Which Of The Following Is A Characteristic Of The Organizational Culture In A Tall Organization

Organizational Culture: the 6 Facets of a Strong, Brave Company

Culture, we want a strong business culture,” is perhaps one of the most familiar screams from the top of a company hierarchy. According to a survey of over 1,400 North American CEOs and CFOs, 90 percent of respondents stated that business culture was crucial to their firms. One reason why executives desire a strong, bold corporate culture is because it frequently results in contented personnel. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs outperform their competition by 20 percent, and happy employees are 12 percent more productive than those who are dissatisfied with their jobs.

But what is organizational culture?

It is possible to have several definitions of organizational culture, with each definition representing a distinct interpretation of how the construct manifests itself in a given company. It is a collection of values, habits, assumptions, and a vision maintained by a company or group of people. Terry Deal and Allan Kennedy were the first scholars to look into the definition of corporate culture; they saw it as the way things are done in a company, and they were right. Organizational culture may be broadly defined as the ideas, shared values, assumptions, and practices that shape the social and psychological environment of a company or organization.

Organizational culture is developed by senior management and then conveyed and reinforced regularly through a variety of means ranging from onboarding swag to the way meetings are done, ultimately influencing employee attitudes, habits, and knowledge of the firm.

  1. Members’ self-image, inner workings, and future expectations are all examples of how culture is conveyed.
  2. It demonstrates how a group of people can work together to achieve a common purpose.
  3. Organizations in various industries will often have diverse cultures, as will their employees.
  4. Effective strategy and organizational structure, together with a strong corporate culture, are essential for a successful organization.
  5. O’Reilly demonstrated that organizational cultures are critical in driving financial performance in organizations.
  6. In their research, O’Reilly and his colleagues revealed that businesses with highly adaptable cultures always have a competitive advantage over their competitors that have inflexible cultures.
  7. In a company, human resources play a critical part in defining the culture of the organization, beginning with the recruitment of applicants who share the philosophy of the organization.

Recruitment of individuals who are aligned with a company’s aims and values continues to be the most difficult task for businesses. Technology, on the other hand, makes the procedure more efficient for both managers and candidates.

What makes up an efficient culture?

Every firm strives to achieve financial success as well as a strong brand image. These, on the other hand, are impossible to achieve without stability. Employees and business partners benefit from a culture of stability because they are comfortable with a known path of action. Thus, it influences attitudes, actions, values, and interpersonal connections inside the organization. Stability encourages employees to care about results and to work together to achieve a single goal, which is to maintain the stability.

It is eventually more beneficial for a company to maintain a regular level of growth than than to have quick but unstable advances.

Wayfair’s stock price dropped by 23 percent in a single day as a result of the company’s inability to predict sales.

Attention to details

It is the small elements that make a difference in the success of a company, from how an employee is welcomed onto a team to how they deliver quarterly reports to shareholders. A keen eye for detail displays efficiency and a dedication to customer service. Employees who pay greater attention to the fine print are more productive than their counterparts who do not pay attention to the fine print. It is possible to have strong attention to details while still having other qualities such as time management, analytical thinking, observation skills, and active listening.

According to a study published in the journal Management Science, attention to detail and creativity are essential for quality improvement in the corporate world to be successful.

As a result, it provides better communication, which helps to eliminate errors while also streamlining work and timeframes.

Innovation

Organizations must pay close attention in order to survive and grow in today’s highly competitive workplace. When change comes, a company that values innovation above maintaining the status quo will be more likely to succeed than one that does not. Innovation is a critical component of every organization’s ability to achieve long-term development and profitability. Experimentation and risk-taking are essential components of innovation, as is being more resilient when confronted with unexpected circumstances.

According to McKinsey & Company, 84 percent of CEOs agree that innovation is critical to a company’s long-term plan for success.

This is accomplished by assembling a team of individuals that are both innovative and energetic.

The capacity to problem-solve more effectively allows for greater organizational sustainability, which may be achieved by repackaging, rebranding, or other enhancements to match the ever-changing demands of the market.

