Which Of The Following Is A Characteristic Of A Relationship-oriented Culture

How to Improve if You Are a Task-Oriented Leader

Cordell, D., and White, S. (2001). Cordell and White (2014). A. Gadgil and D. M. Liverman (eds. ), “Life’s bottleneck: maintaining the world’s phosphorus for a food secure future,” in Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 39, pp. 161–188 (Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews), vol. 39, pp. 161–188 (Annual Reviews). Doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-010213-113302. The Full Text of CrossRef|Google Scholar The following authors contributed to this work: Duarte C. M., Holmer M., Y. Olsen, Y. Soto D., Marba, N., Guiu, J., and others (2009).

BIOSCIENCE, volume 59, issue 11, pages 967–976 (doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.8) FAO.

Fisheries and aquaculture are in a state of flux across the world.

Available online at:Field, C.

  1. J., Randerson, J.
  2. Field, C.
  3. J., Randerson, J.
  4. Field, C.
  5. J., and Falkowski, P.
  6. Integrating terrestrial and marine components for primary production in the biosphere Science281, pages 237–240.
  7. Kaushik, S.

Going one step further in terms of the fish-in-fish-out ratio Water Culture European Journal 35, 15–17 (Aquaculture European Journal 35, 15–17).

O., and A.

The Norwegian salmon industry includes both wild and farmed salmon.

Policy, 35, 413–418 (doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.11.007); et al.

CrossRef Full Text|Google ScholarLovatelli et al (2013).

Miller, F.

(Google Scholar) (2008).

Doi: 10.2134/agrojnl2007.0013 Agronomy Journal, vol.

22, pp.

L., Hardy, R.

P., Chiu, A., Elliott, M., Farrell, A.

Aquaculture feeding at a time with limited resources.

doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905235106 (in press).


(PubMed Abstract|CrossRef Full Text|Google Scholar) (2008).

Aquaculture285, 146–158, doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.015CrossRef citation The whole text may be found at Google Scholar (2012b).

20–22 June 2012, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, “The future we desire,” in Outcome Document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio de Janeiro). The following URL is where you may get it online:

  • Don’t completely disregard your ability to be a task leader. The ideal leader employs a combination of both ways
  • Leadership is similar to any other activity in that it requires experience. Choose from a wide range of training opportunities to further your leadership development
  • Relationship-oriented leadership necessitates a greater investment of time and energy than task-oriented leadership.

Biography of the Author Taya Benjamin has been developing organizational rules and procedures for more than a decade, and she has also written management training programs. She is a C-level executive with more than 15 years of expertise in the fields of human resources and administration. A Bachelor of Science in social psychology from the University of Kent in England, as well as a Master of Business Administration from San Diego State University, were among Benjamin’s academic accomplishments.

Chapter 8: The Characteristics of Culture

Chapter 8: The Characteristics of a Cultural Tradition A hundred anthropologists will give you a hundred different definitions of culture if you ask them to do so. However, the majority of these definitions would highlight basically the same things: that culture is shared, that it is transferred via learning, and that it serves to form behavior and beliefs in people. In all four subfields, culture is a topic of discussion, and whereas our oldest ancestors depended mostly on biological adaptation, culture now molds humans to a far greater level.

  • “Culture, or civilization, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society,” wrote Tylor in 1871. “Culture, or civilization, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”
  • A society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values and perceptions, which are utilized to make sense of experience and create conduct and which are mirrored in that behavior, according to the book (147), are defined as culture.
  • Culture is ubiquitous across all human groups, and it may even be found among certain criminals. The physical, emotional, and social needs of its members must be met
  • New members must be assimilated
  • Disputes must be resolved
  • And members must be encouraged to survive. Society must strike a balance between the demands of the whole and the needs of the individual member
  • The suppression of human needs may lead to the breakdown of social structures, as well as the accumulation of personal stress that becomes too great to bear. Every culture has its own techniques of balancing the requirements of society with the needs of individuals
  • Nevertheless, there is no universal method. Subcultures are groups inside a larger culture that have different patterns of learnt and shared behavior (ethnicities, races, genders, age categories, etc.) within it. Despite their individual characteristics, members of subcultures nevertheless have a lot in common with the rest of the population. There are subcultures in most state-level systems because those systems are pluralistic, which means that they include more than one ethnic group or culture.

Culture has five fundamental characteristics: it is learnt, it is shared, it is built on symbols, it is integrated, and it is dynamic in nature. These fundamental characteristics are shared by all civilizations.

