- 1 29 Cultures with low performance orientation societies generally are relaxed
- 2 Chapter 3 Quizzes Flashcards
- 3 Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect
- 4 Cultural Differences and Global Business
- 5 Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business
- 6 Key Points
- 7 Contribute!
- 8 Context of Cultures: High and Low
- 9 Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and differences across cultures
- 10 Cultural Differences
- 11 High Context vs Low Context
- 12 Monochronic vs Polychronic
- 13 Future vs Present vs Past Orientation
- 14 Quantity of Time
- 15 Power Distance
- 16 Individualism vs Collectivism
- 17 Problems Caused by Cultural Differences
- 18 Some Perceptions of Americans
- 19 Try this experiment:
29 Cultures with low performance orientation societies generally are relaxed
35Orderliness and consistency are considered vital in societies that place a high value on uncertainty avoidance and order. When establishing cross-cultural interactions, which of the following considerations should be kept in mind? The Netherlands, with its high performance mindset, will be home to Keiko’s first managerial position in the country. Starting as soon as feasible, Keiko should begin providing feedback to her new staff. 40 41Business managers with a high level of cultural intelligence understand the importance of growing their employees.
Olga believes that all Americans are the same: hardworking, dishonest, and greedy in their pursuit of wealth.
45 Marta is a German lady who has recently been employed as an employee by a global corporation.
46 47Using slang can assist you in communicating with business partners that speak a limited amount of English.
50 Amy anticipates that her Japanese colleagues will be just as driven by an individual-rewards scheme as their counterparts in the United States, if not more so.
Quiz 1 for Chapter 5.
Chapter 3 Quizzes Flashcards
Social capital is defined as the ability to make relationships and bring people together, which is characterized by intercultural empathy, interpersonal effect, and diplomacy, among other characteristics. TrueFalseSocial culture is a social phenomena that is experienced by all members of a community. TrueFalseCulture is prescriptive, but it is not descriptive of a particular culture. TrueFalseFalse is also descriptive in nature. Organizational culture and its principles have a significant impact on societal culture.
- Organizational culture has an effect on societal culture, which is a by-product of this.
- TrulyFalseEthnocentric customers favor domestically made items, even though imported equivalents are less expensive and are often considered to be of higher quality.
- TrueFalseWhen their employees are ethnocentric, expatriate managers have fewer issues adapting to their foreign assignments.
- TrueFalseFuture orientation reflects a person’s capacity to put off satisfaction for a short period of time.
- The individualism-collectivism dimension, according to Hofstede, refers to how strongly a person craves highly organized conditions in their lives.
- Global collectivism, according to the characteristics of culture taken into consideration by the GLOBE project, refers to the level of pride and loyalty that individuals feel for their family or for their organization.
- Gender equality is one of the cultural dimensions of the GLOBE project, and it is one of the cultural dimensions of the GLOBE project.
TrueFalseThe GLOBE project was built on the work done by Geert Hofstede, who was a member of the GLOBE project team.
Whether true or not, persons who live in individualistic cultures are more prone than those who live in collectivist cultures to expect others to assist them when they are in distress.
TrueFalseIn low-context societies, nonverbal indicators such as one’s official position, social standing, or familial ties are more potent than spoken words at conveying messages than spoken words themselves.
In high-context civilizations, written and spoken words have the weight of a community’s collective understanding.
Agreements are frequently reached on the basis of someone’s word or a handshake in high-context societies.
TrueFalseThe greater the number of activities a person likes to accomplish at the same time, the more polychronic that individual is.
Every morning, she sits down and plans out her day, preferring to focus on one task at a time rather than many tasks.
Whether true or false, intelligence is a generally positive leadership quality.
TrueFalse Expatriates’ functioning and issue solving in the host nation are aided by informational assistance, which includes knowledge of the local language.
It is characterized by global business acumen, cognitive complexity, and a cosmopolitan outlook._ Capital refers to the ability to learn about international business and knowledge of international business.
CulturalPsychologicalSocialIntellectualTechnological_ capital refers to the capacity to make connections and bring people together, which is characterized by intercultural empathy, interpersonal influence, and diplomacy.
CulturalPsychological SocialIntellectual.Technological If someone engages in which of the following behaviors, it implies that they are increasing their intellectual capital?
Being open to new ideas and ways of doing things Reading about multinational firms may be quite interesting.
Awakening a lifelong enthusiasm for variety International business reading_ entails holding certain views or having certain ideas about what is good and unacceptable in a group of individuals.
Societal culture is a way of life.
Social capital is a term used to describe a person’s ability to interact with others.
Societal culture is a way of life.
Indoctrination into a religious belief system education and training in a formal setting Role models should be observed and imitated.
In addition to her exceptional interpersonal skills, Chloe’s outstanding capacity for bringing people together as a team is an important asset to her firm.
Chloe’s company is making a profit off of her .
A substantial portion of the company’s operations are in Japan and the United States.
This illustrates an illustration of: Individualism, collectivism, cultural relativism, polycentrism, and ethnocentrism are all terms used to describe the belief that one’s native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior to all others.
