- 1 What is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture?
- 2 What is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture?
- 3 Which of the following is a feature of cultures that are high in uncertainty avoidance?
- 4 Which of the following is a feature of cultures with low performance orientation quizlet?
- 5 What is a characteristic of egalitarian cultures?
- 6 What is a feature of culture with high future orientation?
- 7 What is a characteristic of high cultural intelligence?
- 8 What is your future orientation?
- 9 What is human orientation?
- 10 What is the meaning of achievement oriented?
- 11 Why achievement orientation is important?
- 12 What is the opposite of achievement oriented?
- 13 What are the qualities of achievement oriented individuals?
- 14 What do you call a goal oriented person?
- 15 Which is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture The company will award
- 16 Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect
- 17 Cultural Differences and Global Business
- 18 Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business
- 19 Key Points
- 20 Canada
- 20.1 Power Distance
- 20.2 Individualism
- 20.3 Masculinity
- 20.4 Uncertainty Avoidance
- 20.5 Long Term Orientation
- 20.6 Indulgence
- 20.7 NOTE: While the above descriptions apply to Canadian culture overall, one will likely find subtle differences between Anglophone Canadians and Francophone Canadians (the Province of Quebec.) Compared with their Anglophone counterparts, French-Canadians can be more formal, hierarchical, moderately relationship focused, and more emotionally expressive. The scores for Quebec are as follows: pdi 54; idv 73; mas 45; uai 60
- 21 Human sacrifice may have helped societies become more complex
What is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture?
- An egalitarian culture is most likely to produce the following outcomes: Which of the following characteristics characterizes societies with a high level of uncertainty avoidance? In this quizlet, you will learn about the characteristics of cultures with poor performance orientation. What is the distinguishing attribute of egalitarian societies
- What is a characteristic of a culture with a high future orientation
- What is a characteristic of a culture with high cultural intelligence
- What is your future orientation
- And what is your future orientation. In what way does human orientation differ from other animals? What exactly does the phrase “achievement orientated” mean? Why it is necessary to have an accomplishment orientation
- What is the polar opposite of being goal-oriented and focused on achievement? Individuals that strive for success have certain characteristics, which are as follows: What do you call a person that is focused on achieving their objectives
What is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture?
An egalitarian culture is more likely to provide the following results: When it comes to societies with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, which of the following characteristics is present? The following is a characteristic of cultures with a poor performance orientation, according to this quizlet. Is there a distinguishing feature of egalitarian civilizations; What is a characteristic of a culture with a high future orientation; what is a characteristic of a society with a high cultural intelligence; what is your future orientation; and what is your cultural intelligence In what ways does human orientation differ from other animals?
Is there a term for a person who is goal-oriented?
Which of the following is a feature of cultures that are high in uncertainty avoidance?
People who live in high-uncertainty-avoidance societies reduce stress by maintaining orderliness and regularity, even if this means forsaking creativity and experimentation. People who live in low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures are at ease with uncertainty, and they may even flourish in uncertain environments, according to research.
Which of the following is a feature of cultures with low performance orientation quizlet?
Which of the following is a characteristic of cultures that place a low value on performance? Expressions of loyalty and sympathy are highly treasured by the organization. In low-gender equality societies, men and women are expected to play separate roles in society, according to the beliefs of the culture.
What is a characteristic of egalitarian cultures?
In societies with a low performance orientation, which of the following characteristics can be observed? Efforts to express devotion and sympathy are highly appreciated. Women are expected to play a more prominent role in society in low-gender equality countries than males.
What is a feature of culture with high future orientation?
STRONG VISION FOR THE FUTURE Societies are characterized by qualities such as The proclivity to put money aside today for the future. Make a point of striving toward long-term success. Organizations have a tendency to be adaptable and flexible.
What is a characteristic of high cultural intelligence?
People with strong emotional intelligence are able to detect the emotions, desires, and requirements of others. High cultural intelligence is characterized by the ability to recognize and respond to the differing values, beliefs, attitudes, and body language of persons from various cultures. The information they get from this helps them empathize and comprehend other people more effectively.
What is your future orientation?
Future orientation is widely described in psychology and related sciences as the amount to which an individual thinks about the future, predicts future implications, and plans forward before taking a decision or doing action. In order to characterize the numerous elements that interact to influence future direction, a number of models have been constructed.
What is human orientation?
According to the definition, “humane orientation” is “the degree to which an organization or society supports and rewards individuals for acting in a fair and altruistic manner toward others, as well as being nice, giving, caring, and kind to others” (House et al, 2004,p. 569).