  • Culture is something that is learned. It is not a biological trait
  • We do not acquire it through genetics. A large part of learning culture is unconsciously constructed. Families, peers, institutions, and the media are all places where we learn about culture. Enculturation is the term used to describe the process of becoming acquainted with a new culture. While all people have fundamental biological requirements such as food, sleep, and sex, the manner in which we meet those needs differs from one culture to the next
  • Culture is shared by all cultures. Our ability to act in socially proper ways and predict how others will respond is enhanced by the fact that we share a common cultural heritage with other members of our group. Despite the fact that culture is shared, this does not imply that culture is homogeneous (the same). Following is a more in-depth discussion of the several cultural realms that exist in any civilization. Symbols serve as the foundation of culture. A symbol is something that represents or represents something else. Symbols differ from culture to culture and are completely random. They have significance only when the people who live in a culture agree on how to use them. Language, money, and art are all used as symbolic representations. Language is the most essential symbolic component of culture
  • Culture and language are inextricably linked. This is referred to as holism, which refers to the interconnectedness of the many components of a culture. All aspects of a culture are interconnected, and in order to properly grasp a culture, one must become familiar with all of its components, rather than just a few
  • Culture is dynamic. Simply said, cultures interact and evolve as a result of interaction. Because most civilizations are in contact with one another, they are able to share ideas and symbolic representations. It is inevitable that cultures evolve
  • Otherwise, they would have difficulty adjusting to new settings. Furthermore, because cultures are intertwined, if one component of the system changes, it is probable that the entire system will need to adapt as well
  • And

CULTURE AND ADAPTATION ARE IMPORTANT Humans’ biological adaptation is vital, but they have grown to rely increasingly on cultural adaptation as a means of surviving. However, not all adaptation is beneficial, and not all cultural behaviors are beneficial in the long run. Some aspects of a society, such as fast food, pollution, nuclear waste, and climate change, may be deemed unfit for human survival. However, because culture is flexible and dynamic, once issues are identified, culture may evolve again, this time in a more positive way, in order to discover a solution.

In ethnocentrism, someone believes that their own culture is the only right way to behave and adapt to new situations.

  • Because most persons feel that their culture is the greatest and only way to live, there are tiny levels of ethnocentrism found all across the world
  • Yet, ethnocentrism is not widespread. Although it may be beneficial in small doses to instill a feeling of cultural pride and strengthen cohesive communities, when pushed to extremes, and especially when combined with an inability to be tolerant, it can prove harmful. Despite the fact that ethnocentrism lies at the core of colonization and genocide, cultural anthropologists have advocated for cultural relativism, the notion that all civilizations must be understood in terms of their own values and beliefs rather than by the standards of another society. According to this notion, no culture is superior to another, and civilizations can only be appraised on the basis of their ability to suit the requirements of their own populations.

The majority of people belong to a number of different cultural realms. Culture may be found on a variety of levels. Subcultures are the term used to describe tiny cultures that exist within a larger culture. People have some sort of connection to that subculture, but they must also be able to function well within the greater culture in order to be successful. Among subcultures, we notice a great deal of variation based on factors such as social class, race, ethnicity, age, and gender, among other things.

  • Depending on their economic standing in society, people are classified into several social categories. Not all cultures display class distinctions
  • Societies that do not exhibit class divisions are referred to be egalitarian societies. Class societies are hierarchical in nature, with one class having greater access to resources than the other classes in society. Early humans lived in egalitarian bands or tribes, and class is a relatively recent feature of culture
  • Race (in a cultural sense) is the socially constructed meanings assigned to perceived differences between people based on physical characteristics
  • And gender is a recent feature of culture, as all early humans lived in egalitarian bands or tribes (skin color, facial features, hair types). Everything about what distinctions are recognized and the significance we attribute to those differences is decided by cultural factors rather than biological factors. These physical characteristics do not influence a person’s behaviour or provide an explanation for their behavior. In this context, ethnicgroups are defined as individuals who consider themselves as belonging to a separate group based on cultural traits such as shared ancestors, language, traditions, and religious beliefs. They might be historically formed (a group of people who shared a region, language, or religion) or they can be more recently formed (an ethnic group that claims a territory, language, or religion) (African Americans). That all members of a certain ethnic group are the same or share the same ideas and values is not implied by their choice to identify as members of that ethnic group. Because ethnicity is a marker of group membership, it may be used to discriminate against people
  • Indigenouspeoples, on the other hand, “are communities that have a long-standing relationship with some region that precedes colonial or outside society prevailing in the territory.” Indians, for example, are an indigenous group since they lived in the area before Europeans or colonists came. Native Americans are also an indigenous group. They are commonly dubbed FirstPeoples, and often suffer from discrimination
  • sGenderrefers to the cultural meanings attributed to the biologicaldifferences between the sexes. Most civilizations have simply masculine or feminine cultural roles, while other communities have a third, or perhaps an ablended, gender, which is not commonly seen. Gender roles differ significantly from one culture to the next. Issues linked to homosexuality are inextricably intertwined with those pertaining to gender roles. Ongender and sexual orientation are two factors that cause discrimination in many cultures throughout the world
  • Age is both a biological truth as well as something that is culturally manufactured in many cultures. While we can determine how many years an individual has lived (biologicalage), we cannot determine what that signifies in terms of rights and obligations. Most civilizations have obligations and responsibilities that are ascribed to individuals depending on their reaching specified ages in their lives. Consider the activities of driving, drinking, and voting.
You might be interested:  What Does A Stool Culture Test For

Valuing Sustaining Diversity

Culture, we want a strong business culture,” is perhaps one of the most familiar screams from the top of a company hierarchy. According to a survey of over 1,400 North American CEOs and CFOs, 90 percent of respondents stated that business culture was crucial to their firms. One reason why executives desire a strong, bold corporate culture is because it frequently results in contented personnel.