Competitiveness

Competitiveness is defined as the ability of an organization to get an advantage over its competitors. It may apply to just about anything, from the pricing point to the delivery options to the color possibilities and everything in between. Sustainable competitiveness, on the other hand, refers to obtaining higher margins while also creating value for employees and shareholders over an extended period of time. According to the findings of research concentrating on this trait, there is a strong association between competitiveness and the performance of a company.

offering real value to consumers

77 percent of organizations feel that being competitive is essential in order to succeed against competing products and services. Those that fail to build competition will find it difficult to remain in business. In addition to identifying the best market fit, attracting qualified staff is essential. In fact, discovering and keeping outstanding people is the number one priority of C-Suite executives. An agile team encourages innovation, which results in a significant competitive advantage for the organization.

Team orientation

Hiring a skilled staff is one thing, but getting them to function as a cohesive unit is a whole different notion altogether. No matter how competent a workforce is, the dream will not come true until they work together as a team. Team orientation entails the sharing of varied abilities in complementary positions as well as the collaboration of individuals to achieve a shared objective. It denotes that staff are working together toward a common objective. It doesn’t matter what business you’re in, individuals that are more collaborative tend to outperform their competitors.

As a result, recruiters are looking for employees that have a strong sense of team spirit, in whatever shape that may take.

As a result, recruiting managers should recognize the importance of selecting applicants who are aligned with a company’s culture of cooperation and collaborative effort.

Outcome orientation

An organization’s priorities are defined as a result of its outcome orientation. Before taking action, the team understands what is a priority if the leadership outlines desired objectives in advance. When a group works together to achieve a common objective, it becomes much easier for them to take ownership of a project or goal. Employees may concentrate on attaining their objectives when the outcome has been predetermined. Employees may express themselves more freely when they have a purpose and a timeframe to work towards.

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A team that is focused on results evaluates their progress, which increases the likelihood of a business reaching its objectives and boosting its profitability.

In fact, more than half of executives feel that having a results-oriented culture has an impact on productivity. A staff that is focused on the future is essential for a forward-thinking organization.

Supportiveness

Supportiveness has been shown to be associated with improved performance and success. What exactly is it? It refers to the process of building an environment in which listening to and offering assistance to employees and staff is a top concern. Organizations display their concern for their employees by treating them with compassion and consideration. As a result, there will be significant improvements in staff performance. A helpful organization builds stronger relationships and promotes a positive work environment.

In order to develop a competitive corporate culture, goal-oriented firms look for employees that are supportive of one another when hiring new staff.

It removes the stigma associated with failure by establishing an environment in which employees are encouraged to attempt new things and learn from their mistakes.

Employee retention is better in an open workplace where they feel respected and valued, which leads to increased productivity.

How to match talents with your culture

A strong business culture is associated with significant increases in the firm’s performance. The results of leaders’ capacity to foster a culture of trust, transparency, and communication include improved performance, more motivated employees, loyal consumers, and enhanced profitability among other things. Organizations must make an investment in employing a workforce that is aligned with their company’s strong culture. Recruiters recognize that it is important to have a comprehensive knowledge of an individual rather than just through a piece of paper.

In order to forecast a candidate’s personality, it employs video analytics, which is then used to automatically assess the candidate’s fit with the organization’s cultural fit.

Retorio’s video-based artificial intelligence has been highlighted in publications such as TechCrunch, Spiegel, ARD, BBC, and the Süddeutsche Zeitung.

Tall Organizational Structure

A tall organizational structure is one of the most common forms of corporate structures since it has been proven to be both successful and time-tested over many years. As a result of this organizational structure, you and your company’s top-level executives may make key decisions about operational strategy and then convey those decisions to upper- and mid-level managers, who can then design means to bring your vision to fruition.

The term “tall” refers to a hierarchical organization in which decisions are made and information is communicated from the top of the power chain all the way down to the lowest-level personnel.

Tall Organizational Structure Elements

The most distinguishing feature of a tall organizational structure is a management system that includes a president, chief executive officer, and, in some cases, a board of directors at the top, a middle level of department managers, and a lower level of supervisors and team leaders at the lower level. According to this organizational structure, business owners are responsible for defining the guiding principles and vision of the firm, as well as expressing that vision to the middle-level management.

Lower-level managers put these procedures into action by collaborating with staff on a daily basis.