What is the meaning of achievement oriented?
Achievement orientation refers to how a person understands and reacts to tasks, which results in distinct patterns of cognition, mood, and behavior in different situations. Individuals’ academic accomplishment, adaptability, and well-being have all been found to be correlated with their achievement orientations in the past.
Why achievement orientation is important?
As their careers grow, people’s ability to achieve their goals becomes increasingly important, and this has a significant impact on the overall performance of an individual contributor. However, once a person achieves the position of leader, theAchievement Orientationcompetency must be used in conjunction with the other skills.
What is the opposite of achievement oriented?
What is the polar opposite of a goal-oriented attitude?
|without rhyme or reason|
What are the qualities of achievement oriented individuals?
- They have a tendency to be leaders. They prefer to get things done
- They take responsibility for their actions. If they make a mistake, they accept responsibility for it
- They hold themselves to high standards. A good attitude
- They are continuously learning in order to be the best they can be
- They are looking for better methods to be more productive
- They are hardworking
- They are dedicated
What do you call a goal oriented person?
Energetic, passionate, earnest, determined, aggressive, resourceful, anxious, ardent, ambitious, avid, come on, planning, desirous, driving, eager, eager beaver, enterprising, optimistic, hungry, and hardworking are just a few of the adjectives that describe me.
Which is most likely to happen in an egalitarian culture The company will award
Which of the following is most likely to occur in an egalitarian culture? Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more. Steve, the founder and CEO of Sweet Splash, a chocolate manufacturing firm, has plans to extend his company’s operations throughout Asia. In order to make this growth possible, he plans to move one of his more experienced managers to the target nation in question. He is looking for a manager that has a high level of cultural intelligence. In order to meet this requirement, which of the following managers is most appropriate?
- In a very assertive society, it is probable that you will see people asserting themselves.
- What themes are suitable for discourse in both China and Russia, and why are they so?
- Which of the following characteristics is characteristic of hierarchical cultures?
- Which subject should you avoid bringing up in both Brazil and India, and why?
- The conviction that your own culture is superior to all others is referred to as .
- deal with the many levels of independence and reliance that people in a society have and encourage them to have in their lives Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
- Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
- Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect
- Define cultural difference in terms of its aspects
- Identify the implications of cultural differences on global business
Cultural Differences and Global Business
Managers who are considering expanding their operations into foreign markets must be aware that the circumstances they are accustomed to in their own country may be different in other nations. For example, Wal-first Mart’s worldwide growth was into Mexico, which was its first international expansion. Wal-Mart stores in Mexico were designed in the same manner as those in the United States, with a stand-alone store surrounded by enormous parking lots as the model. However, it quickly discovered that there was an issue.
- Customers had to walk through the parking lot to get to the store, and they could only purchase items that they could carry back to the bus stop on their own.
- Problems such as those experienced by Wal-Mart are easy to detect, and in many cases, they are also simple to resolve.
- Understanding cultural differences is particularly crucial for managers, who must be able to relate to and encourage their people in order to effectively lead and motivate them.
- He conducted his investigation among more than 100,000 employees of a multinational firm spread over 40 different nations.
- In these investigations, nine dimensions were established that characterize distinctions between national cultures.
Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, assertiveness, future orientation, humane orientation, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, and gender equality are some of the factors to consider. Let’s take a closer look at each of them.
