- 1 Toward a Global Culture
- 2 cultural globalization
- 3 Emergence of global subcultures
- 4 “Davos ” culture
- 5 The international “faculty club”
- 6 Nongovernmental organizations
- 7 Transnational workers
- 8 What is Cultural Globalisation?
- 9 Migration
- 10 Food
- 11 Sport
- 12 Converging Global Consumption Patterns
- 13 The Global Village/ Global Consciousness
- 14 Detraditionalisation
- 15 Global Risks/ Global Risk Consciousness
- 16 Has the global Coronavirus Pandemic increased our sense of ‘global consciousness’?
- 17 The 2020 American Election – A Global Event, but not much evidence of a ‘unified global consciousness’
- 18 Signposting
- 19 Sources used to write this post:
- 20 The Five Dimensions of Global Cultural Flow – Video & Lesson Transcript
- 21 TechnoscapesFinancescapes
Toward a Global Culture
Some sociologists today believe that the world is moving closer to a global culture that is devoid of cultural variation as a result of technological advancement. A key way in which cultures develop to resemble one another is through the process of cultural diffusion, often known as the spreading of norms across cultural boundaries. Travel, commerce, and even conquest have long been important means for cultures to interact and influence one another. The pace of cultural dispersion, on the other hand, is growing substantially as people nowadays travel and dwell in different parts of the world.
Indeed, words such as “global village” appear to indicate that the globe is becoming “smaller” on a daily basis.
Despite the fact that individuals may migrate to the other side of the world, they tend to have a strong connection to their culture of origin.
Today’s sociologists anticipate that the world is on the verge of becoming a global civilization devoid of cultural variation. The concept of cultural diffusion, or the transmission of norms between cultures, is a basic mechanism through which civilizations develop to resemble one other. Travel, commerce, and even conquest have long been important means for cultures to interact and influence each other. The pace of cultural dispersion, on the other hand, is growing substantially as more and more people travel and settle throughout the world.
So much so that expressions such as “global village” appear to indicate that the globe is becoming “smaller” by the day.
Despite the fact that people may migrate to a different part of the world, they tend to maintain a strong connection to their home culture.
Emergence of global subcultures
Others believe that a primitive form of world culture is taking shape among a group of people who share similar beliefs, goals, and lifestyles. Ultimately, this results in a collection of elite organizations whose uniting goals transcend geographical boundaries.
“Davos ” culture
Among these cadres, according to political scientist Samuel Huntington in his book The Clash of Civilizations(1998), is an elite group of highly educated people who work in the rarefied spheres of international banking, media, and diplomacy. Another such cadre is the military. These “Davos” insiders are named after the Swiss town that began holding annual sessions of the World Economic Forum in 1971, and they share shared ideals about individualism, democracy, and market economy with the rest of the world.
According to reports, they have a distinct way of life, are readily recognizable from anywhere in the globe, and feel more at ease in each other’s company than they do in the company of their less-sophisticated colleagues.
The international “faculty club”
Globalization of cultural groupings is not restricted to the upper classes alone, as some may believe. The sociologist Peter L. Berger remarked that globalization of Euro-American academic agendas and lifestyles has resulted in the formation of a worldwide “faculty club”—an international network of people who share similar values, attitudes, and research goals—in his discussion of Davos culture. Despite the fact that they are not as wealthy or privileged as their Davos counterparts, members of this international faculty club wield tremendous power through their affiliation with educational institutions around the world.
A good example of this, according to Berger, is the anti-smoking campaign, which began as a purely North American obsession in the 1970s and has now extended to other areas of the world, going down the paths of academia’s worldwide network.
Another worldwide grouping consists of “cosmopolitans,” who foster an intellectual understanding for the cultures of their own countries. Specifically, according to Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, this group proposes a perspective of global culture that is focused not on the “replication of uniformity,” but rather on the “organization of variation.” Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are in the forefront of efforts to conserve cultural practices in the developing world are frequently cited as proponents of this viewpoint.
Native American groups are encouraged to perceive themselves as “first peoples,” a new global designation emphasizing the common experiences of exploitation shared by indigenous inhabitants of all lands.
These non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have globalized the effort to conserve indigenous world cultures by refining their identities.
Another category has emerged as a result of the increase in the number of multinational workers. Arjun Appadurai, an anthropologist who was born in India, has conducted research on English-speaking professionals who can trace their roots back to South Asia but who live and work in other parts of the world. They circulate in a social environment that has numerous home bases, and they have acquired access to a unique network of persons and possibilities as a result of their participation. Examples include numerous software engineers and Internet entrepreneurs who live and work in Silicon Valley, California, but who have residences in – and strong social links to – Indian areas such as Maharashtra and Punjab, for example.
What is Cultural Globalisation?
Culture is becoming globalized at an alarming rate, with ideas, attitudes, meanings, values, and cultural objects moving at breakneck speed across national borders. In particular, it refers to the notion that there is now a global and common monoculture – transmitted and reinforced by the internet, popular entertainment, transnational marketing of particular brands, and international tourism – that transcends local cultural traditions and lifestyles, and that shapes people’s perceptions, aspirations, tastes, and everyday activities wherever they may live in the world.
This post is intended particularly for sociology students who are enrolled in the Global Development module, which is offered as a second-year option within A-level sociology.
A significant part of cultural globalisation is migration. In this sense, this process has been ongoing for several centuries, with languages, religious beliefs and values being propagated through military conquest, missionary activity, and trade among people all over the world. However, due to technical advancements in both transportation and communication technologies over the last 30 years, the process of cultural globalisation has accelerated considerably, particularly in the developing world.