Advantages of a Tall Organizational Structure

The key advantage of having a tall organizational structure is that it helps to maintain a strong chain of command from the top of the organization all the way down to the lowest level of the organization, which is the employees. Employees below the top-level of management in a tall structure are more aware of their tasks and responsibilities, which can lead to increased productivity and efficiency. One other advantage is that employees are motivated by the prospect of being promoted to higher management positions.

Employees get new skills and information as a result of each promotion, which helps the organization achieve its overall goals.

Disadvantages of a Tall Organizational Structure

As previously said, the key advantage of a tall organizational structure is that it helps to establish a strong chain of command, which extends from the company’s top management down to its lowest level of workers. Workers below the highest level of management in a tall structure are more aware of their tasks and responsibilities, which can lead to increased productivity and efficiency. It is also advantageous in that employees are driven by the prospect of being promoted to higher management positions.

Employees get new skills and information as a result of each promotion, which helps the organization achieve its overall objectives.

The Purpose of Organization

Any work you’ve held, whether it’s the one you’re now holding or a position you’ve held in the past, requires you to have some awareness of organizational structure—you know who your boss is, and you presumably know who your manager reports to. You could also be aware of who the CEO of your firm is. But where did this organizational structure come from, and how did it function?

Knowing why an organization is structured can help you determine how specialized your work will need to be, who to turn to when you have questions, and what internal and external factors may have an influence on your work in your present or future position.

Learning Outcomes

  • Provide an explanation for the efficiencies brought about by specialization and division of work. Organizational structures should be described in detail. List the four common components of an organization identified by Edgar Schein

Common Elements of an Organization

From the standpoint of a manager, operations will be effective if a shared objective is communicated throughout the business in order to mobilize a coordinated effort of available resources. A famous organizational psychologist, Edgar Schein, defined four important characteristics of an organization’s structure: a shared aim, a coordinated effort, a division of work, and a hierarchical structure of authority. Each of the four components constitutes a critical component of a well-designed structure in its own right.

Common Purpose

It is much easier to comprehend and operate a company that has a clearly defined purpose or mission statement. Employees are united by a single goal, which helps them grasp the direction of the firm. In the 1960s, any individual working at the NASA Space Center was well aware that the organization’s overarching goal was to land a man on the moon. Together with this shared purpose would be included the organization’s overall business and corporate strategy, mission statement, company values, as well as short- and long-term objectives.

The responsibility for communicating all of these components is most likely to rest on the shoulders of managers throughout the organization.

Coordinated Effort

The ability to organize the effort of labor in a way that maximizes resources while keeping the common goal in mind is arguably the most critical duty a manager has to bear. The ability to harness people’ skill sets, experience, and personalities in a way that consistently delivers value will be critical for managers going forward. When it comes to job happiness and engagement, managers must take into consideration their employees’ preferences as well as their own.

Specialization and the Division of Labor

Early in the twentieth century, every person on the assembly line of the Ford Motor Company was assigned a precise, repetitive duty to do. For example, one employee might put the wheels on the left side of the automobile, while another employee would simply install the front bumper of the vehicle. Ford was able to build one automobile every 10 seconds by breaking down the entire work into distinct defined activities and repeating them over and again. Ford, as well as several other firms, proved that specialization increased the efficiency of work.

Employees’ abilities to do a task increase as a result of repeated exposure to it.

A second, and equally essential, advantage of specialization is the ease with which individuals can be found and trained to do specialized and repetitive jobs, as well as the cheap cost of doing so.

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Chipotle and Starbucks are examples of younger firms that have adopted this concept.

The degree to which a work is separated into various tasks or departments in order to enhance efficiency is described by the term “division of labor.” Organizations with a high degree of division of labor, such as Fortune 100 companies, tend to be larger in size, whereas smaller entrepreneurial endeavors tend to have a higher degree of informal division of labor.

An accountant at a small business, on the other hand, must be more of a generalist, capable of handling a wide range of tasks (e.g., internal auditing, plus payroll, accounts receivable, financial planning, and taxes).

Although a high degree of specialization might boost production, it is also associated with unfavorable side effects, such as decreased employee work satisfaction as a result of the repetitive nature of some activities.