Monochronic Polychronic Ethnocentric Individualistic High-context Ethnocentrism may be illustrated by which of the following examples?
Some characteristics of someone who is regarded to have cultural intelligence are:D.the use of generalizations about cultures while avoiding the creation of stereotypes.
Ethnocentrism Intelligence in terms of culture Cultural relativism is a term that is used to refer to a set of values that are shared by a group of people.
An ethnocentric point of view Nature is monochronic in its appearance.
Emotional intelligence is a term used to describe the ability to manage one’s emotions.
GLOBE is an acronym that stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness.
Geert Hofstede, Christopher Jones, Elton Mayo, and Mary Parker Follett are just a few of the names that come to mind.
How much do individuals rely on social norms and conventions to prevent insecurity and reduce unpredictability?
Distance between two points of power Uncertainty avoidance is a strategy.
is well-known for hiring males over women because its manager, Carl, believes that men are more productive than women.
receives a poor rating on the dimension of the GLOBE project, it may be concluded.
non-discrimination on the basis of gender Individuals who achieve high levels of economic output would be rewarded in a society with a high level of humanitarian orientation.
People who are nice and pleasant should be encouraged and rewarded for their efforts.
Avoiding uncertainty and limiting unpredictability are two important goals.
When it comes to social conditions, which of Hofstede’s dimensions is the most indicative of inequality?
When it comes to context, high is better than low.
If the Japanese culture exemplifies competitive, performance-oriented characteristics, it is considered to score highly on the dimension.power distance scale.
According to Hofstede, which of the following is one of the cultural factors to consider?
Orientation toward the future Collectivism within a group Affirmativeness and assertiveness at a distance Egalitarianism between men and women Which GLOBE project dimension is concerned with how aggressive and domineering individuals are in their social relationships?
Affirmativeness and assertiveness at a distance Egalitarianism between men and women Rebecca has always placed a high value on deferring gratification in order to save money for her children’s education and for her own retirement.
When it comes to leadership, gender egalitarianism refers to how much leaders should encourage and reward loyalty to the social unit rather than the pursuit of individual goals.
These youngsters would score highly on the dimension of the GLOBE dimensions of culture, which is classified as “I” and “Me” cultures.
Individualistic Collectivist High-culture Low-culture Polychronic When it comes to senior persons in the United States, they are more prone to believe that they are responsible for their own well-being, as opposed to Europeans, who are more likely to anticipate assistance at this point of their life.
- High-context Low-context Collectivist Monochronic Polychronic Rosalie is a staunch supporter of individual autonomy and choice.
- Which of the following may be categorized as Rosalie’s culture, based on the facts provided?
- Individualistic High-context Polychronic Low-context Collectivist A high-context culture is another term used to describe a collectivist culture.
- It is possible to describe them as belonging to a(n) culture.
- While communicating, Mexicans rely on context clues to help them make sense of what they’re saying.
- In Germany, even the tiniest elements of daily life are governed by written laws that are exact and detailed.
- individualisticcollectivist high-context low-contextpolychronic When interacting with people from diverse cultural backgrounds, Maria becomes upset.
Maria is most likely to be from a culture, based on the facts in this document.
Time moves in a cyclical fashion.
Time is a fluid concept.
The concept of time is multifaceted.
engagement in two or more activities at the same time time management based on a timetable multitasking.
High-contextIndividualistic Monochronic Relativistic Polychronic When a person prefers to perform more than one item at a time, it shows that he or she most likely adheres to the perspective on time.
Decisive a team-building facilitator arouser of a non-explicitDependableMotive According to the GLOBE project, which of the following characteristics is universally recognized as a positive trait in a leader?
Individualists, emigrants, collectivists, and repatriates are all terms used to describe employees who have been relocated to another nation and subsequently returned to their original country.
Repatriation Expatriation_ is a term used to describe the feelings of anxiety and uncertainty that arise as a result of an overload of new expectations and cues.
It’s like being in an other culture.
She assists them in obtaining driver’s licenses, grocery shopping, and navigating their way about the city.
While on a foreign assignment, support may be extremely beneficial in making expatriates feel better about themselves and their circumstances when adjusting to a new environment is tough or stressful. CulturalLinguisticInformationalEmotionalDecision
Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect
- Define cultural difference in terms of its aspects
- Identify the implications of cultural differences on global business
Cultural Differences and Global Business
Managers who are considering expanding their operations into foreign markets must be aware that the circumstances they are accustomed to in their own country may be different in other nations. For example, Wal-first Mart’s worldwide growth was into Mexico, which was its first international expansion. Wal-Mart stores in Mexico were designed in the same manner as those in the United States, with a stand-alone store surrounded by enormous parking lots as the model. However, it quickly discovered that there was an issue.
- Customers had to walk through the parking lot to get to the store, and they could only purchase items that they could carry back to the bus stop on their own.
- Problems such as those experienced by Wal-Mart are easy to detect, and in many cases, they are also simple to resolve.
- Understanding cultural differences is particularly crucial for managers, who must be able to relate to and encourage their people in order to effectively lead and motivate them.
