Which Of The Following Is Not An Accurate Sociological Statement About Culture

sociology 2 Flashcards

The seven traits that distinguish the culture of an organization

  • Individual autonomy, structure, support, identification, performance-reward, conflict tolerance, and risk tolerance are all important considerations.

Culture’s fundamental building components Values, traditions, religion, symbolism, and language are all important. Symbolic Culture is made up of a number of different components. – Language enables human experiences to be built upon one another. The past and future are provided in a communal or shared context – slang: the meaning of this phrase may vary with time Differences and similarities between cultures The differences between sleeping arrangements and the structure of the home are as follows: sim: a focus on etiquette, school-related skills, and emotional changes between the ages of 6 and 8 years, and the use of authority assertion to discipline children.

Core Values in the Culture of the United States Education Individualism Freedom Health is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting health and well-being.

  • East coasters and southwesters both use slang; each has a different dialect and accent, as well as their own adaption of their language.
  • 2) There is no culture that is superior or inferior to another culture.
  • They keep us informed about current events, present us to a diverse range of individuals and points of view on current topics, demonstrate products and services that may help us become more acceptable to others, and entertain us by allowing us to live vicariously via the lives of others.
  • Movies, music, and cuisine from the United States.
  • Diffusion is the borrowing of characteristics (ideas/things) between civilizations.
  • A common word used by Americans to refer to many activities like as reading Shakespeare’s sonnets, eating out at a fine restaurant, and visiting the opera is Culture may be seen in the form of buildings, tools, music, and jewelry.
  • Consider the following as an illustration: which one of the following is not a true sociological statement about culture?

When michael and wendy got married, they exchanged wedding rings and vows as_ of their commitment to one another_ are the standards by which members of a certain culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, desirable or undesirable.

Norms that members of a society consider not to be critical and that can be broken without incurring severe consequences are referred to as non-critical norms.

Murder and adultery are seen to be transgressions of a person’s moral code in most civilizations.

Hugs, smiles, presents, and words of encouragement are examples of positive reinforcement.

Connie traveled to rural China to meet with her new in-laws.

The water was filthy, and there were no windows in the home to provide ventilation.

_is the notion that one’s culture and way of life are superior to those of other cultures, which Connie was experiencing_ According to the textbook, ethnocentrism is the polar opposite of multiculturalism.

“They’re primitive people who eat dog meat, drive erratically about town on motor scooters, and speak at breakneck speed,” Harry responded.

In your opinion, which of the following statements best demonstrates the functionalist approach to culture Norms and values bring a society together and help to maintain social stability.

People who are in power control the media, educational institutions, and political structures of a society, and this leads to inequalities.

Societies can form identities and engage with one another via the use of cultural symbols.

Culture is ever-evolving and always adapting.

Laws, when compared to folklore and the majority of social standards, are Of the following, only one is not a cultural universal as defined by Murdock.

According to conflict theorists, the following is an example of When one group gains at the expense of another, this is known as cultural advantage.

The moment Adrian was born, he began learning how to think and conduct in a way that would be useful in social situations.

Brendan defines himself as a single man who is a college student and a father of one youngster.

Our social identity is formed as a result of our socialization.

Without doing so, he will fail his driving test and will be denied the right to operate a vehicle.

Our conduct is influenced by our socialization.

Biologists are particularly interested in the role of in human development.

The results of the Harlows’ tests with baby monkeys revealed that warmth and comfort were more essential than nutrition for the monkeys.

a history of drinking in the family Margaret meads are a kind of beverage.

When it comes to understanding socialization, which of the following theoretical methods is most typically employed?

learning is a type of social learning, and this is an example of it according to social learning theories.

A social learning theory describes this as an illustration of _learning.

Now, when Ellen is enraged, she screams out loud.

Which of the following phrases is most closely related with Cooley’s self as seen via the looking glass?

Mallison was going through the park when she saw that some people were turning their heads to look at her as she passed.

Which of Cooley’s phases is Allison now in?

Travis is concerned that his professors would assess him based on his previous work now that he has begun high school in the fall.

Rick is under the impression that the pupils in his class dislike him.

Which of Cooley’s phases is Rick now in?

in accordance with george herbert According to mead, the most important social contact happens within the parent/child connection.

Fiona impersonates her mother by wiping a plastic tube of lipstick across her lips while performing.

Fiona Inmicah (age 4) enjoys playing home with her dolls, in which she is the mommy and her dolls are her children.