Employees who are satisfied with their jobs outperform their competition by 20 percent, and happy employees are 12 percent more productive than those who are dissatisfied with their jobs.

But what is organizational culture?

It is possible to have several definitions of organizational culture, with each definition representing a distinct interpretation of how the construct manifests itself in a given company. It is a collection of values, habits, assumptions, and a vision maintained by a company or group of people. Terry Deal and Allan Kennedy were the first scholars to look into the definition of corporate culture; they saw it as the way things are done in a company, and they were right. Organizational culture may be broadly defined as the ideas, shared values, assumptions, and practices that shape the social and psychological environment of a company or organization.

  1. Organizational culture is developed by senior management and then conveyed and reinforced regularly through a variety of means ranging from onboarding swag to the way meetings are done, ultimately influencing employee attitudes, habits, and knowledge of the firm.
  2. Members’ self-image, inner workings, and future expectations are all examples of how culture is conveyed.
  3. It demonstrates how a group of people can work together to achieve a common purpose.
  4. Organizations in various industries will often have diverse cultures, as will their employees.
  5. Effective strategy and organizational structure, together with a strong corporate culture, are essential for a successful organization.
  6. O’Reilly demonstrated that organizational cultures are critical in driving financial performance in organizations.
  7. In their research, O’Reilly and his colleagues revealed that businesses with highly adaptable cultures always have a competitive advantage over their competitors that have inflexible cultures.
  8. In a company, human resources play a critical part in defining the culture of the organization, beginning with the recruitment of applicants who share the philosophy of the organization.

Recruitment of individuals who are aligned with a company’s aims and values continues to be the most difficult task for businesses. Technology, on the other hand, makes the procedure more efficient for both managers and candidates.

What makes up an efficient culture?

Every firm strives to achieve financial success as well as a strong brand image. These, on the other hand, are impossible to achieve without stability. Employees and business partners benefit from a culture of stability because they are comfortable with a known path of action. Thus, it influences attitudes, actions, values, and interpersonal connections inside the organization. Stability encourages employees to care about results and to work together to achieve a single goal, which is to maintain the stability.

It is eventually more beneficial for a company to maintain a regular level of growth than than to have quick but unstable advances.

Wayfair’s stock price dropped by 23 percent in a single day as a result of the company’s inability to predict sales.

Attention to details

It is the small elements that make a difference in the success of a company, from how an employee is welcomed onto a team to how they deliver quarterly reports to shareholders. A keen eye for detail displays efficiency and a dedication to customer service. Employees who pay greater attention to the fine print are more productive than their counterparts who do not pay attention to the fine print. It is possible to have strong attention to details while still having other qualities such as time management, analytical thinking, observation skills, and active listening.

According to a study published in the journal Management Science, attention to detail and creativity are essential for quality improvement in the corporate world to be successful.

As a result, it provides better communication, which helps to eliminate errors while also streamlining work and timeframes.


Organizations must pay close attention in order to survive and grow in today’s highly competitive workplace. When change comes, a company that values innovation above maintaining the status quo will be more likely to succeed than one that does not. Innovation is a critical component of every organization’s ability to achieve long-term development and profitability. Experimentation and risk-taking are essential components of innovation, as is being more resilient when confronted with unexpected circumstances.

According to McKinsey & Company, 84 percent of CEOs agree that innovation is critical to a company’s long-term plan for success.

This is accomplished by assembling a team of individuals that are both innovative and energetic.

The capacity to problem-solve more effectively allows for greater organizational sustainability, which may be achieved by repackaging, rebranding, or other enhancements to match the ever-changing demands of the market.


Competitiveness is defined as the ability of an organization to get an advantage over its competitors. It may apply to just about anything, from the pricing point to the delivery options to the color possibilities and everything in between. Sustainable competitiveness, on the other hand, refers to obtaining higher margins while also creating value for employees and shareholders over an extended period of time. According to the findings of research concentrating on this trait, there is a strong association between competitiveness and the performance of a company.

offering real value to consumers

77 percent of organizations feel that being competitive is essential in order to succeed against competing products and services. Those that fail to build competition will find it difficult to remain in business. In addition to identifying the best market fit, attracting qualified staff is essential. In fact, discovering and keeping outstanding people is the number one priority of C-Suite executives. An agile team encourages innovation, which results in a significant competitive advantage for the organization.

Team orientation

Hiring a skilled staff is one thing, but getting them to function as a cohesive unit is a whole different notion altogether. No matter how competent a workforce is, the dream will not come true until they work together as a team. Team orientation entails the sharing of varied abilities in complementary positions as well as the collaboration of individuals to achieve a shared objective. It denotes that staff are working together toward a common objective. It doesn’t matter what business you’re in, individuals that are more collaborative tend to outperform their competitors.