- He conducted his investigation among more than 100,000 employees of a multinational firm spread over 40 different nations.
- In these investigations, nine dimensions were established that characterize distinctions between national cultures.
- Let’s take a closer look at each of them.
- Distance between two points of power. The degree to which individuals tolerate an unequal allocation of power and status privileges is referred to as power distance (or power distance gap). The rule of law is more respected in nations with a high power distance, and people are expected to follow the laws. There is also more tolerance for concentrated power in countries with a high power gap. The electricity gap between India, Mexico, and the Philippines is very large. United States, Australia, and Israel have low power distance, which is also known as Uncertainty Aversion. Uncertainty avoidance is a term used to describe the degree to which people are uncomfortable with risk, change, and ambiguity. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, there is a greater focus placed on norms, structure, order, and predictability. France, Japan, and Costa Rica, for example, are countries that place a high value on avoiding ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is low in the United States, India, and Sweden, whereas performance orientation is high in these countries. The degree to which innovation, high standards, and exceptional performance are fostered and rewarded is referred to as performance orientation. Countries with a high level of performance orientation place a high emphasis on materialism and competition, and they intend to spend in training to help their citizens improve their performance. Assertiveness is strong in the United States and European nations
- Argentina, Russia, and Greece have low assertiveness
- And performance orientations are high in Argentina, Russia, and Greece. In contrast to being cooperative and compassionate, assertiveness is defined as the degree to which individuals are strong, confrontational, and aggressive in their behavior. Communication is straightforward and plain in nations with a high level of assertiveness, such as the United States, Germany, and Mexico. In this environment, individuals are encouraged to take the initiative, and relationships are likely to be competitive. Switzerland and New Zealand are among the countries with the lowest levels of assertiveness. Managers in these nations are more inclined to seek agreement and cooperative decision-making
- They are also more likely to be future-oriented. Future orientation refers to the degree to which delayed gratification and long-term planning are prioritized over immediate satisfaction and short-term advantages. Countries with a high degree of future orientation favor long-term investments above short-term consumption in order to maximize future returns. It is analogous to the ability of humans to postpone satisfaction when faced with a choice. Higher levels of future orientation are found in Canada, Switzerland, and Malaysia
- Lower levels of future orientation may be found in Poland, Argentina, and Russia
- Humane Orientation. An indicator of a country’s humane orientation is the extent to which justice, selflessness, generosity, and compassion are fostered and rewarded. Individuals are responsible for promoting the well-being of others in countries with a strong humane orientation, as opposed to the state providing social and economic support. The Philippines, Ireland, and Egypt have a high humane orientation, whilst France, Germany, and Singapore have a low humane orientation. Institutional Collectivism is a type of collectivism that exists within an institution. Individual integration into groups and organizations is measured by the degree to which organizational and social institutions promote people to become members of those groups and organizations. In nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, the distribution of resources and the taking of collective action are promoted. Group loyalty is promoted, even if it means sacrificing one’s ability to pursue one’s own objectives. Sweden, Japan, and Singapore are examples of nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, whereas Germany, Argentina, and Italy are examples of countries with a low level of institution collectivist. In the United States, low institutional collectivism has resulted in arguments about the right work-life balance
- In-Group Collectivism has resulted in questions about the appropriate work-life balance. It is the extent to which individuals demonstrate pride, loyalty, and togetherness in their organizations or families that is referred to as in-group collectivism. Those living in nations with high levels of institutional collectivism identify with their families or organizations, and their actions are dictated by their roles and responsibilities. Individuals who are members of a group are distinguished from those who are not members of the organization. India, Egypt, and China are examples of nations with strong institutional collectivism
- Sweden, New Zealand, and Finland are examples of countries with low institutional collectivism
- Gender Egalitarianism is another important factor to consider. Gender egalitarianism refers to the extent to which male and female equality is realized in a given society. Countries with a high level of gender equality give greater chances for women and have a higher proportion of women in positions of authority. Sweden, Poland, and Costa Rica are among the countries with the highest levels of gender equality. Japan, Italy, and Egypt are among the countries with the lowest levels of gender equality. Women often have a lesser social and economic standing in these nations, as well as in the culture.
Germany and Poland have cultural features that are comparable to one another, as seen in the following chart. A comparison of cultural traits between Germany and Poland using data from the GLOBE 2004 research is presented.
Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business
When businesses wish to grow globally, they must be cognizant of the cultural variations that exist. Managers must be sensitive to the cultural context in which they operate in order to be effective. There have been several instances of advertising that had imagery or statements that were considered to be objectionable to some cultures. For example, when Pepsi altered the color of its vending machines from dark “Ice” blue to light “Ice,” the company saw its leading market dominance in Southeast Asia eroded by Coke.
- Managers must also take into consideration various modes of communication.
- Giving a superior the news that he has made a mistake is, for example, seen as insulting in many cultures.
- In the United States, an appointment is defined as the time at which someone is anticipated to come at a location.
- The importance of cultural variations must be recognized and accommodated by global management.