Micah Intyler and Martin are members of a little league baseball club in their hometown.

Which of Mead’s phases are tyler and Martin, and which thinker is related with the management of first impressions Goffman’s ideas on socialization are best described by which of the following statements is true?

Which metaphor was employed by Goffman to explain social behavior?

He thoroughly cleaned the place from top to bottom and strewn new flowers across the property.

Susan works as a medical professional.

Brown is dressed in a white lab coat and requests that her workers refer to her as such.

A major socializing agent is one who is not one of the following things.

Tanya instructs her children on a regular basis, including what to do, how to do it, and when to do it.

brians approach to parenting The children of the isteresas are not subject to a curfew and are subject to minimal home restrictions.

She frequently turns up the volume on the television in order to drown out the noise from their games.

They all like playing soccer and spend a lot of time together when they are not at school.

As youngsters hit their adolescent years, they become less influenced by their peers.

It is demonstrated by this remark how important nurturing is. The majority of parents believe that it is more difficult to supervise their children’s social identities now than it was when they were younger.

Sociology Test 2 Flashcards

Cultural borders can be defined by symbols, values, conventions, and beliefs, for example. b. non-material forms of culture c. the culture of material things. d. a primitive way of life e. subversive culture is a subversive culture. aa. norm is demonstrated by the act of raising one’s hand in class. b. a lot more. c. folkway, n.d. d. impose a punishment e. none of the options Which of the following statements regarding culture is not a true sociological statement? a. Culture is something that is taught.

  • Cultures are quite similar around the globe.
  • Culture is passed down from one generation to the next through oral tradition.
  • Culture is something that everyone shares.
  • Culture is ever-evolving and always adapting.
  • e.
  • The three tactics for overcoming opposition and gaining compliance, according to your content and lecture, are as follows: a.
  • Rewardedc.

It is said that all social interaction between two persons is predicated on each person attempting to maximize their rewards while minimizing their expenses (a.

Referent Power c.

Empowerment_).

A dramaturgical examination b.

Theoretical frameworks include feminist theory, social exchange theory, and ethnomethodology, which investigates social interaction as if it were a stage on which individuals perform various parts.

Ethnomethodology b.

Dramaturgy d.

Impression management Among her many accomplishments are motherhood, work as a parole officer, and softball participation.

b.

The following are the master statuses: c.

e.

College lecturer Dr.

Dr.

statuses are reflected in these activities.

Inconsistencies are a type of inconsistency.

the roles e.

While we occupy a position, we also play a role.

When it comes to studying ordinary interaction, symbolic interactionists often employ two methodological tools: Anthropology and dramaturgical analysis, to name a couple of things.

ethnomethodology and questionnaires A dramaturgical analysis and survey are included.

dramaturgical examination and experimentation.

questionnaires and experiments Methodologies such as ethnomethodology and dramaturgical analysis Examples of a.

languagec.

symbolse.

a.

society c.

customs a.

society is the process of inventing new things; is the process of converting inventions into items for the general market.

Inventiveness and originality c.

Diffusion and innovation of new things.

a.

Hegemony thec.

It had dirt flooring throughout her in-laws’ house, and the family slept on ripped cots in the front room.

Connie cried herself to sleep on the first night because she was overwhelmed by the unfamiliar setting.

b.

a sense of disorientation.

acculturation to a new environment e.

College students symbolize the anti-establishment movement.

a shared cultural heritage c.

The terms subculture and transculture are interchangeable.

b.

mores, et al.

the law; e.

techno-culture.

popular culture is a subset of popular culture.

a shared cultural heritage The media culture and the marketing culture are both important factors to consider.

A.

manipulation; C.

networking; Organization; A well-liked colleague at work may have this kind of influence since others look up to them and consider them to be role models in the office.

coercive; b.

referent; d.

statuses b.

sets d.

groups Examples of a.

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persuade b.

compel d.

Timothy and Kiley were challenged by their sociology professor to defy the status quo.

They observed the reactions of others and then prepared a report explaining their observations and observations of others.

The following methods are used: a.

field study, and c.

The most rigid standards are _, which are codified guidelines regarding how to behave.

folkways, b.

penalties, d.

commandments.

Social organization b.

Social interaction d.

Society are composed of the statuses, roles, groups, and institutions that make up a.

The term “cultural lag” refers to the following: a.

the absence of laws to protect against new material culture; c.

the tendency of nonmaterial culture to change more slowly than material culture; e.