A significant part of cultural globalisation is migration. In this sense, this process has been ongoing for several centuries, with languages, religious beliefs and values being propagated through military conquest, missionary activity, and commerce among peoples throughout the world. As a result of technical advancements in both transportation and communication technologies, the process of cultural globalisation has accelerated considerably in the last 30 years.
Consider all of the worldwide athletic events that take place, such the World Cup and the Olympics, as well as Formula One, which bring millions of people together in a shared, really global ‘leisure experience.’
Converging Global Consumption Patterns
Today, you can go to almost any large city in the globe and get a comparable ‘consumption experience.’ It’s a global phenomenon. Apart from that, individuals in Asia and South America are increasingly coming to enjoy the same high-consumption lifestyles as their counterparts in the West — automobile ownership and travel are both on the rise worldwide, for example. The rise of comparable kinds of retail malls and leisure parks, which give an uniform cultural experience in diverse places throughout the world, is at the heart of this trend.
The Global Village/ Global Consciousness
Every day, individuals and families are more closely connected to news from across the world – some of the most compelling events of the past decade have unfolded in real time before an international audience as a result of the Internet. In Giddens’ words, this means that an increasing number of people are adopting a more “global outlook” and increasingly identify with an international audience – for example, television coverage of natural disasters in developing countries leads to people in wealthier countries donating money to charities such as Oxfam to assist with relief efforts.
It has been argued that some individuals see expanding globalisation as a danger to their way of life and as a result turn to Fundamentalism and/or Nationalism as a defensive response, raising the possibility that globalisation may be reversed.
The late Anthony Giddens argued in his popular 1999 work, Runaway World, that one consequence of globalisation is detraditionalisation, in which individuals begin to doubt their traditional ideas about things such as religion, marriage, and gender roles, among other things. He prefers the term ‘detraditionalisation’ rather than ‘decline of tradition’ to reflect the fact that, while many people continue to follow their traditional ways of life rather than changing them, the fact that they are actively questioning aspects of their lives means that cultures are much less stable and predictable than they were before globalisation, because more people are aware of the fact that there are alternative ways of doing things and that the world is becoming more interconnected.
The dynamics described above are linked to the expansion of urbanisation, particularly the expansion of global cities with middle classes that are highly educated and politically involved.
Global Risks/ Global Risk Consciousness
The development of a global risk consciousness, according to Ulrich Beck (1992), is a fundamental feature of globalisation. This consciousness emerges as a result of shared global problems that threaten people in multiple countries – examples include the threat of terrorism, international nuclear war, the threat of global pandemics, the rise of organized crime funded primarily through international drug trafficking, and the threat of planetary melt-down as the results from climate change, among others.
On the other hand, new global international movements and agencies have emerged through which people can come together across borders to address such issues.
It is debatable whether Coronavirus has contributed to an increased sense of cultural globalisation – while the virus does not discriminate between cultures, and many countries are working in similar ways to combat the virus (lockdowns, facemasks), it is difficult to argue that the closing of borders and the restriction of international travel has contributed to an increased sense of cultural globalisation!
The national governments, their country states, appeared to be the primary source of guidance during the epidemic, which barely appears to be the result of any sort of global reaction.
The 2020 American Election – A Global Event, but not much evidence of a ‘unified global consciousness’
Another recent event that demonstrates how ambiguous cultural globalisation can be is the reaction to the 2020 United States general election – while this is a national election, it was unquestionably a global event, as it was watched by hundreds of millions of people around the world, demonstrating that it was a truly global event. But judging by the mixed reactions, we can’t call this evidence of a unified consciousness because there’s a great deal of disagreement among world leaders about the outcome.
Cultural globalisation is one sort of globalization, and students may find some of the other topics on this topic to be interesting as well: Globalization – Fundamental Concepts and Definitions Factors Influencing the Globalization Process What is Economic Globalization and how does it work? What is Political Globalization and how does it work? It’s
Sources used to write this post:
Society AQA Sociology Chapman et al (2016?) Giddens’ second year (2009) The study of sociology.*No publication date is given in the [email protected]”?!
The Five Dimensions of Global Cultural Flow – Video & Lesson Transcript
Ethnoscapes are made up of people, notably those who relocate from one location to another. Such persons include tourists, expatriates, refugees, immigrants, students studying abroad, temporary employees working in foreign countries, and so on and so forth. Ideas and knowledge flow around with individuals, for whatever purpose they may be traveling. Any variety of effects may result, including the formation of a melting pot of cultural traditions and customs. Examples of this can be found, for example, in fusion cuisines.
The notion of mediascapes will be discussed next.
In other words, it is the pictures, ideas, stories, and so on that are distributed around the world through newspapers, YouTube, cable, and Netflix.
Consider the forces at work behind the scenes of the mediascapes that are in charge of the narratives.
Another consideration is whether an individual has access to one mediascape vs another. All of these factors may have a considerable impact on not just the transmission of information, but also the kind of ideas that are conveyed and to whom, by whom, and when they are distributed.
There are also technoscapes to consider. Technoscapes are a notion that refers to the movement of various sorts of physical and virtual forms of technology within a certain geographic area. Also important is the influence this technology has and the links it has to larger topics, such as who controls this technology and for what purpose, as well as how it impacts the people who rely on these technologies, that are being explored. Consider the internet and the technological backbone of wires built by corporations and governments, which, in turn, allows citizens or other entities to potentially make a living or exert influence over a segment of a population through the videos they post on YouTube or other video-sharing sites like Facebook.