- The impact of cultural variations on the fundamental functions of management, on the other hand, is less clear.
- Yes and no are the correct answers.
- What managers do in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Brazil is precisely the same as it is in any other country.
Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the four fundamental management functions that we have identified and described. Consider the potential impact of the GLOBE cultural aspects on these fundamental managerial functions.
- Planning. The ability to prepare for the future and the ability to avoid uncertainty have a big influence on how firms plan. The current state of the organization is analyzed, and adjustments necessary to achieve future goals are planned for in cultures with a high level of future orientated thinking and behavior. In a culture with a low future orientation, the past of the organization is taken into consideration, and planning is centered on conserving traditions while going forward in the organization. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, planning will be extremely careful, and only plans with a low chance of failure and a high degree of assurance of outcomes will be taken into consideration. Planning will be considerably more flexible in nations with a low level of uncertainty avoidance. The plans will acknowledge that the future is unpredictable and will anticipate that problems will be addressed as they arise
- The process of organizing Firms’ organizational structures are influenced by two factors: performance focus and institutional collectivism. Organizations focused on teams and collective efforts would most likely be the most effective in nations with a high degree of institutional collectivism. In nations with low levels of institutional collectivism, hierarchical organizations with clearly defined lines of power and well defined roles are more likely to be effective than decentralized arrangements. Organizations in high-performance orientated cultures would be built on the successes of individual employees. Individual objectives would be established, and success would not be evaluated solely on the basis of reaching predetermined objectives, but rather on how well one does in comparison to others. In nations with a low performance focus, cooperation and collaboration would be prioritized above competition. Organizational outcomes-based goals would be more successful
- This is the case in leadership. When it comes to leadership, power distance and a humanitarian approach are crucial concerns. People would expect leaders in high power distance nations to be more directive, and they would want laws and processes to be well established. For example, in nations with a short power distance, leadership would have to be more collaborative, and people would challenge norms and procedures that they did not believe were fair or appropriate. Motivation would be influenced by a more humane approach to life. Leaders in cultures with a high level of humane orientation would be expected to be supportive and empowering. Contributions to the organization and to individuals inside the company would be a motivating factor for people to work in the organization. Leaders in cultures with a low level of compassionate orientation would be expected to be explicit in their expectations. People would be driven by their earnings and benefits, and they would oppose anything that jeopardized their well-being or way of life. Gender equality may also play a role in this situation. Female leadership would not be automatically recognized in low gender equitable countries, and women would have to exert their power
- They would be in charge of the household. Power distance and assertiveness have an impact on the ability of organizations to be governed successfully. Managers in nations with a high level of assertiveness would be directive and dictatorial. They would exercise control over the situation by closely monitoring and punishing the situation. Managers in a low-assertiveness country would be expected to be more tolerant of their employees and to exert control over them through encouragement and discipline. It is expected that authoritarian and directive managers will be more effective than participatory managers in nations with significant power distance.
Companies that choose to do business on a worldwide scale are exposed to a variety of risks and dangers. The advantages of globalization may be realized, however, when businesses conduct thorough study into the environment and plan and prepare for cultural differences. In the next part, we will discuss ways that managers might employ to deal with cultural differences.
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Context of Cultures: High and Low
|1.4.6 – Context of Cultures: High and LowContext ofCultures: High and LowHere is another concept that will help you pull togethera lot of the material you have read so far about culture. It is called “highcontext” and “low context” and was created by the sameanthropologist who developed the concepts of polychronic and monochronic time.They complement each other and provide a broad framework for looking at culture.The list below shows the kind of behavior thatisgenerally found inhigh and lowcontext cultures within five categories: how people relate to each other, howthey communicate with each other, how they treat space, how they treat time,and how they learn. One thing to remember is that few cultures, and the peoplein them, are totally at one end of the spectrum or the other.Theyusually fall somewhere in between and may have a combination of high and lowcontext characteristics.|
- Relationships are based on trust, which develops gradually and is stable. One makes a distinction between persons who are within and those who are outside one’s circle. The ability to work with others and pay attention to the group process are essential for getting things done. One’s identity is anchored in groups (family, culture, and place of employment)
- The social structure and authority are centralized, and accountability is at the top of the hierarchy of power. The person in charge is concerned with the well-being of the group.
- Relationships begin and end in a blink of an eye. A large number of persons can be found within one’s circle
- The circle’s perimeter is not clearly defined. By following processes and keeping an eye on the end objective, things get accomplished. One’s sense of self and accomplishments serve as the foundation of one’s identity. The social structure is decentralized
- Responsibility is distributed more widely (rather than being concentrated at the top)
- The use of nonverbal aspects is extensive
- The tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures, and eye movement all contribute to the overall meaning of the discourse. When communicating verbally, the message is implicit
- The context (situation, people, nonverbal aspects) is more significant than the words themselves. It is indirect to communicate verbally
- One speaks around the topic and embellishes it. Communication is regarded as an art form apart from the act of engaging someone. Disagreement is unique to the individual. One is sensitive to the expression of conflict in nonverbal communication by another person. In order for work to develop, either conflict must be resolved or conflict must be avoided since it is personally threatening
- There is a limited usage of nonverbal components. The verbal communication is more explicit than the nonverbal message
- The verbal message is more direct. Language is more significant than context
- A verbal communication is straightforward
- One lays out exactly what they want to say. A method of exchanging information, ideas, and opinions, communication is considered to be a sort of exchange. Disagreement is depersonalized in this manner. One withdraws from a quarrel with another in order to focus on the work at hand. The emphasis is on logical answers rather than personal ones. It is possible to express one’s dissatisfaction with another’s troublesome conduct
- People stand near to one another and share the same space since space is common.