Is this true or false?

Is this true or false? When a project manager is able to persuade her supervisor to approve a new product, she is using INFORMATIONAL authority. Is this true or false? According to the lecture and your material, there are three components to the notion of power. What are they?

Culture definition

  • Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
  • Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
  • That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
  • And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
  • The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
  • Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
  • As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
  • Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
  • The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
  • Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
  • In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
  • A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
  • While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.

EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.

  • Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
  • Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
  • Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
  • Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
  • Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.

The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with. At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:

  • The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
  • On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.

Associated with the nation as a whole, at the national level Within a country, there are regional variances that are associated with ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity. Gender disparities (female vs. male) are associated with the gender level. The generational level is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, parents and children, and grandparents and grandchildren; and The social class level is associated with educational chances and inequalities in occupational options.

  • It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.
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It quantifies the degree of inequality that exists in a society by measuring the power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations; Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a culture is in comparison to other societies. Individualism refers to a loosely connected social structure in a society in which people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families solely, as opposed to the general public.

Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the dominating values are assertiveness, money, and possessions (success), and that the dominant values are not caring for others or for the quality of life (relationship).

  • Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.

Cultures grouped together:

  • Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.

Determine the amount of global participation by asking the following questions:

  • It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.

Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.

  • However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
  • Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
  • The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
  • The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
  • Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
  • The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
  • [ENR (2003).
  • No.
  • [New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
  • These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
  • Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.

[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]

What Is Culture?

The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.

In her interview with Live Science, Cristina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London explained that “culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong.” “Culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong,” she added.

Many nations, such as France, Italy, Germany, the United States, India, Russia, and China, are known for their diverse cultures, with their customs, traditions, music, art, and cuisine serving as a constant pull for tourists to these countries and others.

As De Rossi explained, “it shares its origin with a number of other terms that are associated with actively supporting development.”

Western culture

Photograph via Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. In general, culture refers to the qualities and knowledge possessed by a certain group of people. It encompasses things such as the language spoken, religion practiced, cuisine consumed, social customs observed, music and the arts. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and understanding are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interactions that are learnt via socialization.

In her interview with Live Science, Cristina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London explained that “culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong.” “Culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong,” she said.

Many nations, such as France, Italy, Germany, the United States, India, Russia, and China, are known for their diverse cultures, with their customs, traditions, music, art, and cuisine serving as a constant attraction for tourists to these countries and others like them.

As De Rossi explained, “it shares its origin with a number of other terms that are associated with actively encouraging development.”

Eastern culture

Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Nachi Falls, Japan, is home to the Buddhist temple Seigantoji, which may be seen here. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.

  • This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
  • Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.
  • In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.
  • During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms.

Latin culture

For certain Eastern civilizations, Buddhism is a significant component of their identity. Nachi Falls, Japan, is home to the Buddhist temple Seigantoji. Photograph via Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are typically referred to as Eastern culture in broad terms. According to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012, Eastern culture, like its Western counterpart, was strongly impacted by religion throughout its early history.

Overall, Eastern culture makes fewer distinctions between secular society and religious thought than Western culture, which is a good thing for everyone.

To give an example, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Buddhism started in India, but it was mostly replaced by Hinduism by the 12th century.

Religious beliefs were shaped by pre-existing cultural notions in these locations.

During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan controlled or occupied Korea in some capacity. According to History.com, many Koreans were persuaded or compelled to change their surnames to match Japanese surnames during this period.

Middle Eastern culture

A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together. Jasmin Merdan/Getty Images/Image courtesy of Getty Images The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.

  1. Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
  2. According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
  3. Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
  4. Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.
  5. Areas that were formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire are noted for their distinctive architecture, which is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles of architecture.
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African culture

In Kenya, Africa, an African woman from the Maasai tribe sits with her infant near to her home, where she lives. (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. According to the Natural History Museum in London, humans started there approximately 400,000 years ago and began to spread to other parts of the world around the same time period. Tom White, the museum’s senior curator of non-insect invertebrates, and his colleagues were able to find this by examining Africa’s ancient lakes and the species that lived in them.

  • As of the publication of this article, this research provides the earliest evidence for the existence of hominin species on the Arabian peninsula.
  • One of the most distinguishing characteristics of this culture is the enormous number of ethnic groups spread over the continent’s 54 countries.
  • Africa has been importing and exporting its culture for millennia; according to The Field Museum, East African commercial ports served as a vital link between the East and the West as early as the seventh century.
  • With a single description, it would be hard to capture the entirety of African cultural diversity.
  • Traditions from traditional Sub-Saharan African civilizations include those of the Maasai people of Tanzania and Kenya, the Zulu people of South Africa, and the Batwa people of Central Africa, to name a few.