Because employees are not given the option to focus on other jobs, they will make less advancements in their positions.

Hierarchy of Authority

The formal, position-based reporting lines are determined by hierarchy, which explains who reports to whom and how they are formed. The United States Army has a complex organizational structure, with around twenty levels between a private and a general. Valve, an independent video game company, on the other hand, maintains a flat organizational structure. Officially, it does not have any management. Walmart, which employs around 2.2 million people, has a complex organizational structure, with twenty-nine senior managers who all report to the company’s top executive level, as seen in the following diagram.

  • As an illustration of a flat organizational structure, consider a company with only two levels of employees: the owner/CEO at the top and all other sorts of employees at the bottom.
  • The span of control is limited in tall organizational systems because of the limited span of control.
  • Firms have delayered in recent years by lowering their personnel (typically middle management), resulting in them being flatter and more agile as a result.
  • According to recent study, a range of control between fifteen and twenty direct reports is optimal.

Additional Characteristics of Organizational Structures

The four fundamental features of an organizational structure identified by Schein are not the only factors to take into consideration when establishing the optimum structure for a company.

Centralization and Decentralization

Centralized organizations are those in which only the top management make choices, with lower-level managers being entrusted with following out the orders issued by the top managers. The military is an excellent example, since generals issue instructions, and each succeeding rank passes these commands on to those who will follow them. In decentralized companies, decision-making is delegated to the managers who are closest to the task or the client, rather than the top management. It is the degree to which decision-making authority is concentrated at the top of an organization that is referred to as centralization.

If all ideas and decisions are decided only by the executive team, then the organization has a highly centralized organizational structure.

However, if managers are given the authority to make critical choices that influence their respective sections of the firm, this is referred to as a decentralized structure.

Formalization

The degree to which roles in an organization are standardized is referred to as formalization in this context. Because most jobs are highly institutionalized, employees have little or no discretion over what they do, when they do it, or how they do it. Formalization and specialization are commonly confused with one another, but they are not the same thing. A large part of the job of an airline pilot is highly structured, as prescribed by FAA rules that must be followed before, during and after each trip is taken.

Furthermore, pilots must undergo intensive training, which includes frequent flight simulator testing to ensure that codified solutions to recognized scenarios and obstacles that may arise during flight are enforced.

Pharmaceutical representatives, who are employed by pharmaceutical firms and who call on physicians’ offices to tell them of the efficacy of their drugs, have a considerable level of autonomy in their work.

Check Your Understanding

Please respond to the question(s) below to determine your level of understanding of the issues discussed in the preceding section. If you fail this brief quiz, it will not count toward your overall mark in the class, and you can repeat it an unlimited number of times. This quiz will help you determine if you need to (1) study the previous subject more thoroughly or (2) go on to the next section by checking your comprehension.

Walmart: Organizational Structure & Organizational Culture

The interior of a Walmart shop in the city of Miami, Florida. Despite the fact that Walmart’s organizational structure is appropriate, the company’s organizational culture has to be improved. Image courtesy of the public domain. Wal-organizational Mart’s structure impacts how the corporation conducts its business operations. Currently, these activities are concentrated mostly in the retail business, which includes operations in the e-commerce market. The corporate structure of the organization also places restrictions on how the organization deals with its difficulties.

In this regard, Walmart’s organizational culture impacts how employees respond to obstacles in the workplace, according to the company.

Cultural characteristics aid in the adaptation of the retail industry to changes and growing issues in the worldwide market.

It is the interaction of the organizational structure and organizational culture that allows Walmart to maintain its significant competitive advantage over other companies such as Amazon and Target, as well as Apple, Google and other technology companies that have significant online digital content distribution operations, to name a few examples.

An advantageous and synergistic mix of the company’s organizational structure and organizational culture is essential to achieving such a retail market position and possible long-term commercial success in the retail industry.

Walmart’s Organizational Structure

Walmart has a functional organizational structure that is hierarchical in nature. This structure is distinguished by two characteristics: hierarchy and function-based definition. Within an organizational structure, the hierarchy feature refers to the vertical lines of command and authority that run throughout the system. For example, every employee, with the exception of the CEO, reports to a direct supervisor. Directives and directives issued by the company’s upper management are carried out by middle managers all the way down to the lowest-level personnel working in Walmart shops nationwide.