- Space is segregated and privately owned
- Privacy is paramount, thus individuals are separated by a greater distance.
- Everything moves at its own pace. Time is difficult to schedule
- People’s wants may interfere with the ability to stick to a timetable. What is crucial is that something is done
- Change is slow to happen. Things are firmly entrenched in the past, are difficult to change, and are steadfast. Time is a process
- It belongs to others as much as to nature
- It is cyclical.
- Things are set to be completed at specific times and one at a time, according to a timetable. What matters is that task be completed efficiently, and that change occurs quickly. When one changes his or her behavior, one may witness instant benefits
- Time is a commodity that can be spent or saved. One’s time is his or her own
- Knowledge is integrated in the context
- Things are interconnected, synthesized, and global in nature, There are a variety of sources of information used. Deductive reasoning is a process that moves from the general to the specific. Learning comes through observation of others as they model or demonstrate, followed by practice. When it comes to learning and problem solving, groups are favored
- Accuracy is highly regarded. It is crucial to assess how well something has been learnt.
- Realism has been divided and isolated for many years. When developing knowledge, one source of information is employed. Inductive reasoning is the process of moving from the specific to the general. Individual orientation is favored for learning and problem solving because it allows for greater attention to detail
- Learning happens by following specific directions and explanations from others
- And The importance of speed cannot be overstated. It is crucial to consider how quickly something may be taught.
anthropologist Edward T. Hall’s writings, all of which were published in New York by Doubleday in the 1950s and 1960s: The Silent Language(1959), The Hidden Dimension(1969), Beyond Culture(1976), and The Dance of Life(1979) (1983). The 1993 Annual: Developing Human Resources is the source of this information. PfeifferCompany. Let’s try out the following task to see where you fall on the low and high context continuum.
|CULTURAL-CONTEXTINVENTORY ClaireB. Halverson|
|Instructions:Foreach of the following twenty items, check 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 to indicateyour tendencies and preferences in a work situation.|
|Hardly Ever||Sometimes||Almost Always|
|1.||Whencommunicating, I tend to use a lot of facialexpressions, hand gestures, and body movementsratherthan relying mostly on words.|
|2.||Ipay more attention to the context of a conversation�who said what andunder what circumstances�thanIdo to the words.|
|3.||Whencommunicating, I tend to spell things outquickly and directly rather than talking around and addingto the point.|
|4.||Inan interpersonal disagreement, I tend to be more emotional than logicaland rational.|
|5.||Itend to have a small, close circle of friends rather thana large, but less close, circle of friends.|
|6.||Whenworking with others, I prefer to get the job donefirst and socialize afterward rather than socialize first andthen tackle the job.|
|7.||I would ratherwork in a group than by myself.|
|8.||Ibelieve rewards should be given for individual accomplishment ratherthan for group accomplishments.|
|9.||Idescribe myself in terms of my accomplishmentsratherthan in terms of my family and relationships.|
|10.||Iprefer sharing space with others to having my own private space.|
|11.||Iwould rather work for someone who maintains authorityandfunctions for the good of the group than work for someone who allowsa lot of autonomy and individual decisionmaking.|
|12.||Ibelieve it is more important to be on time than to letotherconcerns take priority.|
|13.||Iprefer working on one thing at a time to working on avariety of things at once.|
|14.||Igenerally set a time schedule and keep to it rather than leave thingsunscheduled and go with the flow.|
|15.||Ifind it easier to work with someone who is fast andwantsto see immediate results than to work with someone who is slow and wantsto consider all the facts.|
|16.||Inorder to learn about something, I tend to consult many sources of informationrather than to go to the one bestauthority.|
|17.||Infiguring out problems, I prefer focusing on the whole situation to focusingon specific parts or taking one step at a time.|
|18.||Whentackling a new task, I would rather figure it out on my own by experimentationthan follow someone else’s example or demonstration.|
|19.||Whenmaking decisions, I consider my likes and dislikes, not just the facts.|
|20.||Iprefer having tasks and procedures explicitly defined tohaving a general idea of what has to be done.|
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and differences across cultures
The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication is a substantial, peer-reviewed, and constantly updated resource that blends the speed and flexibility of digital with the high standards of academic publication to create a unique hybrid. According to Geert Hofstede, who conducted the world’s first study of cultural variations among contemporary nations, there are four characteristics of cultural values: individualism against collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculine versus femininity.