As a result, recruiters are looking for employees that have a strong sense of team spirit, in whatever shape that may take.

As a result, recruiting managers should recognize the importance of selecting applicants who are aligned with a company’s culture of cooperation and collaborative effort.

Outcome orientation

An organization’s priorities are defined as a result of its outcome orientation. Before taking action, the team understands what is a priority if the leadership outlines desired objectives in advance. When a group works together to achieve a common objective, it becomes much easier for them to take ownership of a project or goal. Employees may concentrate on attaining their objectives when the outcome has been predetermined. Employees may express themselves more freely when they have a purpose and a timeframe to work towards.

A team that is focused on results evaluates their progress, which increases the likelihood of a business reaching its objectives and boosting its profitability.

In fact, more than half of executives feel that having a results-oriented culture has an impact on productivity. A staff that is focused on the future is essential for a forward-thinking organization.


Supportiveness has been shown to be associated with improved performance and success. What exactly is it? It refers to the process of building an environment in which listening to and offering assistance to employees and staff is a top concern. Organizations display their concern for their employees by treating them with compassion and consideration. As a result, there will be significant improvements in staff performance. A helpful organization builds stronger relationships and promotes a positive work environment.

In order to develop a competitive corporate culture, goal-oriented firms look for employees that are supportive of one another when hiring new staff.

It removes the stigma associated with failure by establishing an environment in which employees are encouraged to attempt new things and learn from their mistakes.

Employee retention is better in an open workplace where they feel respected and valued, which leads to increased productivity.

How to match talents with your culture

A strong business culture is associated with significant increases in the firm’s performance. The results of leaders’ capacity to foster a culture of trust, transparency, and communication include improved performance, more motivated employees, loyal consumers, and enhanced profitability among other things. Organizations must make an investment in employing a workforce that is aligned with their company’s strong culture. Recruiters recognize that it is important to have a comprehensive knowledge of an individual rather than just through a piece of paper.

In order to forecast a candidate’s personality, it employs video analytics, which is then used to automatically assess the candidate’s fit with the organization’s cultural fit.

Retorio’s video-based artificial intelligence has been highlighted in publications such as TechCrunch, Spiegel, ARD, BBC, and the Süddeutsche Zeitung.

What is a team-oriented business culture, and why is it important?

Every manager like the idea of their team functioning as a cohesive, happy one. After all, everyone gets along well with one another and works together most of the time. There is more to having a team-oriented culture than just Friday drinks and pleasant banter on the workplace chat app, though, and that is: It’s a lot more complicated than you may imagine. It is a result of the interaction of leadership, teamwork, and communication. The success or failure of your team is determined by how successfully each of these factors plays out.

Moreover, it is about identifying and cultivating the talents and traits of a team player, while also promoting cooperation and communication among the entire group. Let’s take a deeper look at how to develop a corporate culture that is focused on collaboration.

What is a ‘team-oriented culture’

Working effectively with others is an important part of being a team player. Also known as organizational culture, “workplace culture” refers to a collection of beliefs and behaviors that characterize a company’s method of doing business and running. When you combine the two, you have a workplace that places a high importance on how individuals work together as a team over everything else. This extends to every aspect of the organization, from the employment process to the attitudes and behaviors of the company’s executive team.

What’s the difference between team-oriented and task-oriented?

Being a team player is a soft talent that everyone can develop. In order to do this, managers must prioritize employee motivation and well-being over the completion of tasks and meeting deadlines, as explained in the following video. As a team-oriented manager, you are still concerned about duties, but you direct your attention to assisting others in reaching those objectives from a more human viewpoint. Consider the following examples of how a team-oriented manager could inquire of an employee about how they are feeling and whether they are confident in their workload, whereas a task-oriented manager might inquire about when they can anticipate the job to be completed.

You might be interested:  What Is An Individualistic Culture

This is in contrast to a top-down management approach, which is more concerned with hierarchical structures.

Millennials, according to Queens University of Charlotte, would want to have a more intimate, mentoring-style connection with their boss.

Employing individuals who like their jobs implies happier employees and greater employee retention, as well as an advantage when it comes to acquiring top-tier talent in the first place.

Barriers to a team-oriented business culture

Characters that are competitive and enterprising can be beneficial to a team, but only if the softer voices are allowed to be heard over the din. If you’re dealing with negative competition, it’s also necessary to keep the more dominating personalities under control. It is critical to address team culture concerns early on through intervention and coaching. Unresolved disagreement can have a negative impact on team performance. Other roadblocks include breaks in communication between different sorts of individuals — as well as insufficient technology that makes it difficult to communicate and collaborate effectively.

How to promote a team-oriented business culture

Some people have a natural affinity for working in groups. Other people require a bit more supervision in order to bring out these characteristics in them. Team members and supervisors can benefit from training and mentorship in order to develop these abilities.

