- 1 What Is Culture?
- 2 Culture definition
- 3 Multiple Choice Quiz
- 4 Which of the following was not identified as a defining feature of culture?
- 5 What is Culture?
- 6 ~
- 7 External links
What Is Culture?
The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.
In her interview with Live Science, Cristina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London explained that “culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong.” “Culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong,” she added.
Many nations, such as France, Italy, Germany, the United States, India, Russia, and China, are known for their diverse cultures, with their customs, traditions, music, art, and cuisine serving as a constant pull for tourists to these countries and others.
As De Rossi explained, “it shares its origin with a number of other terms that are associated with actively supporting development.”
The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.
- Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
- 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
- According to Ohio State University historian John L.
- As a result of elites being compelled to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more influence.
Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.
Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Nachi Falls, Japan, is home to the Buddhist temple Seigantoji, which may be seen here. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.
- This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
- Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.
- In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.
- During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms.
Da de los Muertos costumes for children in traditional attire (Image courtesy of Getty/Sollina Images.). The geographical territory that encompasses “Latin culture” is large and diverse. For the sake of this definition, Latin America is comprised of the regions of Central America, South America and Mexico where Spanish or Portuguese is the main language. Beginning in the 1400s, Spain and Portugal colonized or influenced a number of locations across the world, including those listed above. Some historians, such as Michael Gobat, author of “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race” (American Historical Review, Vol.
- Others, however, disagree.
- According to the African American Registery, many of these civilizations were also affected by African cultures as a result of enslaved Africans being carried to the Americas beginning in the 1600s.
- Latino culture is still evolving and spreading around the world.
- The celebration of the Day of the Dead stretches back to before Christopher Columbus arrived in North America, but it was transferred to its current date by Spanish conquerors, who blended it with the Catholic festival of All Saints Day.
In recent years, the holiday has gained widespread recognition in the United States.
Middle Eastern culture
A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together. Jasmin Merdan/Getty Images/Image courtesy of Getty Images The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.
- Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
- According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
- Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
- Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.
- Areas that were formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire are noted for their distinctive architecture, which is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles of architecture.
A family from the Middle East gathers for supper. Jasmin Merdan/Getty Images/Image credit: Getty Images According to a broad definition, the Middle East includes both the Arabian peninsula and the eastern Mediterranean region of the world. According to Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally listed. In addition to “Middle Eastern culture,” the word “Middle Eastern culture” refers to a broad range of cultural activities, religious beliefs, and everyday routines that are found throughout the region.
- The region is considered the cradle of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and other religions.
- During the early seventh century, Islam began to spread from what is now Saudi Arabia.
- While some followers felt that the future leader should be one of Muhammad’s close associates or close confidants, other followers believed that leadership should be passed down via Muhammad’s lineage.
- According to the Council on Foreign Relations, around 85 percent of Muslims are now Sunni.
- Moreover, the Ottoman Empire, which dominated a U-shaped ring surrounding the eastern Mediterranean between the 14th and early 20th centuries, has had an impact on Middle Eastern culture, according to Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Aesthetically different architecture influenced by Persian and Islamic influences can be seen in areas that were once part of the Ottoman Empire.
What is cultural appropriation?
Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as “the taking over of creative or artistic forms, motifs, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today. According to the Khan Academy, these headdresses are filled with important significance, and wearing one was a luxury gained by chieftains or warriors by deeds of courage and valor.
Recent history shows that Gucci encountered a similar reaction in 2019 after selling a product known as “the indy complete turban,” which sparked widespread outrage among the Sikh community, according to Esquire magazine.
Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.
One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.
A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.
It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.
Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.
Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
- Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
- Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
- That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
- And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
- The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
- As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
- Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
- The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
- Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
- In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
- A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
- While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.
- Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
- Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
- Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
- Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
- Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.
It is only individuals who are familiar with a specific culture who can understand the significance of symbols, which might take the form of words, gestures, images, or things. New symbols are easily created, whereas old symbols are quickly demolished or eliminated. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by others in similar circumstances. It’s for this reason that symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society. A hero is a person who has attributes that are highly valued in a society, whether they are historical or contemporary, real or fictional.
- They are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are seen as necessary for social functioning.
- They are wide preferences for one state of affairs over another that may be observed in a large number of situations (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural).
- As a result, they are frequently unable to be discussed or seen by others in their natural environment.
- It is the concrete or visible parts of a culture’s activities that are represented through symbols, heroes, and rituals.
- The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
- On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.
MOUNTING CULTURAL DIFFERENCESA variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or multivariate methodologies, depending on the situation. After the domain of a concept has been empirically sampled, a single-measure technique is used to measure its domain; a composite-measure technique is used to construct an index for the concept after several indicators have been used to measure its domain after the concept has been empirically sampled. According to Hofstede (1997), a composite-measure approach has been developed to quantify cultural differences across various societies:
- It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:
- Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.