  • Walmart, for example, has a department dedicated to the function of human resource management (HRM).
  • In Walmart’s organizational structure, there are a plethora of divisions that are organized according to their functions.
  • For example, new rules and initiatives made at the company’s corporate headquarters are immediately communicated to regional managers, who in turn communicate them to store managers, and so on.
  • The disadvantage of this corporate structure, on the other hand, is that it provides no support for organizational flexibility.

Walmart’s Organizational Culture

Four major components make up Walmart’s organizational culture. These are as follows: They serve as a guide for workers’ actions, which in turn determine the organization’s ability to provide value in the supply of retail services and associated services to consumers. These cultural components are also known as Walmart’s beliefs, which include:

  1. Customers’ needs are met
  2. Individuals are respected
  3. Excellence is sought
  4. And actions are taken with honesty.

When it comes to providing excellent customer service, the firm places a high priority on this in its operations. Walmart also honors the efforts made by each individual employee to the overall success of the company. In addition, the company aspires for excellence in the performance of individual employees, teams, and the overall business, among other things. Walmart encourages the principles of honesty, fairness, and impartiality in its decision-making processes, which helps to ensure that the company maintains its integrity.

Recommendations for Walmart’s Organizational Culture and Structure

Retail giant Walmart has developed an organizational structure that is well suited to the company’s business model and worldwide breadth of operations. Despite the enormity of the company’s retail and associated operations, this organizational structure allows managers to exert the greatest amount of control and influence possible. Walmart, on the other hand, has room to improve in terms of how it applies its ideals in the context of its corporate culture. These are idealistic viewpoints. Although the corporation is routinely criticized for failing to address employees’ concerns about poor compensation, the company continues to operate.

A good proposal for Walmart would be to put in place more effective mechanisms to ensure that each individual component of corporate culture is met to the highest possible standard.

References

  • M. Alvesson’s et al (2012). Understanding the culture of a company. F. A. Csaszar
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  • Csaszar, F. A. (2012). Evidence from mutual funds demonstrating the importance of organizational structure in determining performance. Csaszar, F. A., Strategic Management Journal, 33(6), 611-632
  • Csaszar, F. A., Strategic Management Journal, 33(6), 611-632
  • Csaszar, F. A. (2013). In organizational design, an efficient frontier is defined as follows: Organizational structure as a determinant of exploration and exploitation. Organization Science, 24 (4), 1083-1101
  • Heskett, J. L., Sasser, W. E., and Wheeler, J. Organization Science, 24 (4), 1083-1101. (2008). 10 Arguments for Creating a More Positive Corporate Culture M. A. Silva, Harvard Business School
  • Hickman, Charles R.
  • Silva, M. A. (2018). Establishing and maintaining greatness in the new millennium requires managing company culture, strategy, and change. J. P. Kotter’s book, Routledge, is a classic (2008). The relationship between corporate culture and performance. N. Lichtenstein’s N. Lichtenstein’s N. Lichtenstein’s N. Lichtenstein’s N. Lichtenstein’s N. (2011). Wal-Authoritarian Mart’s Work Environment. The New York Times
  • Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., and Sanz-Valle, R. Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., and Sanz-Valle, R. (2011). What is more important, innovation or imitation? Organizational culture plays an important role. Management Decision, 49 (1), 55-72
  • Roe, M. J. Management Decision, 49 (1), 55-72
  • (1993). There are some differences in the corporate structures of Germany, Japan, and the United States of America. The Yale Law Journal, vol. 102, no. 8, 1927-2003
  • And the United States General Accounting Office (1992). Organizational Culture: Techniques Companies Use to Perpetuate or Change Beliefs and Values
  • Walmart Inc. – Form 10-K
  • Walmart Inc. – Human Resources – Walmart Careers
  • Walmart Inc. – Working at Walmart
  • Walmart Inc.’s E-commerce Website
  • Yanrong, L. I. U. Organizational Culture: Techniques Companies Use to Perpetuate or Change Beliefs and Values
  • Walmart Inc. – Form 10- (2013). Walmart China has made changes to its business strategy. Management Science and Engineering, volume 7, number 4, pages 88-93
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Characteristics of Organizational Structure