These activities should demonstrate to teams the value of working together as well as how to do this. Depending on the size of the event, it might last an afternoon or be a week-long retreat or training session.

Encourage group projects

Practice makes perfect, as they say. As a result of encouraging the team to collaborate on projects, they will become accustomed to working together to achieve a common goal. It is critical that each member recognizes the importance of their colleagues’ contributions to the project and recognizes that variety is a strength. When it comes to acknowledging team accomplishments, it is your responsibility as a manager to ensure that appreciation is given to the group as a whole rather than to individuals.

Invest in diversity training

The most successful teams place a high importance on the diversity of their personalities and skill sets. It is recognized that each individual offers something unique to the table — whether it be a different approach, a different method of working, or a different point of view — and it is nurtured and supported. Diversity training courses assist workers in realizing that their differences are a source of strength rather than a source of weakness. There is a wide range of topics that they might focus on, from overcoming cultural obstacles to stereotyping and communication styles.

Avoid hierarchies

Teamwork and leadership should go hand in hand, and boosting one does not imply that the other is being sacrificed. Between a bottom-up management style and a team-oriented corporate culture, there is a certain amount of convergence. It is not necessary to reject top-down management approaches totally if you have the latter type of situation. However, minimizing hierarchies wherever feasible can assist you in making your company more team-oriented. Rather of focusing on themselves, managers should be content to allow others to speak up and be heard while still supporting the team.

Trust people

If you’re accustomed to top-down management, the thought of putting your faith in others might be daunting. However, trusting people, developing their abilities, and making oneself as approachable as possible are all important aspects of developing a team-oriented corporate culture. Allow your team members to make their own decisions while refraining from micromanaging them. The use of project management software can assist managers in keeping track of activities and projects while staying hands-off in the process (AKA not sending out millions of emails and status report requests).

Embrace apps and tools

Teamwork and communication are inextricably linked. Using online collaboration tools such as chat applications and project management software, managers can keep track of their teams and remain on top of the latest developments. Meanwhile, automation can handle monotonous work, giving managers more time to focus on employee engagement and welfare. These are also ideal for situations in which face-to-face contact is not possible. Somewhat more prevalent as more companies realize the benefits of remote employment, this is becoming increasingly popular.

Place an emphasis on technologies that will allow workers to interact and cooperate from anywhere they are. You may assist them in making their jobs more pleasurable, and a more team-oriented approach to working will quickly follow.

Gain skills, learn strategies, move projects forward

Thank you for signing up for our newsletter! We’ll begin giving you the most recent news and information directly to your mailbox.

Collaborate and bring your projects to life with Nulab

More information may be found here.

Task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership – Wikipedia

Forsyth defines the task-relationship model as “a descriptive model of leadership that claims that the majority of leadership acts may be classed as either performance maintenance or relationship maintenance.” When it comes to leadership, task-oriented (also known as task-focused) leadership refers to a behavioral style in which the leader concentrates on the activities that must be completed in order to fulfill certain goals or attain a specific performance level.

Relationship-oriented(or relationship-focused) leadership is a behavioral style in which the leader is concerned with the contentment, motivation, and overall well-being of the team members, rather than with their individual accomplishments.

Qualities of task-oriented leadership

Task-oriented leaders are concerned with completing the task, or set of tasks, that is required in order to attain a certain objective. Most of the time, these leaders are less concerned with the notion of catering to employees and more focused with finding the step-by-step solution necessary to achieve certain objectives. They will frequently take an active part in defining the task and the roles that will be required, establishing organizational structures, and planning, organizing, and monitoring progress within the team.

Also common among this group is a thorough awareness of how to get the task done, with an emphasis on following the essential workplace processes and allocating work correctly to ensure that everything is completed in a timely and productive way.

Qualities of relationship-oriented leadership

The individuals on their teams, as well as the relationships within their teams, are what relationship-oriented leaders are concerned with supporting, encouraging, and growing. Because it fosters healthy connections and effective communication, this style of leadership promotes effective cooperation and collaboration. Relationship-oriented leaders consider the wellbeing of all members of the group first, and they devote significant time and resources to satisfying the specific needs of each member of the group.

It is one of the advantages of relationship-oriented leadership that team members are working in an environment where the leader is concerned about their well-being.

Personal disputes, discontent with a work, resentment, and even boredom may all have a negative impact on productivity, which is why these sorts of leaders prioritize their employees to ensure that such issues are kept to a bare minimum.

The disadvantage of relationship-oriented leadership is that, if carried too far, the building of team chemistry might detract from the accomplishment of the real tasks and objectives at hand.

The terms “people-oriented” and “employee-oriented” are often used interchangeably, while in a corporate situation, the phrase “employee-oriented” may be used instead.