- Distance between two points of power. The degree to which individuals tolerate an unequal allocation of power and status privileges is referred to as power distance (or power distance gap). The rule of law is more respected in nations with a high power distance, and people are expected to follow the laws. There is also more tolerance for concentrated power in countries with a high power gap. The electricity gap between India, Mexico, and the Philippines is very large. United States, Australia, and Israel have low power distance, which is also known as Uncertainty Aversion. Uncertainty avoidance is a term used to describe the degree to which people are uncomfortable with risk, change, and ambiguity. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, there is a greater focus placed on norms, structure, order, and predictability. France, Japan, and Costa Rica, for example, are countries that place a high value on avoiding ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is low in the United States, India, and Sweden, whereas performance orientation is high in these countries. The degree to which innovation, high standards, and exceptional performance are fostered and rewarded is referred to as performance orientation. Countries with a high level of performance orientation place a high emphasis on materialism and competition, and they intend to spend in training to help their citizens improve their performance. Assertiveness is strong in the United States and European nations
- Argentina, Russia, and Greece have low assertiveness
- And performance orientations are high in Argentina, Russia, and Greece. In contrast to being cooperative and compassionate, assertiveness is defined as the degree to which individuals are strong, confrontational, and aggressive in their behavior. Communication is straightforward and plain in nations with a high level of assertiveness, such as the United States, Germany, and Mexico. In this environment, individuals are encouraged to take the initiative, and relationships are likely to be competitive. Switzerland and New Zealand are among the countries with the lowest levels of assertiveness. Managers in these nations are more inclined to seek agreement and cooperative decision-making
- They are also more likely to be future-oriented. Future orientation refers to the degree to which delayed gratification and long-term planning are prioritized over immediate satisfaction and short-term advantages. Countries with a high degree of future orientation favor long-term investments above short-term consumption in order to maximize future returns. It is analogous to the ability of humans to postpone satisfaction when faced with a choice. Higher levels of future orientation are found in Canada, Switzerland, and Malaysia
- Lower levels of future orientation may be found in Poland, Argentina, and Russia
- Humane Orientation. An indicator of a country’s humane orientation is the extent to which justice, selflessness, generosity, and compassion are fostered and rewarded. Individuals are responsible for promoting the well-being of others in countries with a strong humane orientation, as opposed to the state providing social and economic support. The Philippines, Ireland, and Egypt have a high humane orientation, whilst France, Germany, and Singapore have a low humane orientation. Institutional Collectivism is a type of collectivism that exists within an institution. Individual integration into groups and organizations is measured by the degree to which organizational and social institutions promote people to become members of those groups and organizations. In nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, the distribution of resources and the taking of collective action are promoted. Group loyalty is promoted, even if it means sacrificing one’s ability to pursue one’s own objectives. Sweden, Japan, and Singapore are examples of nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, whereas Germany, Argentina, and Italy are examples of countries with a low level of institution collectivist. In the United States, low institutional collectivism has resulted in arguments about the right work-life balance
- In-Group Collectivism has resulted in questions about the appropriate work-life balance. It is the extent to which individuals demonstrate pride, loyalty, and togetherness in their organizations or families that is referred to as in-group collectivism. Those living in nations with high levels of institutional collectivism identify with their families or organizations, and their actions are dictated by their roles and responsibilities. Individuals who are members of a group are distinguished from those who are not members of the organization. India, Egypt, and China are examples of nations with strong institutional collectivism
- Sweden, New Zealand, and Finland are examples of countries with low institutional collectivism
- Gender Egalitarianism is another important factor to consider. Gender egalitarianism refers to the extent to which male and female equality is realized in a given society. Countries with a high level of gender equality give greater chances for women and have a higher proportion of women in positions of authority. Sweden, Poland, and Costa Rica are among the countries with the highest levels of gender equality. Japan, Italy, and Egypt are among the countries with the lowest levels of gender equality. Women often have a lesser social and economic standing in these nations, as well as in the culture.
Germany and Poland have cultural features that are comparable to one another, as seen in the following chart. A comparison of cultural traits between Germany and Poland using data from the GLOBE 2004 research is presented.
Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business
When businesses wish to grow globally, they must be cognizant of the cultural variations that exist. Managers must be sensitive to the cultural context in which they operate in order to be effective. There have been several instances of advertising that had imagery or statements that were considered to be objectionable to some cultures. For example, when Pepsi altered the color of its vending machines from dark “Ice” blue to light “Ice,” the company saw its leading market dominance in Southeast Asia eroded by Coke.
- Managers must also take into consideration various modes of communication.
- Giving a superior the news that he has made a mistake is, for example, seen as insulting in many cultures.
- In the United States, an appointment is defined as the time at which someone is anticipated to come at a location.
- The importance of cultural variations must be recognized and accommodated by global management.
- The impact of cultural variations on the fundamental functions of management, on the other hand, is less clear.
- Yes and no are the correct answers.
- What managers do in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Brazil is precisely the same as it is in any other country.
- Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the four fundamental management functions that we have identified and described.