According to Hofstede’s research, people in individualistic societies are expected to care only for themselves and their immediate families, whereas people in collectivist cultures see themselves as members of larger groups, which may include extended family members, and are expected to share responsibility for caring for one another.
It is taken into account while calculating uncertainty avoidance that “the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations.” Next, masculinity-femininity analyses a culture’s main values and assesses where these values fall on a scale where “masculine” is connected with aggressiveness, the acquisition of money and things, as well as a lack of concern for others.
Finally, long-term orientation examines the extent to which a society considers the preservation of tradition and the fulfillment of social duties; perseverance and thrift are examples of values that are oriented toward the future.
International business executives, psychologists, communication experts, and diplomats, among others, gain from Hofstede’s work.
It is through the use of interpretive frameworks that we may gain a better knowledge of ourselves and others. In order to better understand the variations across cultures, we prepared a collection of examples of Hofstede’s principles in action from various sources.
- Those who live in collectivist societies, such as those found in most Latin American and African countries, some Asian and African countries, and the Middle East, place a strong emphasis on the obligations they owe to their ingroup members, and they are willing to sacrifice their own personal needs and desires in order to benefit the group. People who identify as collectiveists place a high value on belonging, harmony, and conformity. They are more likely to exercise self-control over their words and actions because they believe it is immature or imprudent to express one’s own thoughts, opinions, or emotions without considering the implications of doing so on others. People who are particularistic are concerned about their ties with members of their own ingroups, and they frequently treat them differently than strangers or members of other groups
- This is known as particularism.
“Sierra Leone” is a painting by Annie Spratt. Unsplash has made this image available to the public domain.
- People in high power distance societies, such as many Latin American nations, the majority of African and Asian countries, and the vast majority of countries in the Mediterranean region, usually accept power as an intrinsic component of their society’s structure. Hierarchy and power disparity are seen reasonable and desirable in this context. Similarly to the military culture, superiors are required to look after their subordinates in exchange for which the subordinates are supposed to show obedience, loyalty, and devotion to them. According to these cultures, the seniors or superiors are given first priority in seating, eating, walking, and speaking while the juniors or subordinates must wait and follow them in order to demonstrate due respect. They refrain from openly expressing their views, opinions, and feelings, particularly negative ones such as disputes, doubts, rage, and so on. They also refrain from expressing themselves verbally. The majority of high power distance civilizations, with the exception of a few exceptions such as France, are also collectivistic cultures.
- The value of equality is high in low-power-distance nations such as Israel, Denmark, and Ireland, and the people there work hard to reduce or eradicate many types of social and class imbalances. They place a high priority on democracy, and juniors and subordinates are allowed to confront or question authority. In addition to being individualistic civilizations, the majority of low power distance cultures are also small.
- The formal rules, standards, and structures that people from high uncertainty avoidance cultures (such as many Latin American and Mediterranean cultures, as well as some European (e.g., Germany, Poland) and Asian cultures (e.g., Japan, Pakistan) require tend to be more prevalent in these cultures. Figure 1. Divergence from these rules and standards is regarded as disruptive and undesirable. They also have a tendency to avoid confrontation, seek consensus, and take less chances than others.
The formal norms, standards, and structures that people from high uncertainty avoidance cultures (such as many Latin American and Mediterranean cultures, as well as certain European (e.g., Germany, Poland) and Asian cultures (e.g., Japan, Pakistan) require are more prevalent. Deviation from these rules and standards is regarded as disruptive and unwelcome behavior. They also have a tendency to avoid confrontation, seek consensus, and take less chances than other people.
- People in countries with low uncertainty avoidance cultures, such as China, Jamaica, and the United Kingdom, are more comfortable in unstructured circumstances than in organized situations. Uncertainty and ambiguity are regarded as normal and necessary aspects of life. They place a high importance on individuality and innovation, and they are not afraid to take chances.
- Strong values such as accomplishments, ambition, power, and assertiveness are valued more highly in masculine cultures than delicate values such as quality of life and sympathy for the weak. This is especially true in countries with a strong male culture such as Mexico, Italy, Japan, and Australia. Men and women are required to take on different responsibilities in society and to adhere to different values, which indicates that men and women have different functions to play in society and are expected to adhere to different ideals. In contrast to the expectations placed on males to be forceful and harsh in pursuit of monetary success, women are supposed to be modest and delicate in pursuit of enhancing the overall quality of life for their families
- For example,
- For women-dominated civilizations, such as the vast majority of Scandinavian countries, the division of gender roles is fluid and flexible: men and women do not have have distinct duties, and they can transfer careers while still caring for their families. The quality of life, service, and nurturing are more important in feminine civilizations than they are in masculine societies, and these soft values are shared by both men and women in the community.
- As taught by Confucius, long-term orientation is concerned with the pursuit for virtues by a community in the long run. Most East Asian communities, for example, have a long-term perspective and value future-oriented characteristics such as thrift, tenacity, and perseverance, as well as arranging relationships according to status and developing a feeling of shame when individuals fall short of societal expectations.