Task-oriented vs. Relationship-oriented Leadership

Research on leadership began to shift away from identifying individual leadership characteristics and toward examining the consequences of certain leadership behaviors – primarily task-oriented and relational leadership – in the 1940s. The following table contrasts task-oriented leadership styles with relationship-oriented leadership styles side by side:

Task-Oriented Relationship-Oriented
Emphasis on work facilitation Emphasis on interaction facilitation
Focus on structure, roles and tasks Focus on relationships, well-being and motivation
Produce desired results is a priority Foster positive relationships is a priority
Emphasis on goal-setting and a clear plan to achieve goals Emphasis on team members and communication within
Strict use of schedules and step-by-step plans, and a punishment/incentive system Communication facilitation, casual interactions and frequent team meetings

There have been conflicting findings from studies attempting to determine the effects of task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership. For example, some have found that task-oriented leadership produces higher levels of productivity, while others have found that relationship-oriented leaders increase group efficacy. In general, however, it has been discovered that relationship-oriented leadership will result in more group cohesiveness and team learning than other styles of leadership. In addition, it has been demonstrated that relationship-oriented leadership has a greater influence on individuals and has a favorable effect on self-efficacy During his 1993 article on the contingency model, Fiedler stressed the advantages of contemplation when compared to the disadvantages of any of these leadership styles.

Additional task-oriented individuals will put the most emphasis on completing tasks and the least attention on building connections within the team.


According to Burke and colleagues (2006), a meta-analysis of theoretical and empirical studies was conducted in 2006, and it examined the effects of leadership behaviors across multiple dimensions, including breaking down the specifics of task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership into subgroups such as “establishing structure,” “considering others,” and “empowerment.” The primary set of analyses examined the relationship between task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership behaviors on the following outcomes: perceived team effectiveness, perceived team productivity, and perceived team learning/growth.

The findings were published in the journal Human Resource Management.

It has also been hypothesized that groups whose members believe their leaders to be more task-oriented achieve better levels of task completion than other groups.

Leadership substitution theory

According to Forsyth, “a conceptual study of the elements that combine to decrease or remove the need for a leader” is defined as “a conceptual understanding of the factors that combine to minimize or eliminate the need for a leader.” It is possible for a leader to discover that actions centered on fostering interpersonal connections, or on coordinating work and establishing structure, are not essential in all circumstances.

An investigation by Kerr and Jermier discovered that certain contextual elements, such as unique qualities of group members, the work, or the organization, might eliminate a requirement for either task focused or relationship oriented leadership behaviors in some situations.

Additionally, persons who are well skilled and capable, or those who have a strong desire to be self-sufficient, may not demand that their leader devote all of his or her attention to task coordination.

As an added bonus, a work that is inherently rewarding might eliminate the requirement for relationship-oriented leadership practices.

It has also been demonstrated that the qualities of planned incentives, cohesive work groups, and physical distance all reduce the requirement for relationship-oriented leadership approaches to be used.

Fiedler contingency model

According to the Fiedler contingency model, three situational components may be used to decide whether task-oriented or relationship-oriented leadership is the better match for a given circumstance. These are:

  1. Members’ Relations with the Leader, which refers to the level of mutual trust, respect, and confidence that exists between a leader and his or her subordinates
  2. Task Structure, which refers to the extent to which group tasks are clearly defined and organized
  3. And Leader Position Power is a term that refers to the power that comes with the leader’s position itself.

When there is a positive leader-member relationship, a highly organized task, and a significant amount of authority in the leader’s position, the scenario is referred to be a “favourable situation.” Fiedler discovered that low-LPC leaders are more effective in conditions that are either exceptionally favourable or unfavourable, but high-LPC leaders perform better in situations that are somewhat in the middle. The following is a breakdown of the hypothesis as shown in the table below:

You might be interested:  What Two Meanings Of Culture Do Geographers Study
Leader-Member Relations Task Structure Leader’s Position Power Most Effective Leader
Good Structured Strong Task-oriented
Good Structured Weak Task-oriented
Good Unstructured Strong Task-oriented
Good Unstructured Weak Relationship-oriented
Poor Structured Strong Relationship-oriented
Poor Structured Weak Relationship-oriented
Poor Unstructured Strong Relationship-oriented
Poor Unstructured Weak Task-oriented

Relevant studies

In 1972, an experiment was done with a total of 128 United States Military cadets in 4-man groups to determine the predictive validity of Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness. The participants were divided into four groups. The experiment, which entailed extensive manipulation and definition of variables impacting situational favorableness, yielded substantial support for the contingency model as a result of its design. In order to discover if basketball athletes of different age groups (from lower high school to university level) preferred training and teaching (task-oriented) behavior or social support (relationship-oriented behavior), a research was done.

The preference for relationship-oriented conduct followed a linear pattern, with the preference increasing gradually as the participant’s age grew.

Situational leadership theory

Researchers from Ohio State University and University of Michigan released a series of research in the 1950s to evaluate whether leaders should be more task-oriented or relationship-oriented in their approach. When it was discovered that no single “best” style of leadership exists, the situational leadership theory was developed. This theory essentially argues that leaders should engage in a healthy dose of both task-oriented and relational leadership styles appropriate for the situation and the people under their supervision.