- Organizations that seek to develop abroad must be mindful of the cultural distinctions that exist across different countries. Managers must be sensitive to the cultural context in which they operate if they are to be effective. Advertisements that used pictures or language considered to be culturally insensitive have appeared on television and in print countless times. Changing the color of its vending machines to a bright “Ice” blue, for example, caused Pepsi to lose its leading market share to Coca-Cola in Southeast Asia. Despite the fact that bright blue is connected with death and grief in that region, the corporation failed to recognize this fact. Different communication practices must also be considered by managers. Direct feedback is considered disrespectful in certain cultures, and managers must be able to detect subtle body language in order to evaluate whether or not the message has been received and accepted. Giving a superior the news that he has made a mistake, for example, might be seen as insulting in many cultures. Aspects of time are seen differently in various cultures as well. The time at which someone is supposed to appear is known as an appointment in the United States. Although an appointment is often the earliest time for someone to come in various nations, he may arrive considerably later. The importance of cultural diversity in global management cannot be overstated. Peter Drucker is a management specialist. Then there’s the question of the impact of cultural variations on the fundamental functions of management. There are theories that hold up across cultures, but are they universal? Yes and no, to be precise. “Management is firmly rooted in culture,” said Peter Drucker, a renowned management expert: ” In every country, managers perform precisely the same tasks. This is true whether they are in Germany, England, the United States, Japan, or Brazil. It’s possible that their approaches will be completely different. To put it another way, the functions of management are the same everywhere, but the functions are carried out in a different manner in different places. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the four fundamental management functions that we have outlined. Consider how the cultural characteristics of the GLOBE organization could influence these fundamental managerial duties.
Companies that choose to do business on a worldwide scale are exposed to a variety of risks and dangers.
The advantages of globalization may be realized, however, when businesses conduct thorough study into the environment and plan and prepare for cultural differences. In the next part, we will discuss ways that managers might employ to deal with cultural differences.
It is possible to gain an excellent overview, while looking at Canadian culture via the lens of the 6-D Model, of the deep factors that drive Canadian culture in comparison to other world civilizations.
That all persons in societies are not equal – this dimension deals with the reality that we are not all equal – and it displays the attitude of the culture towards these discrepancies amongst us. According to the definition, power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country assume and accept that power is unequally allocated within the country. It has everything to do with the reality that inequality in a society is approved by the followers just as much as it is endorsed by the leaders.
This is also evident in the absence of overt social distinctions based on social rank and/or class in contemporary culture.
It is common for managers and employees to consult with one another and to openly exchange information with one another.
The primary question addressed by this dimension is the degree to which a society’s members are reliant on one another in order to function. It has everything to do with whether or not people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We.” Individualist cultures are characterized by the expectation that people will look after themselves and their immediate family solely. In collectivist cultures, people are members of ‘in groups’ that look after them in exchange for their devotion to the collective.
This results into a loosely-knit community, similar to its southern neighbor in the United States, in which people are expected to look after themselves and their close relatives.
In addition, in the exchange-based world of work, choices on hiring and promotion are made on the basis of merit or proof of what one has done or can accomplish in the past.
When this dimension receives a high score (Masculine), it implies that society will be motivated by rivalry, accomplishment and success, with success being defined by being the “winner” or the “best-in-field” in any given area. This value system begins in school and continues throughout one’s life — in both one’s professional and recreational endeavors. A low score (Feminine) on this dimension indicates that the dominating values in society are caring for others and improving one’s quality of life rather than wealth.
People are motivated by a variety of factors, including a desire to be the best (masculine) and a desire to enjoy what they do (Feminine).
In a similar vein, Canadians are more likely to maintain a healthy work-life balance and to find time to enjoy personal interests, family events, and life in general.
Not that Canadians aren’t hard workers, because they certainly are. As a general rule, Canadians seek to achieve the highest possible levels of performance in all of their undertakings.
Specifically, the dimension Uncertainty Avoidance is concerned with how a society deals with the reality that the future can never be predicted: should we attempt to control the future or should we simply allow it to unfold? Fear arises as a result of this uncertainty, and various cultures have developed different strategies for dealing with this anxiety. On the Uncertainty Avoidance Scale, the level to which individuals of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unclear events, and the extent to which they have constructed beliefs and institutions to try to avoid these situations, is represented in the score on this scale.
Canadians are also tolerant of ideas or viewpoints expressed by anyone, and they respect the right to freedom of speech.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension illustrates how every society must preserve some ties to its own history while also confronting the problems of the present and the future, and how various cultures prioritize these two existential aims in different ways, as described above. As an example, civilizations with low normative scores, such as conservative societies, seek to retain long-standing traditions and conventions while viewing societal change with distrust. On the other side, those that have a high-scoring culture adopt a more realistic approach: they stress thrift and diligence in contemporary schooling as a means of preparing for the future.
Those who live in such civilizations are intensely concerned with establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thought processes.