- A short-term orientation encourages values that are more present or past oriented such as personal steadiness and stability, respect for tradition, and the reciprocation of greetings, favors, and presents. Norway, the United Kingdom, and Kenya are examples of countries that have a short-term perspective.
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Managers are increasingly need to deal with a diverse range of ethnic groups, each with its own distinct culture. As a result of globalization, you are likely to collaborate with people from a variety of nations, including Japanese, French, Chinese, German, and others. It is critical to acknowledge that people from other cultures are distinct in a number of ways, including their perspectives on certain issues.
- The numerous ways of seeing at things
- The various styles of wearing
- The various methods of displaying one’s individuality or goodwill
- Among the nationalities represented would be English police officers, German automobile technicians, French chefs, Swiss innkeepers, and Italian lovers
- In addition, the innkeepers would be English.
- Among the nationalities represented would be English police officers, German automobile technicians, French chefs, Swiss innkeepers, and Italian lovers
- All of these would be based in London.
The police officers would be from England, the vehicle technicians from Germany, the cooks from France, the innkeepers from Switzerland, and the lovers from Italy.
- In the United States, a forceful, brief handshake conveys self-assurance and (heterosexual) masculinity to the recipient. An unsteady handshake by a male might be viewed (usually incorrectly) as a sign of homosexuality or wimpiness by other people. However, in most regions of Africa, a weak handshake is the proper way to greet someone. A handshake that lasts even a few seconds too long is seen as familiarity, warmth, and potentially sexual interest in Africa, but in the United States, males do not stare at women on the street unless they are a potential sexual partner. The French are the ones who do it. Recent comments made by a prominent French public person in a speech implied that the British are all gay, citing their lack of overt interest in women as evidence.
Cultures differ along a number of dimensions, including:
High Context vs Low Context
A low context society is one in which everything is completely (but succinctly) laid out before you. Things are made obvious, and there is a great deal of reliance on what is spoken or written in actuality. An environment where communicators presume a high degree of commonality of knowledge and viewpoints is characterized by the fact that less information is transmitted directly and much more information is communicated implicitly or in indirect ways. In a low context culture, the listener is expected to maintain their knowledge base and remain connected to informal networks, which increases the listener’s sense of responsibility.
Japanese, Arabs, and French people are examples of civilizations with a strong sense of context.
- An environment where things are completely (but simply) explained is referred to as a low context culture. A great deal depends on what is really said or written, and the degree to which this is true is emphasized. If the communicators presume a high degree of similarity in knowledge and viewpoints, then less information is sent overtly and more is shared implicitly or in indirect ways, as in a high context culture It is the listener’s obligation to maintain their knowledge base and to remain connected to informal networks while they live in a low context culture. Anglos, Germanics, and Scandinavians are examples of low context civilizations. Japanese, Arabs, and French people are examples of high context cultures.
- Westerners can be perceived as being aggressively blunt by the Japanese. Westerners may perceive the Japanese as secretive, deceptive, and bafflingly uncooperative when it comes to information
- The French may believe that Germans insult their intelligence by explaining the obvious, while the Germans may believe that French managers give little guidance
- And so on.
Low context cultures are particularly sensitive to communication failures because they imply a greater level of common knowledge than is really there.
This is especially true in today’s world of increasing variety. A low context culture is not well-known for its capacity to tolerate or understand variety, and it has a reputation for being more insular.
Monochronic vs Polychronic
The assumption of greater common knowledge than is really present in low context cultures makes them subject to communication failure. The importance of this is even more apparent in this day and age of cultural variety. Those that live in low context cultures are not well-known for their capacity to tolerate or understand variety, and they are also more isolated.
- Interactions between types can be a source of contention. A German businessman is perplexed as to why the person he is meeting is so easily distracted by phone calls and passersby who come to say hello. Is it intended to be offensive to him? They haven’t gotten down to business yet. A similar situation occurs when an American employee of a German corporation is bothered by all of the closed doors, which he perceives as chilly and unwelcoming.
Future vs Present vs Past Orientation
Past-oriented cultures are preoccupied with the preservation of traditional values and ways of conducting business. They have a tendency to be conservative in their administration and to be hesitant to modify things that are rooted in tradition. China, the United Kingdom, Japan, and the majority of Spanish-speaking nations in Latin America are examples of societies that are oriented toward the past. The remainder of the Spanish-speaking nations in Latin America are considered to be present-oriented society.
They are more interested in short-term gains.
They believe they comprehend it and have the ability to shape it via their actions.
The United States and, increasingly, Brazil are examples of societies that are looking to the future.
Quantity of Time
For example, in certain cultures, time is seen to be a finite resource that must be replenished on a regular basis. It’s the equivalent of having a bathtub full of water that can never be refilled and that is always draining down the drain. It has to be used before it can be flushed down the toilet, or else it will be squandered. Other societies have a greater abundance of time, if not an endless amount of it. Time was typically viewed as circular in ancient agrarian communities, with the cycle repeating itself year after year.