Each combination of task-centeredness and relationship-centeredness is plotted against one another, yielding five unique leadership styles, according to the results of the study.

See also

  • Leadership, trait leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, leadership styles, and situational leadership theory are all terms that are used to describe leadership.


  1. Donelson R. Forsyth and Donelson R. Forsyth (2010). The Fifth Edition of Group Dynamics. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA, p. 253, ISBN 9780495599524
  2. Abcd Griffin, Ronald J. Ebert, Ricky W. Griffin, Ronald J. (2010). The necessities of doing business (8th ed.). 135–136. ISBN 978-0-13-705349-0
  3. AbAnzalone, Chris. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-705349-0
  4. There are differences between task-oriented leaders and relational-oriented leaders, according to this study. Media is in high demand. 3 November 2012
  5. Retrieved 3 November 2012
  6. B.M. Bass & Associates, Inc. (1990). Bass Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: theory, research, and managerial applications (Stogdill’s handbook of leadership) (3rd ed.). AbReilly, Anthony Joseph, III
  7. New York, NY: Free Press
  8. AbReilly, Anthony Joseph, III (1968). “A Field Experiment on the Effects of Different Leadership Styles on Group Performance”
  9. “The Effects of Different Leadership Styles on Group Performance”
  10. The authors are Afsane Zamani Moghaddam, Ali Ghanbari, and Allahverdi Hosseinzadeh (2011). There is a relationship between a leader’s method of leading and the self-efficacy of his or her team. Amerikan Journal of Scientific Research(40): 160–172
  11. AbcArana, Jose M., Chambel, M. Jose, Curral, Luis, Tabernero, Carmen. American Journal of Scientific Research(40): 160–172. (Nov 2009). On normative contract and group performance, “the impact of task-oriented vs relationship-oriented leadership” was investigated. abBurke, C. Shawn
  12. Stagl, Kevin C
  13. Klein, Cameron
  14. Goodwin, Gerald F
  15. Salas, Eduardo
  16. Halpin, Stanley M. Social Behavior and Personality.37(10): 1391.doi: 10.2224/sbp.2009.37.10.1391.hdl:10451/11009
  17. AbBurke, C. Shawn
  18. Salas (2006). “What kinds of leadership behaviors are effective in a group setting? A meta-analysis was conducted “. The Leadership Quarterly, volume 17, number 3, pages 288–307. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.007
  19. Sahertian, Pieter
  20. Soetjipto, Budi Eko
  21. Sahertian, Pie (June 2011). Improvements in employees’ organizational commitment, self-efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior are achieved through the implementation of task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership behaviors, according to the study. The Business Review, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 48–60
  22. Fiedler, Frederick E. (1993). When disaster strikes, use the contingency model to guide your leadership strategy. Matteson and Ivancevich (Eds. ), Management and Organizational Behavior Classics (pp. 333-345)
  23. Abcd (Management and Organizational Behavior Classics)
  24. Fiedler, Frederick E. (1993). When disaster strikes, use the contingency model to guide your leadership strategy. In Matteson and Ivancevich (Eds.), Management and Organizational Behavior Classics (p. 334)
  25. s ^abcd Kerr, S. Jermier, and J.M. Kerr (1978). “Substitutes for Leadership: Their Significance and Measuring Instrumentation.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance
  26. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance
  27. Fiedler, Fred E. (1964). (1964). “A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness,” as the title suggests. In the first issue of the journal Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, the authors write: “149–190.” Carron, A. V., and Chelladurai, P. (2001). (1983). “Athletic Maturity and Preferred Leadership” are two terms used to describe athletes who have reached a certain level of maturity. 371–380 in the Journal of Sport Psychology (doi: 10.1123/jsp.5.4.371)
  28. Johannsen, Murray.”The Importance of Choosing the Right Leadership Style”. Legacee. 2 November 2012
  29. Retrieved 2 November 2012
  30. “The Blake Mouton Managerial Grid,” as it is known. Mind Tools, which was retrieved on November 2, 2012

Fiedler, Frederick E. (1993). When disaster strikes, use the contingency model to guide your leadership strategy. In Matteson and Ivancevich (Eds. ), Management and Organizational Behavior Classics (pp. 333–345), management and organizational behavior is discussed.

Understanding Collectivist Cultures

Collectivist cultures place a greater emphasis on the needs and aims of the group as a whole than they do on the wants and ambitions of individual members.

Relationships with other members of the group, as well as the interconnection of individuals, play an important part in the formation of each individual’s identity in such cultures.

Collectivistic Culture Traits

Among the characteristics of collectivist civilizations are the following:

  • In many cases, people describe themselves in terms of their relationships with others (for example, “I am a member of.”). Loyalty within the group is promoted. Determinations are made on the basis of what is best for the group. It is crucial to work as a team and to provide assistance to others. Rather than individual interests, a greater focus is placed on achieving collective goals. The rights of families and communities take precedence over the rights of an individual.