An organizational structure can be characterized in several ways. We will focus on four structural characteristics which have been found to have significant impact on employee motivation and work behaviour. These characteristics expressed in contrasting pairs are:specialized versus general, tall versus flat, independent versus interdependent, tight versus loose(Coffey et al., 1975).This characteristic relates to the way work is designed. At one extreme is specialization. Organizations which choose specialization design the jobs to include simple, repetitive movements. The jobs have litde, if any, skill variety and task identity and absolutely no opportunity for initiative or creativity. At the other extreme are organizations which believe in designing work to include skill variety, skill identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback as much as possible. The structural characteristic in these organizations will be general, as opposed to specialized. Between these two extremes, several degrees of specialized and general jobs exist. Specialization is known to improve productivity, but the fact that organizations need to introduce job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment and ‘quality of working life’ programmes, indicates that the impact of specialization on work motivation and behaviour is not positive.

Tall Organizational Structure Definition

Definition of a tall organizational structure: An organization that has been split out into a distinct hierarchical structure. 3 minutes to read 1. Tall Organizational Structure: The Fundamentals of It Communication and Costs are two important considerations. Organizational Structures with a High Level of Complexity Definition of a tall organizational structure: An organization that has been split out into a distinct hierarchical structure. With this structure, an organization will have a number of managers, each of whom will be responsible for handling a certain element of the company’s operations and finances.

Tall Organizational Structure: Basics

Tall organizations, on the whole, are extraordinarily complicated structures. This means that when the market changes, these businesses may react more slowly than they would otherwise since managers have a much less area of influence. Having a tall organizational structure indicates that management is divided into numerous tiers, with executives at the top and regular employees at the bottom of the hierarchy. A tall organizational structure is referred to as a top-down structure, which is another term for it.

  • Having a tall company with a big number of employees might make it difficult to transfer information throughout the firm swiftly.
  • This is due to the fact that the more the number of management levels present, the less the breadth of control available to each manager.
  • Each manager in a tall company is often accountable for a small group of people, which means that a significant number of managers are needed to oversee the entire organization.
  • In some ways, having a large number of managers may be advantageous since it decreases confusion and helps managers to more easily handle their respective areas of the organization.
  • There are so many different layers of management in a large company that it is feasible that each layer will have its own set of rules that are unique.
  • Obviously, this will add to the bureaucracy of the business and will also make it more difficult to complete tasks.
  • Because every manager in a tall company will be in charge of a small group of employees, they will be able to provide greater personal supervision to each employee while also having more time to spend teaching staff on a one-on-one basis.

Unfortunately, this strict monitoring can also have a number of drawbacks, including the following:

  • It establishes a rigorous path for advancement
  • Employees have the impression that they have less responsibility. It is possible to have an antagonistic relationship between managers and employees.

Communication and Costs

As previously stated, one of the most significant disadvantages of a tall organizational structure is that it may make it harder to make and communicate critical business choices. The approval of a business decision by numerous individuals is feasible in large companies, and because of the hierarchical structure in which these organizations are structured, gaining this consent can be a time-consuming process. As an example, managers may have difficulty reaching leaders without first navigating their way through the organization’s many layers of administration.

Another issue to consider is the additional expenditures associated with the tall organizational structure.

The fundamental reason that tall companies are more expensive to run is the necessity to recruit a significantly greater number of supervisors and managers than other types of businesses.

If money is a problem, it is normally preferable to give your company a non-profit organizational structure instead.

Using the Tall Organizational Structure

The tall organizational structure is most commonly found in major organizations, as the name implies. This can be advantageous if a firm wants its leaders to devote their time and attention to significant business choices rather than to the numerous everyday decisions that are necessary while running a corporation. A firm with a tall organizational structure may also find it easier to expand because there is no need to disrupt the current levels of the organization while adding a new layer. It has been simpler to operate a large company in the present period because to technological advancements, such as the availability of the internet, which makes communication between different layers of the organization much more convenient.

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They have also worked with or on behalf of organizations such as Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.

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