- Punctuality becomes a virtue in communities where time is a valuable commodity. Taking advantage of someone’s time is disrespectful, and the capacity to do so and get away with it is an evidence of one’s superiority or social standing. Time is money, as they say. The practice of keeping people waiting all day and then telling them to come back the next day is perfectly acceptable in civilizations where time is plentiful, such as India or Latin American cultures. When it comes to doing business, societies with plenty of time tend to rely on trust. People living in time-constrained societies don’t have the luxury of developing trust, therefore they devise alternative means to accomplish so (such as strict rule of law).
The degree to which people accept power differentials and enable this to impact various areas of their lives is called acceptance. Is the boss always correct just because he is in charge, or is he only correct when he gets it right?
- In countries with a significant power gap (such as the majority of agricultural countries), bypassing a superior is considered unsubordination. In nations with little power distance (such as the United States, northern Europe, and Israel), bypassing is not normally a huge concern
- In the United States, superiors and subordinates frequently socialize socially on an equal footing. Outsiders who observe a gathering of professors and graduate students are frequently unable to distinguish between them.
Individualism vs Collectivism
Individuality and the right to self-determination are highly valued in individualist cultures. Individuals who are “self-made men” or “make their own minds” or who take the initiative and work well on their own are all the more admirable than those who are not. People in collectivist cultures are expected to identify with and perform well in groups that protect them in exchange for their loyalty and compliance. Interestingly, individualist cultures are more likely to believe that there are universal values that should be shared by all, whereas collectivist cultures are more likely to accept that different groups have their own set of morals.
- A survey of tourist information centers throughout the world was done by a market research agency. The surveys were returned in less than a month from the vast majority of nations. However, it took months for the authorities in the Asian countries to complete the task. It took several telexes, but it was ultimately completed. As an example, American tourist organizations gave the task to a single individual, but the Filipinos delegated it to the entire department, which resulted in a lengthier turnaround time. In addition, the researchers discovered that the telexes from the Philippines were always sent by a different individual.
Problems Caused by Cultural Differences
- You provide a warm welcome to your Austrian customer. The six times you’ve met in the last four months is a record for you. Herr Smith is the title he has given you. You have a preconceived notion of him as a reserved individual who does not wish to become overly friendly. Certainly, it would be true in the United States, where addressing someone as Mr. Smith after the sixth meeting would very certainly indicate something negative – it is an example of marked usage of language – such as “we’re not getting along.” However, in Austria, this is standard practice.
- A Canadian businessman conducting business in Kuwait is taken aback when his meeting with a high-ranking official is not held in a private office and is continuously interrupted by the officials’ assistant. As a result, he begins to question if the official is as important as he had been made to believe, and he begins to distrust the seriousness with which his company is being treated
- A new, young American employee was asked by his British supervisor whether he would be interested in having an early lunch at 11 a.m. each day. ‘Yeah, it would be fantastic,’ the employee responded. “With that type of attitude, you might as well forget about lunch,” the supervisor said soon afterward. Both the employee and the supervisor were perplexed as to what had gone wrong. When used in this situation in England, the word “yes” is seen as harsh and insulting.
- Uninterested in a certain transaction, a Japanese businessman wishes to inform his Norwegian customer that he is not interested in the sale. In response, he states, “That will be really tough.” The Norwegian excitedly inquires as to how he might be of assistance. The Japanese are baffled by this. “No way in hell!” he thinks about it when someone says anything is tough for him to understand. In this video, Dave Barry recalls the account of his journey to Japan, when he collaborated with a Japanese airline clerk to go from one location to the next. When the cashier was queried about it, he said, “Perhaps you would want to take the train instead.” As a result, he stated, “NO, I want to fly.” As a result, she stated, “There are many alternative options.” “Yes,” he responded, “but I believe it would be preferable to fly.” “It would be quite tough,” she stated. In the end, it was discovered that there were no flights connecting the two cities.
There are three fundamental types of problems: understanding the words and behaviors of others, forecasting conduct, and dealing with contradictory behavior (or vice versa).
Some Perceptions of Americans
Europe, particularly England, is a good example. “Americans are obtuse and unsubtle in their speech. And they are both overweight and ill-dressed.” The United States of America is continually trying to pronounce your name: ‘That’s a great tie, Mikko.’ “Hi Mikko, how are you doing today, Mikko’Indian?” Americans are constantly in a rush, no matter what. Watch how they stroll down the street to get a sense of it.” “Americans are far away,” says a Kenyan. They are not very close to other people, not even to other Americans,” she continues.
“Once, while driving through a rural location in the middle of nowhere, we came upon an American approaching a stop sign.
‘Everything has to be discussed and evaluated in the United States.
He is looking for a ‘yes’ or a ‘no.’ When someone tries to utilize metaphorical language, the American becomes perplexed.” Iran.
“I questioned myself, ‘Why is he instructing me?’
Try this experiment:
Begin by reading the following: Finalized files are the result of years of scientific research combined with the knowledge and experience gained over a long period of time. Now, count the amount of “F”s that appear in the phrase as soon as you can. Anglo-Saxons, on average, discover fewer F’s than other races. Why?