China, Korea, Japan, Costa Rica, and Indonesia are examples of countries that are comparatively more collectivistic than others. If a person demonstrates generosity, helpfulness, dependability, and attention to the needs of others, they are seen as “good” in collectivistic societies. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, tend to place a larger premium on attributes such as assertiveness and independence, which might be counterproductive.

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Individualistic civilizations are frequently compared with collectivist cultures in academic literature. Individualism is concerned with the rights and interests of each individual, whereas collectivism is concerned with the value of the group. Individualistic societies stress independence and personal identity above unity and selflessness, whereas collectivist cultures value unity and selflessness over individualism. These cultural differences are widespread and can have a significant impact on a wide range of aspects of how society runs.

Workers who live in a collectivist society, for example, may attempt to sacrifice their personal happiness for the greater welfare of the collective in order to achieve greater success.


People’s behavior and self-concept are influenced by their cultural background. In contrast to those from individualistic cultures, those from collectivist cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their social relationships and roles (e.g., “I am smart, funny, athletic, and kind”), whereas those from individualistic cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their personality traits and characteristics (e.g., “I am a good son, brother, and friend”).


According to the findings of the research, collectivist societies are related with poor relational mobility, which is defined as the number of options individuals in a society have to develop relationships with others of their choosing in that community. When there is little or no relational mobility, it suggests that people’s connections are solid, robust, and long-lasting. These types of relationships are typically developed as a result of variables such as family and geography, rather than as a result of personal choice.

People who are strangers in a collectivistic society are more likely to stay strangers in a collectivistic culture than they are in individualistic cultures.

This is most likely due to the fact that changing these connections is incredibly tough.

According to the inverse of this, individuals in individualistic cultures put out extra effort and energy into actively sustaining intimate connections, which is generally accomplished through higher self-disclosure and greater closeness.

When compared to collectivist societies, where strong interpersonal connections are more anticipated, interpersonal interactions in individualistic cultures are more problematic and weak. People must put out additional effort in order to keep these connections going.


In addition, cultural differences have an impact on the drive to either stand out or blend in with the rest of the group. In one experiment, individuals from different cultural backgrounds, including American and Japanese, were instructed to choose a pen. The bulk of the pens were the same color, with the exception of a couple that were different colors. The majority of participants from the United States preferred the brightly colored pen. However, the Japanese participants were considerably more likely to chose the majority color, even if they liked the distinctive hue, as opposed to the other participants.

Social Anxiety

According to research, collectivistic societies are more supportive of socially hesitant and withdrawn tendencies than individualistic ones. In one study, participants from these cultures had higher degrees of social anxiety as compared to people from individualistic cultures, according to the findings. However, it is possible that collectivist beliefs were not the only factor in this development. Persons in collectivist nations in Latin America, for example, showed lower levels of social anxiety than people in collectivist countries in East Asia, according to the findings.

Social Support Use

People who live in collectivist societies are more hesitant to confide in their peers about their personal concerns. The fear of scaring others, upsetting the unity of the group, losing face, and making the situation worse are some of the reasons why people delay seeking social help, according to research. Instead, people frequently seek for implicit social support, which is a type of social assistance that is not explicitly stated. This entails spending time with individuals who are supportive of you without actually dealing with the root of your stress.

Thank you for taking the time to join up.

Please try your search again.

Read about oureditorial process to discover more about how we fact-check our information and ensure that it is accurate, dependable, and trustworthy.

  1. C. Lu and C. Wan, “Cultural self-awareness as knowledge of culture’s effect on the self: Implications for cultural identity and well-being,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. Pers Soc Psychol Bull.2018
  2. 44(6):823-837. doi:10.1177/0146167217752117
  3. Kito M, Yuki M, Thomson R. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2018
  4. 44(6):823-837. An explanation for cross-cultural variations using the concept of relational mobility and intimate ties. Pers Relations. 2017
  5. 24(1):114-130. doi:10.1111/pere.12174
  6. Yamagishi T, Hashimoto H, Schug J. Yamagishi T, Hashimoto H, Schug J. Yamagishi T, Hashimoto H, Schug J. Cultural differences can be explained through preferences rather than techniques. Psychological Science 2008
  7. 19(6):579-584. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02126.x
  8. Schreier SS, Heinrichs N, Alden L, et al. Psychological Science 2008
  9. 19(6):579-584. Individualistic and collectivistic societies have different levels of social anxiety and social standards. The Journal of Depression and Anxiety, Volume 27, Number 12, Pages 1128-1134, doi:10.1002/da.20746
  10. Kim HS, Sherman DK, Ko D, Taylor SE. The quest of comfort and the desire of harmony include the pursuit of culture, relationships, and social support. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006
  11. 32(12):1595-1607. doi:10.1177/0146167206291991
  12. Kim HS, Sherman DK, Taylor SE. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006
  13. 32(12):1595-1607. Culture and social support are important. American Psychological Association, 2008
  14. 63(6):518-526. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *