (sometimes called ‘over-dotting’) were used to obscure the secret iconography (symbols) underneath. This has morphed into the classical style, typified by artworks from the Pintupi tribe.|
|8.||Aboriginal art is shown in museums and galleries.Aboriginal artworks belong in both galleries and museums. Indigenous Australian culture is the longest surviving culture the world has seen; it is complex and centred on long term survival in a hostile environment. It is rich in spiritual teachings, knowledge, and cultural behaviour, as well as the practical skills and knowledge required to survive. Therefore, Aboriginal Art has both artistic and anthropological merit. Works painted even in recent times can qualify equally for a place in a modern art gallery or a museum. This is one of the reasons it is so special and important.|
|9.||What is the highest priced paid for Aboriginal artworks.The highest priced Aboriginal Artworks so far were painted by Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri for the work ‘Warlugulong’ which sold in 2007 to the National Gallery of Australia (NGA) for a tidy sum of $2.4 million dollars. The record for an indigenous artwork painted by a woman (and the record for any female Australian artist), was achieved by Emily Kame Kngwarreye’s work ‘Earth’s Creation’ which sold in 2017 for $2.1 million.|
|10.||Aboriginal art keeps Aboriginal culture strong.Aboriginal art has fostered cultural revival in an extremely good way for the Indigenous people. As the older artists teach the young, it has revitalised young Indigenous people’s appreciation and knowledge of their culture. There have also been a number of intangible benefits, such as increasing self esteem and pride in ones culture. On the other side of the coin, non-Aboriginal people get to marvel at the beauty of Aboriginal art and begin to build stronger bridges of understanding.|
Look at some Aboriginal Paintings
|11.||Aboriginal art has many layers of meaning.There are usually three different levels to an Indigenous Australian language; the children’s or ‘public’ version, a general version, and then a ceremonial/spiritual level (which can sometimes have a further three levels within that!). As an indigenous person grows up, they learn more language, and with that more knowledge of culture, ceremonies, and country. A lot of art depicts the ‘public’ version ofa dreaming story. The story may appear simple, but there are many, many more levels attached to this story that the artist has learnt to depict the story well.|
|12.||What does the U symbol in mean in Aboriginal art?Ever wonder how the ‘U-shape’ came about in Aboriginal art to represent a person? It’s quite simple really – if you sit cross legged in the sand, the mark left does look a lot like a U! That’s why you will see this symbol used a lot in art from the desert. Check out ourtraditional icons (symbols) page to find out more.|
|13.||Aborigines in Tasmania.There is a terrible misconception that Truganini was the last Tasmanian Aboriginal person – Not True! There is a vibrant and strong Aboriginal community in Tasmania, and some brilliant artists such as Ricky Maynard and Julie Gough. Many Tasmanian Indigenous people continue cultural practises such as the crafting of shell necklaces and basket weaving.|
|14.||Hanging and viewing Aboriginal art.Most art from CentralWestern desert is an aerial depiction of the land, and just as there is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ way to hold a map, you can also hang Aboriginal art any way you like! The artists usually paint on the floor and work around the canvas, and usually take no offence which way their art is hung. This makes Aboriginal art very versatile.|
|15.||What are Aboriginal skin names?There are certain Indigenous names for men and women that come up all the time – they are known as ‘skin names’ and aren’t as straightforward as a surname! It is a complex kinship system that determines how people are related to each other, their rolesresponsibilities to one other, their land and for ceremonies. Find out more aboutskin names.|
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What is Aboriginal art, exactly? Aboriginal Art Forms and Techniques Storytelling from the Night Sky – Jukurrpa Dot Painting in the Aboriginal Tradition