Cultures grouped together:
- Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.
Determine the amount of global participation by asking the following questions:
- It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.
Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.
- However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
- Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
- The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
- The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
- Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
- The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
- [ENR (2003).
- [New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
- These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
- Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.
[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]
Multiple Choice Quiz
This exercise consists of 25 multiple-choice questions.
Which of the following was not identified as a defining feature of culture?
What is Culture?
Culture is defined as the taught and shared patterns of behavior and ideas that are held by a given social, ethnic, or age group. It may also be defined as a complex system of collective human ideas that has progressed through an organized stage of civilization that can be peculiar to a particular nation or period of time. Humans, on the other hand, utilize culture to adapt to and modify the world in which they exist. Take note of the golden seat on the Ashanti flag. This concept of culture may be observed in the way we characterize the Ashanti, an African tribe that lives in central Ghana and is described in the book The Ashanti.
The importance of the family and the mother’s clan in Ashanti culture cannot be overstated.
This connects them even more closely to the mother’s side of the family.
The family is housed in a series of huts or dwellings that have been constructed around a central courtyard.
The elders have picked him to be their representative.
The anthropological study of culture may be divided into two categories that are constant and fundamental: diversity and change.
It is the distinctions that exist across all civilizations and sub-cultures throughout the world’s geographical areas.
A culture’s evolution is often attributed to one of two factors: selective transmission or the necessity to adapt to changing circumstances.
When it comes to the culture, this might entail nearly anything, including the probable forced redistribution of, or removal from ancestral regions as a result of external and/or internal factors.
Learning culture is accomplished by active instruction and passive habitus.
Patterned refers to the fact that there is a pool of concepts that are similar.
Individuals can better satisfy their requirements when they are in a variety of locations.
“Culture” as opposed to “culture” At their most fundamental level, the distinction between Culture and culture is found in the manner in which they are described.
The term “culture” refers to a quality shared by all people, but “culture with a lower case c” refers to a specific taught way of life and set of patterns that a single individual has picked up, signifying one variant among many possible cultures.
culture gets more complicated.
However, the overlap of these concepts has had a negative impact over time.
This assumption is incorrect.
If people decide to change, they are frequently attacked by members of their own culture as well as members of other cultures for not respecting ‘authenticity’ and tradition.
culture debate, anthropology’s emphasis on and appreciation of Culture and how it evolves differently in different cultures might be distorted when discussing Cultural relativism or human rights, for example.
Female genital cutting is a good illustration of this since it is a part of little c culture that can be researched and determined to be a violation of human rights.
When it comes to culture, one example of how it has been abused is in apartheid South Africa, where the white supremacist government justified the subjugation of black Africans, or the bantu peoples, by claiming that their goal was to “raise Bantu culture rather than produce black Europeans.” They maintained that “not race, but culture, was the actual source of difference, the determining factor of fate.” Furthermore, cultural distinctions were to be respected.” In such instances, the misuse of the phrase is obvious, since they were using it as a justification for uneven treatment and access to services such as education and other opportunities.
- “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
- “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture”
- “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
- “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture” Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
- Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
- Jump Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007 (see “American commemoration of Cinco de Mayo began in California,” accessed October 30, 2007)
- Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007. (pdf) Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons”
- Jump up “Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City is a collection of essays about urban life. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL
- Jump up Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
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- Jump up Barton Wright, Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
- Jump up Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda are co-authors of Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.’s Jump up to: Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
- Jump up Philosophy Home, 2009
- Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
- Jump up Zmago mit In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán (eds. ), The New York Times. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology, 1995
- Jump up American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race,” May 17, 1998
- Peter L. Berger, Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective, Anchor, 1963, ISBN 0385065299
- C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination, Oxford University Press, 1961, ISBN 0195133730
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- Peter L. Berger, Introduction to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective, Anchor, 1963, ISBN The author, Louisa Lim, has written a piece titled Painful Memories for China’s Footbinding Survivors. James A. Crites Chinese Foot Binding, 2007, and Justin Marozzi, The Son of the Father of History, 2007, both by Justin Marozzi. ^ A brief introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900. Schultz, Emily A., and Robert H. Lavenda (eds.). Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). 7th edition, New York: Oxford University Press
- ‘RACE – The Influence of a Deception.’ “What Exactly Is Race |.” PBS, aired on March 8, 2009
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- Judith Lorber’s “Night to His Day”: The Social Construction of Gender is available online. Text and Reader for the Transition from Inquiry to Academic Writing 617-30
- Bourgois, Philippe, “Workaday World, Crack Economy.” Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. 617-30
- In The Nation (1995), pages 706-11,
- What is the discipline of Anthropology? American Anthropological Association information
- SLA – Society for Linguistic Anthropology information
- Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda authored this article. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Page 79 of the 2009 edition of Oxford University Press.
- Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda authored this article. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. pgs. 332-333 in New York: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009.