The Batwa, for example, are a tribe of indigenous people that typically live a forager’s lifestyle in the jungle, and they are one such group. Maasai herders, on the other hand, herd their sheep and goats on broad pastures and rangelands.

What is cultural appropriation?

Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as “the taking over of creative or artistic forms, motifs, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today. According to the Khan Academy, these headdresses are filled with important significance, and wearing one was a luxury gained by chieftains or warriors by deeds of courage and valor.

Recent history shows that Gucci encountered a similar reaction in 2019 after selling a product known as “the indy complete turban,” which sparked widespread outrage among the Sikh community, according to Esquire magazine.

Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.

Constant change

One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.

A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.

It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.

Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.

Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

[Solved] 10. Which of the following statements about culture is not true ? _ A. Cultural practices are always learned. _ B. Cultures are one of.

What assertion regarding culture is not true, according to the following list? .true? A. Cultural traditions are always passed down from generation to generation. C. Cultural practices are constantly passed down from generation to generation. D. Cultures are all-encompassing in their scope. The cultures of a country, a region, or the world are all possible. 11. Which of the following characteristics is shared by the vast majority of modern-day foragers? They fish a lot, to put it mildly. B. They are reliant on welfare provided by state-level organizations.

  1. They communicate using simplified languages.
  2. They reside in outlying areas that are of little importance to agricultural and food-producing communities.
  3. 12.Despite variances resulting from environmental diversity, all foraging economies have one key characteristic in common:_ A.
  4. B.
  5. In addition, they have demonstrated a readiness to experiment with novel food-producing methods to see whether they are any better than what they are accustomed to doing.
  6. Instead than managing the reproduction of plants and animals, people rely on the availability of natural resources for their livelihood.
  7. they suggest correlations—that is, associations or co-variation between two or more variables, such as economic and cultural variables; and B.
  8. A second point is that they show causal links between economic and cultural factors.
  9. When examined in computer models, they offer great prediction abilities._ E.
  10. 14.What one of the following is not a hallmark of band-level organizations?

nuclear families_ AnswerExplanation Aliquet, an expertec who has been confirmed, has provided the solution.

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Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists

When we talk about culture, we are referring to a wide and diversified collection of primarily immaterial elements that make up our social lives. Cultural values and beliefs are defined by sociologists as being those that individuals have in common and may be used to characterize them as a group. Language, communication, and customs are also defined by sociologists as belonging to a culture. The tangible artifacts that are shared by a community or society are also considered to be part of its culture.

How Sociologists Define Culture

When we talk about culture, we are referring to a wide and diversified collection of primarily immaterial elements that characterize contemporary social life. Cultural values and beliefs are defined by sociologists as being those that individuals have in common and may be used to characterize them as a group. Language, communication, and behaviors are also defined as belonging to a culture. The tangible artifacts that are shared by a group or community are also considered part of its culture.

Why Culture Matters to Sociologists

Because it plays such a big and crucial part in the development of social order, sociologists place a high value on culture in their research. When we talk about social order, we’re talking about how society is stable because people have come to agree on rules and conventions that allow us to collaborate, function as a society, as well as (hopefully) live together in peace and harmony. There are positive and negative sides to social order, according to sociologists. Both tangible and non-material parts of culture, according to the notion of traditional French sociologist Émile Durkheim, are significant in that they help to hold society together.

Durkheim discovered via his studies that when individuals gather together to participate in rituals, they reinforce the culture that they share and, as a result, strengthen the social bonds that bind them together even more.

Karl Marx, a well-known Prussian social theorist and activist, is credited with establishing the critical approach to culture in the field of social sciences.

Subscribing to popular ideas, conventions and beliefs keeps individuals involved in uneven social institutions that do not operate in their best interests, but rather benefit a powerful minority, according to his reasoning.

Marx’s theory is based on the assumption that success comes from hard work and dedication, and that anyone can live a good life if they do these things.

In addition to being a force for tyranny and dominance, culture also has the potential to be a force for innovation, resistance, and self-determination.

Also of critical importance to human social existence and structure is the concept of “community.” We would not have connections or a society if it were not for it.

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