The degree to which young children are socialized is an issue that mankind has faced in the past and continues to face in the present. We do not become “human” until we have undergone socialization. This dimension is described as the amount to which people attempt to regulate their urges and impulses as a result of the way they were raised in their upbringing. “Indulgence” is a term used to describe control that is relatively weak, whereas “Restraint” is used to describe control that is relatively strong.
As a result of the high score of 68 in this area, Canadian culture is characterized as Indulgent in nature.
They have a good outlook on life and a proclivity to be optimistic. Aside from that, they place a greater emphasis on leisure time, are free to act as they choose, and may spend their money however they wish.
NOTE: While the above descriptions apply to Canadian culture overall, one will likely find subtle differences between Anglophone Canadians and Francophone Canadians (the Province of Quebec.) Compared with their Anglophone counterparts, French-Canadians can be more formal, hierarchical, moderately relationship focused, and more emotionally expressive. The scores for Quebec are as follows: pdi 54; idv 73; mas 45; uai 60
Egalitarianism in terms of gender is a concept that has been around for a long time. 5. Gender Equality is a principle that should be upheld. This conclusion is especially noteworthy since “gender equality” is one of the predictors of the most commonly recognized trait of effective leaders, which is “ability to inspire others.” Gender egalitarianism is defined as “the extent to which a group strives to reduce gender disparity” (House et al,2004p. 30). What are the features of cultures with high and low levels of gender equality?
Societies with a high level of gender egalitarianism exhibit features such as.
- Greater representation of women in positions of responsibility
- Less sexism in the workplace
- Males and girls have similar levels of educational achievement
- Allow women to play a more active part in decision-making in their communities.
Societies with low levels of gender egalitarianism exhibit features such as.
- Women in positions of power are being reduced. Increased sex segregation in the workplace
- Female educational achievement is lower than male educational attainment when compared to male educational attainment
- Provide women with a limited or non-existent role in decision-making in communal issues
Activity Please take the time to learn more about Gender Egalitarianism and Cornelius N. Grove, author of the paper, discusses how to apply leadership principles (2005). GLOBE Research findings reveal significant differences in business values and practices around the world. Make a note of it in your course journal. Sirje Virkus received his bachelor’s degree from Tallinn University in 2009.
Human sacrifice may have helped societies become more complex
The role of religion as a force for moral good in the world is frequently emphasized—but religion also has a malevolent side, as seen by brutal ceremonies like human sacrifice. New study reveals that even this dark side may have played a crucial role in the evolution of mankind. Although some experts are skeptical, scientists have discovered that these ritual killings, which were designed to placate gods, may have aided the formation of complex civilizations in maritime Southeast Asia and the South Pacific.
- The gruesome ceremonies were mainly carried out by strong chiefs or priests on the islands of the Indian and Pacific seas, respectively.
- Despite their heinous nature, these atrocities may have had some unanticipated consequences, at least for certain sections of society.
- “There is anecdotal evidence from other parts of the world,” he adds.
- Watts and his colleagues conducted an investigation on 93 traditional Austronesian cultures in order to close the gap.
- They speak a similar ancestral language and have a long history of migration.
- They also categorised the amount of social stratification in each civilization as “egalitarian,” “moderately stratified,” or “highly stratified,” depending on the level of social stratification.
- Moderately stratified cultures allowed for the inheritance of social position, but did not have well defined social classes.
- The scientists constructed family trees based on linguistic indications to indicate how the Austronesian cultures are believed to have evolved and how they are linked to one another.
- They were able to determine if human sacrifice and social stratification developed in the same locations, and whether ritualized killings were responsible for shifts in class boundaries based on the family trees.
- Both human sacrifice and societal hierarchy have evolved in tandem, according to the family trees.
- “People frequently assert that religion is the foundation of morality,” Watts argues.
“It demonstrates how religion can be used to the advantage of social elites for their own gain.” However, according to human evolutionary anthropologist Joseph Henrich of Harvard University, using language trees to analyze cultural behaviors is a risky proposition, and he cautions against jumping to conclusions.
For example, when one culture defeated another, this may have occurred.
He goes on to say that the only method to confirm this link would be to investigate a test case—a behavior with a known evolution.
Experts, on the other hand, are pleased with the introduction of advanced statistical approaches into study on religion and culture.
“This has resulted in a lack of strong quantitative tests of these ideas.” “These procedures are effective, and they represent a significant advancement in our ability to assess ideas.
Is it possible that they are the final piece of the puzzle? No.” Despite this, he says, “at the very least, the dialogue can begin here, and it can begin in a methodical fashion that has never been done before.”